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Ernst Ruska

Ernst August Friedrich Ruska was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for his work in electron optics, including the design of the first electron microscope. Ernst Ruska was born in Germany, he was educated at the Technical University of Munich from 1925 to 1927 and entered the Technical University of Berlin, where he posited that microscopes using electrons, with wavelengths 1000 times shorter than those of light, could provide a more detailed picture of an object than a microscope utilizing light, in which magnification is limited by the size of the wavelengths. In 1931, he demonstrated that a magnetic coil could act as an electron lens, used several coils in a series to build the first electron microscope in 1933. After completing his PhD in 1933, Ruska continued to work in the field of electron optics, first at Fernseh AG in Berlin-Zehlendorf, from 1937 at Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG. At Siemens, he was involved in developing the first commercially produced electron microscope in 1939.

As well as developing the technology of electron microscopy while at Siemens, Ruska worked at other scientific institutions, encouraged Siemens to set up a laboratory for visiting researchers, headed by Ruska's brother Helmut, a medical doctor who developed the use of the electron microscope for medical and biological applications. After leaving Siemens in 1955, Ruska served as director of the Institute for Electron Microscopy of the Fritz Haber Institute until 1974. Concurrently, he served at the institute and as professor at the Technical University of Berlin from 1957 until his retirement in 1974. In 1960 he won the Lasker Award. In 1986, he was awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Physics for his many achievements in electron optics, he died in West Berlin in 1988. Asteroid 1178 Irmela discovered by Max Wolf is named after his wife Irmela. Nobel Prize press release Ernst Ruska's official Nobel autobiography Website containing memorial information published by the Ruska family

Russian monitor Admiral Chichagov

The Russian monitor Admiral Chichagov was the second and last of the two Admiral Spiridov-class monitors built for the Imperial Russian Navy in the late 1860s. The ship remained there for her entire career. Aside from an incident where she ran aground, her service was uneventful; the sister ships were reclassified as coast-defense ironclads in 1892 before they became training ships in 1900. Admiral Spiridov became a target ship, her ultimate fate is unknown. The Admiral Spiridov-class monitors were larger than their predecessors, the Charodeika class, were 254 feet long at the waterline, they had a maximum draft of 21 feet. The ships were designed to displace 3,196 long tons, but turned out to be overweight and displaced 3,505 to 3,587 long tons, their crew consisted of crewmen. The Admiral Spiridov class had a single two-cylinder horizontal direct-acting steam engine, it drove a single propeller using steam provided by four rectangular fire-tube boilers. The engine was designed to produce a total of 2,000 indicated horsepower which gave the ships speeds between 9.1–9.5 knots when they ran their initial sea trials in 1869.

The ship carried 280 long tons of coal. She was fitted with three masts in a light fore-and-aft rig to aid in maneuvering; the monitors were designed to be armed with four Obukhov 9-inch rifled guns, a pair in each turret. In 1874–75 the guns were replaced by a single 11-inch gun. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, a 9-inch mortar was fitted to attack the thin deck armor of enemy ships, but accuracy was poor and they were removed in the early 1880s. An improved, more powerful, 11-inch gun was installed aboard Admiral Chichagov during the 1880s. Light guns for use against torpedo boats were added to the Admiral Spiridov-class ships during the Russo-Turkish War when a pair of 4-pounder 3.4-inch guns were mounted on the roofs of each gun turret. A variety of other small guns are known to have been fitted; the ships could carry 12 to 15 mines. The hull of the Admiral Spiridov-class monitors was covered by wrought-iron armor, 5.5 to 6.5 inches thick amidships and thinned to 3.25 inches aft and 3.5 inches forward of the main belt.

The turrets had 6 inches of armor, except around the gun ports. The conning tower was 5 inches thick and the deck armor was in two layers with a total thickness of 1 inch. Admiral Chichagov, named for Admiral Vasily Chichagov, was ordered on 4 June 1865 from the Semiannikov & Poletika Shipyard, Saint Petersburg, although the formal keel-laying was not until 20 November 1866. Construction was delayed by late deliveries of components, she was launched on 28 August 1868 and transferred to Kronstadt for fitting out as the shallow waters around Saint Petersburg prevented deep-draft ships from being completed. This added more delays as the dockyard there lacked the equipment to efficiently fit out the ships, she entered service in 1869 at the cost of 1,177,500 rubles. On 20 July 1870, Admiral Chichagov struck a sandbank near Koivisto at full speed. While not damaged in the incident, she was firmly stuck and, an attempt by the armored frigate Sevastopol pull her off failed two days when the hawser snapped.

The Russians started to off-load coal and equipment onto the low deck of the Strelets in preparation for another attempt. While rigging another hawser aboard Strelets, it moved unexpectedly, badly injuring the ship's executive officer and a bosun, who died of his injuries; the subsequent attempt by Sevastopol failed, so several barges and a floating crane were summoned from Kronstadt the next day. As much weight as possible was transferred to the barges, including her forward guns, she was pulled free on 25 July. Admiral Chichagov was not damaged in the incident. On 18 July 1875, she accidentally collided with the monitor Veschun, but neither ship was damaged. Admiral Chichagov served as the flagship for Captain 1st Rank Stepan Makarov during the 1885 fleet maneuvers in the approaches to the Gulf of Riga, she was reclassified as a coast-defense ironclad on 13 February 1892. By this time, her role in Russian war plans was to defend the Gulf of Riga against an anticipated German amphibious landing.

