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Ernst Röhm

Ernst Julius Günther Röhm was a German military officer and an early member of the Nazi Party. As one of the members of its predecessor, the German Workers' Party, he was a close friend and early ally of Adolf Hitler and a co-founder of the Sturmabteilung, the Nazi Party's militia, was its commander. By 1934, the German Army feared the SA's influence and Hitler had come to see Röhm as a potential rival, so he was executed during the Night of the Long Knives. Ernst Röhm was born in Munich, the youngest of three children—he had an elder sister and brother—of Emilie and Julius Röhm, his father Julius, a railway official, was described as strict, but once he realized that his son responded better without exhortation, allowed him significant freedom to pursue his interests. Although the family had no military tradition, Röhm entered the Royal Bavarian 10th Infantry Regiment Prinz Ludwig at Ingolstadt as a cadet on 23 July 1906 and was commissioned on 12 March 1908. At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, he was adjutant of the 1st Battalion, 10th Infantry Regiment König.

The following month, he was wounded in the face at Chanot Wood in Lorraine and carried the scars for the rest of his life. He was promoted to first lieutenant in April 1915. During an attack on the fortification at Thiaumont, Verdun, on 23 June 1916, he sustained a serious chest wound and spent the remainder of the war in France and Romania as a staff officer, he was awarded the Iron Cross First Class before being wounded at Verdun, was promoted to captain in April 1917. Among his comrades, Röhm was considered a "fanatical, simple-minded swashbuckler" who displayed contempt for danger. In his memoirs, Röhm reported that during the autumn of 1918, he contracted the deadly Spanish influenza and was not expected to live, but that he recovered after a lengthy convalescence. Following the armistice on 11 November 1918 that ended the war, Röhm continued his military career as a captain in the Reichswehr, he was one of the senior members in Colonel von Epp's Bayerisches Freikorps für den Grenzschutz Ost, formed in Ohrdruf in April 1919, which overturned the Munich Soviet Republic by force of arms on 3 May 1919.

In 1919 he joined the German Workers' Party, which the following year became the National Socialist German Workers Party. Not long afterward he met Adolf Hitler, they became political allies and close friends. Röhm resigned or retired from the Reichswehr on 26 September 1923. Throughout the early 1920s, Röhm remained an important intermediary between Germany's right-wing paramilitary organizations and the Reichswehr. Additionally, it was Röhm who persuaded his former army commander, Colonel von Epp, to join the Nazis, an important development since Epp helped raise the sixty-thousand marks needed to purchase the Nazi periodical, the Völkischer Beobachter; when the Nazi Party held its "German Day" celebration at Nuremberg during early September 1923, it was Röhm who helped bring together some 100,000 participants drawn from right-wing militant groups, veteran's associations, other paramilitary formations—which included the Bund Oberland, Reichskriegsflagge, the SA, the Kampfbund—all of them subordinate to Hitler as "political leader" of the collective alliance.

Röhm led the Reichskriegsflagge militia at the time of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch. He rented the cavernous main hall of the Löwenbräukeller for a reunion and festive comradeship. Meanwhile and his entourage were at the Bürgerbräukeller, it was here that Röhm planned to announce the revolution and use the units at his disposal to obtain weapons from secret caches with which to occupy crucial points in the centre of the city. When the call came, he announced to those assembled in the Löwenbräukeller that the Kahr government had been deposed and Hitler had declared a "national revolution" which elicited wild cheering. Röhm led his force of nearly 2,000 men to the War Ministry, which they occupied for sixteen hours. Once in control of the Reichswehr headquarters, Röhm awaited news, barricaded inside; the subsequent march into the city center led by Hitler, Hermann Göring, General Erich Ludendorff with banners flying high, was ostensibly undertaken to "free" Röhm and his forces. While crowds cheered—whipped into a frenzy by Strasser—shouting Heil, the armed ragtag assembly wearing red swastika armbands accompanying Hitler and company encountered blue-uniformed Bavarian State Police, who were prepared to counter the Putsch.

Around the time the marchers reached the Feldherrnhalle near the city center, shots rang out, scattering the participants. Before the exchange of gunfire ended, there were fourteen dead Nazis lying in the street and four policemen. Following the failed Beer Hall Putsch of 9 November 1923, Röhm, General Ludendorff, Lieutenant Colonel Hermann Kriebel and six others were tried in February 1924 for high treason. Röhm was found guilty and sentenced to fifteen months in prison, but the sentence was suspended and he was placed on probation. Hitler was found guilty and sentenced to five years' imprisonment, but served only nine months at Landsberg Prison, during which time he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf. In April 1924, Röhm became a Reichstag deputy for the völkisch National Socialist Freedom Party, he made only one speech. The seats won by his party were much reduced in the December 1924 election, his name was too far down the list to return him to the Reichsta

British passport (Turks and Caicos Islands)

The Turks and Caicos Islands passport is a British passport issued to British Overseas Territories citizens with a connection to the Turks and Caicos Islands. Turks and Caicos Islands passports contain on their inside cover the following words in English only: British Overseas Territories Citizens with a connection to the Turks and Caicos Islands can enter the United States with a police certificate issued by the Turks and Caicos Islands for short business and pleasure. To qualify, they must not have had a criminal conviction or ineligibility, violated U. S. immigration laws in the past and must arrive in the United States and have the right to abode in the Turks and Caicos Islands. In addition to a valid, unexpired passport, all travellers 14 years of age or older with the old style passport must present a police certificate issued by the Royal Turks and Caicos Islands Police Force within the past six months. All British Overseas Territories citizens with a connection to the Turks and Caicos Islands must hold a British passport, valid for more than six months to travel to the United States.

Visa requirements for British Overseas Territories Citizens Turks and Caicos Islands Government, Ministry of Border Control and Employment: Applying for a British Overseas Territory Citizen Passport

Pirates of the 20th Century

Pirates of the 20th Century is a 1980 Soviet action/adventure film about modern piracy. The film was directed by Boris Durov, the story was written by Stanislav Govorukhin; the film had 87.6 million viewers. The film begins with a convoy of military vehicles rolling into a seaport located somewhere in Middle East in the bank of Indian or Pacific Ocean and stopping near the pier where the Soviet cargo ship Nezhin is anchored. An agent of a local pharmaceutical company meets the captain of the Soviet vessel and discusses the cargo, medical opium, in critical demand by the hospitals of the USSR. Soon after that the pharmaceutical company agent is seen inside a car, speaking to someone via walkie-talkie; the MV Nezhin, with the opium on board, leaves port for Vladivostok. Some distance into the voyage, a watchman cries "man overboard" and the captain orders the engines stopped to rescue the stranded swimmer; the boat from Nezhin picks up an Asian man who identifies himself as Salekh, the only surviving sailor from a foreign merchant ship.

Salekh told the crew that his ship capsized during a heavy storm and his crewmates were fighting for places in rescue boats. Shortly after that the Soviet captain is informed of an unknown ship, drifting nearby; the ship, called the Mercury, is abandoned, with no crew visible and no activity on deck. The captain of the Nezhin decides to send four men to explore the ship and offer assistance to possible survivors. However, the abandoned ship turns out to be a trap for the Soviets. Occupied with the Mercury, none of the Russian crewmen pays any attention to Salekh, who takes an axe from the ship's firefighting kit, enters the radio room of the Nezhin, attacks a radio operator, killing him. After Salekh destroys the ship's radio equipment, the Mercury starts her engines and approaches the Nezhin. At that moment, the Nezhin's crew see the bodies of the boarding party, floating in the water behind the Mercury; the Soviet captain realizes. Their attempt to escape is foiled when the Mercury rams the ship and the pirates open fire with assault rifles and machine guns.

The pirates board the Nezhin, brutally killing Russian crewmembers who fight them. Sergey, the chief-mate of the Nezhin, decides to find Salekh. Chasing Salekh through the corridors of the ship, Sergey makes an attempt to stop him. Salekh shows impressive martial arts skills and defeats the chief-mate. Soon after, the pirates lock the remaining Russians into crew compartments and begin to offload the opium to the Mercury; the pirate captain thanks Salekh for a successful mission and orders him to blow up the Nezhin together with her crew. The Soviets, left to die on a sinking ship, manage to escape and must fight the pirates for survival. Nikolai Yeremenko Jr. as Sergey Sergeyevich Pyotr Velyaminov as Ivan Ilych Talgat Nigmatulin as Salekh Rein Aren as Captain of Pirates Dilorom Kambarova as Island girl Natalya Khorokhorina as Mascha Igor Kashintsev as Agent Lotus Dzhigangir Shakhmuradov as Noah Igor Klass as Joachim Schweiggert Tadeush Kasyanov as Bosun Maija Eglīte as Aina Alexander Bespaly as Chief mate Viktor Zhiganov as Igor Stetsenko Georgy Martirosyan as Georgiy Kluyev Leonid Trutnev as Radio operator Vladimir Smirnov as Political commissar Viktor Gordeyev as Yura Mikosha Vladimir Yepiskoposyan as Bearded pirate Farkhat Aminov A Hijacking, a 2012 film on piracy in the Indian Ocean Captain Phillips, a 2013 American thriller about modern-day piracy off Somalia, directed by Paul Greengrass, starring Tom Hanks and Barkhad Abdi Survival film Pirates of the 20th Century at AllMovie Pirates of the 20th Century on IMDb USSR Blockbuster: 20th Century Pirates

National Education Trust

The National Education Trust is an independent, not-for-profit charity devoted to "positive change in education". It is a small organisation based in Saunderton, Buckinghamshire, UK; the National Education Trust was founded in September 2006 by Roy Blatchford, who has held a number of posts in education including head of Walton High, HM Inspector of Schools and lecturer / commentator on all education issues. The NET is chaired by Richard Howard, honorary fellow of Oxford Brookes University and former Chief Education Adviser in Oxfordshire, its board of trustees include Hilary Hodgson, Head of Education at the Esmée Fairbairn Charitable Trust, a trustee of the Sutton Trust. Former trustees include Mike Baker, who worked as BBC education correspondent and was an honorary fellow of the College of Teachers; the annual NET lecture is dedicated to his memory. The National Education Trust organizes a range of activities based around three main aims: to provide a national resource for sharing best practice.

To promote the sharing of best practice, NET has built a network of advocacy schools that demonstrate aspirational nature and form a body of knowledge that other schools can benefit from. The trust holds ‘Invitation Seminars’, where leaders from other schools can visit advocacy schools and gain knowledge of best practice. Another important project has been that run in conjunction with the Inner Temple, aiming at raising the awareness of children to the opportunities inherent in a legal career. NET is a provider of Continuing Professional Development training for school leaders and staff at all levels of education. Recent training courses have covered how to start a successful academy and addressing changes to the primary school curriculum. In addition to the CPD events, the National Education Trust aims to promote debate and discussion on policy issues surrounding education. Past lecturers have included Estelle Morris, who spoke in March 2008 on the dichotomy between policy pronouncements and their implementation in the classroom.

Shami Chakrabarti gave the third annual lecture in March 2009, Alan Milburn delivered the 2010 lecture on'Unleashing Aspiration'. This continued along the lines of the report he produced in the summer of 2009 regarding equal access from all social classes to the professions; the NET Academies Trust is a Department for Education approved multi academy sponsor. The charity is a sponsor for Battle Primary Academy in Reading. National Education Trust homepage Mike Baker's independent education commentary Times Educational Supplement


An ideogram or ideograph is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, specific words or phrases. Some ideograms are comprehensible only by familiarity with prior convention. In proto-writing, used for inventories and the like, physical objects are represented by stylized or conventionalized pictures, or pictograms. For example, the pictorial Dongba symbols without Geba annotation cannot represent the Naxi language, but are used as a mnemonic for reciting oral literature; some systems use ideograms, symbols denoting abstract concepts. The term "ideogram" is used to describe symbols of writing systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sumerian cuneiform and Chinese characters. However, these symbols represent elements of a particular language words or morphemes, rather than objects or concepts. In these writing systems, a variety of strategies were employed in the design of logographic symbols. Pictographic symbols depict the object referred to by the word, such as an icon of a bull denoting the Semitic word ʾālep "ox".

Some words denoting abstract concepts may be represented iconically, but most other words are represented using the rebus principle, borrowing a symbol for a similarly-sounding word. Systems used selected symbols to represent the sounds of the language, for example the adaptation of the logogram for ʾālep "ox" as the letter aleph representing the initial sound of the word, a glottal stop. Many signs in hieroglyphic as well as in cuneiform writing could be used either logographically or phonetically. For example, the Akkadian sign DIĜIR could represent the god An, the word diĝir'deity' or the word an'sky'; the Akkadian counterpart could represent the Akkadian stem il-'deity', the Akkadian word šamu'sky', or the syllable an. Although Chinese characters are logograms, two of the smaller classes in the traditional classification are ideographic in origin: Simple ideographs are abstract symbols such as 上 shàng "up" and 下 xià "down" or numerals such as 三 sān "three". Semantic compounds are semantic combinations of characters, such as 明 míng "bright", composed of 日 rì "sun" and 月 yuè "moon", or 休 xiū "rest", composed of 人 rén "person" and 木 mù "tree".

In the light of the modern understanding of Old Chinese phonology, researchers now believe that most of the characters classified as semantic compounds have an at least phonetic nature. An example of ideograms is the collection of 50 signs developed in the 1970s by the American Institute of Graphic Arts at the request of the US Department of Transportation; the system was used to mark airports and became more widespread. Mathematical symbols are a type of ideogram. Inspired by inaccurate early descriptions of Chinese and Japanese characters as ideograms, many Western thinkers have sought to design universal written languages, in which symbols denote concepts rather than words. An early proposal was An Essay towards a Real Character, a Philosophical Language by John Wilkins. A recent example is the system of Blissymbols, proposed by Charles K. Bliss in 1949 and includes over 2,000 symbols; the Ideographic Myth Extract from DeFrancis' book. American Heritage Dictionary definition Merriam-Webster OnLine definition

Goravara Kunitha

Goravara Kunitha is a traditional dance of Kuruba Gowdas of Karnataka. Kuruba Gowdas are devotees of lord Mailara Linga, men belonging to this community take Deekshe or the process of initiation to follow the tradition of Gorava; the Deekshe is performed before marriage. They dedicate their rest of the folk form Goravara Kunitha. Deekshe to the boys belonging to Kuruba Gowda community is given on a preordained date in the presence of Lord Mailara Linga; the guru or head of the Gorava clan accepts the boy into the sect. A woolen blanket is presented to the person upon his undertaking the Deekshe. Accessories such as Gante, Bandara, Dhone and Pillangovi are worshipped and presented to him; these accessories are crucial. He is made to wear a red shirt and Kavade sara and takes an oath to serve the Gorava and Kuruba Gowda faith. Goravara Kunitha is a traditional dance with religious implication, performed at festivals, local fairs and upon invitation in the houses of devotees of lord Mailara Linga. at housewarming ceremonies, devotees invite Goravas to their new homes and is called as mane seve or ogu seve.

In private ceremonies like housewarming, a black wollen blanket is spread and a small bowl is kept with milk in it and sometimes bananas and Kajayas are kept. The offering is worshipped and the goravayyas break into dance around it, they perform rhythmically accompanied by the sound of their anklets and the intoxicating beat of Damaru. During the performance they sing praises of lord Mailara repeat Paraks; as they dance they sit and eat the offerings laid out to them. They eat the offering without touching it with their hands. In public appearances the unruly behaviour exhibited in private appearances is avoided, they perform in groups of 10-12 people, they stand in a straight line, the senior most Gorava of the group begins the performance by playing his Pilangovi and beats the Damaru. The rest of the team join him, they move around in circles brandishing Damaru. They raised eyebrows to create scare among the viewers, they recite the stories of Mailara Linga and sometimes Mahadeshwara. These stories can go on for days.

Goravas have unique costumes. The costume is the main attraction of this folk form. A white or yellow Panche/Kache and white full arm Juba are the basic clothing; the head is covered with a rumala a white sari or Panche. The headgear is placed on the Rumala. In the right hand Nagabetha is held and in the left Pilangovi; the forehead is smeared with Vibhuthi and the eyes are marked with white and red circles to create a scary look