In 1900, Admiral Chichagov was assigned to the Kronstadt Engineering School as a training ship, although she was transferred to Libau during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 to reinforce the port's defenses. The ship was transferred to the Port of Kronstadt on 31 March 1907 for disposal; the ship was stricken on 14 August and her hulk was used as a target near Reval. Her ultimate fate is unknown. McLaughlin, Stephen. "The Turret Frigates of the Admiral Lazarev and Admiral Spiridov Classes". In Jordan, John. Warship 2014. London: Conway. Pp. 112–28. ISBN 978-1-84486-236-8. Silverstone, Paul H.. Directory of the World's Capital Ships. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-88254-979-0. Robert Gardiner, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-8317-0302-4. "Russian Monitors and Coast Defense Ships". Warship International. Toledo, OH: Naval Records Club. IX: 304–305. 1972. ISSN 0043-0374. Watts, Anthony J.. The Imperial Russian Navy. London: Arms and Armour. ISBN 0-85368-912-1

1918–19 Northern Rugby Football Union season

The 1918–19 Northern Rugby Football Union season was the first season of rugby league football following a break during the Great War. The ban on competitive matches was removed in September 1918, but official games did not restart until January 1919; the season consisted of the Lancashire League and Yorkshire League, but the Championship did not restart until the 1919–20 season. Rochdale Hornets won the Lancashire League, Hull F. C. won the Yorkshire League. Rochdale Hornets beat Oldham 22–0 to win the Lancashire Cup, Huddersfield beat Dewsbury 14–8 to win the Yorkshire County Cup; the Challenge Cup Competition was suspended for the final time following its absence during the war. The competition would return the following year

Gem Keeper

Gem Keeper is an iOS game developed by NCSOFT and released on October 14, 2011. The game has a Metacritic rating of 84% based on 5 critic reviews. Touch Arcade wrote " Simply a stunner in both execution and gameplay, I cannot recommend it enough. " 148Apps said " For a newcomer to tower defense games, Gem Keepers is the perfect place to start. For those who love the genre, Gem Keepers is a no-brainer. Get it. AppSafari wrote" trust me. Designed for both the iPhone and iPad, Gem Keeper has the potential to provide hours of fun. " AppSpy said " It's great to see a powerhouse like NCsoft taking the plunge in to the App Store, but Gem Keeper feels like a safe gamble with the moveable tower system not being explored. " Pocket Gamer UK wrote " Gem Keeper's wonderful presentation and rock-solid fundamentals are undermined by a difficulty level that veers all over the place, but this is still a polished and enjoyable tower defence experience. "

RAF Wildenrath

Royal Air Force Wildenrath known as RAF Wildenrath, was a Royal Air Force military airbase near Wildenrath in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany that operated from 1952 to 1992. Wildenrath was the first of four'Clutch' stations built for the RAF in Germany during the early 1950s, it opened on 15 January 1952, was followed by RAF Geilenkirchen on 24 May 1953, RAF Brüggen in July 1953 and RAF Laarbruch that opened on 15 October 1954. RAF Wildenrath, RAF Brüggen and RAF Laarbruch were close to each other and came under the auspices of NATO's Second Allied Tactical Air Force. In 1953, the Station Commander was Group Captain JE "Johnnie" Johnson – a top-scoring British "Ace" fighter pilot of the Second World War. There were two Canadair Sabre F.4 squadrons, a Sabre conversion flight. On site were 724 Signals Unit 402 Air Stores Park, a unit of the RAF Regiment and an Army detachment that maintained land lines. On 15 Jan 1956 88 Sqdn reformed with B.8 Canberras at Wildenrath and was renumbered 14 Sqdn on 17 Dec 1962.

In the late 1950s to 1970, Wildenrath was home to 17 Squadrons. The locations of their quick-readiness dispersals can still be seen to the south of the former main gate. No. 17 Squadron flew the PR.7 Canberra, the two squadrons' "in house" T.4 training aircraft were combined into the so-called "T4 Flight" as a separate sub-unit, forming a useful additional resource for 2ATAF senior officers to use to maintain their flying hours. In the early 1960s, 88 Squadron Canberras were based at Wildenrath; the base was used for'CasEvac' to the UK. In November 1956 the RAF operated a three day airlift to fly over 100 tons of humanitarian relief supplies from Wildenrath to Vienna for the Red Cross to distribute in Hungary during the Hungarian uprising, before the revolt was ended with Soviet military intervention. In 1960, the Station Commander was Group Captain "Bats" Barthold and 17 Squadron was commanded by Wing Commander Dugald "Buster" Lumsden, who accepted the squadron's colours presented by Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Dermot Boyle.

At this time, the commanding officer of 2ATAF had a Vickers Valetta aircraft as his personal transport, its lower fuselage and wings kept polished by the ground-crew of the RAF Germany Communication Flight. The aircraft was declared un-airworthy due to many of its rivet-heads having been polished off, it can be seen today in the RAF Museum at London. The RAFG Communications Flight in 1969 adopted the identity of 60 Squadron, which had disbanded as a Gloster Javelin squadron at RAF Tengah in Singapore the previous year. In the 1970s, Wildenrath served as the initial home of the RAF "Harrier Force" which included Numbers 3, 4 and 20 Squadrons as well as 21 Signal Regiment. In 1974-5 the Wildenrath station commander was Group Captain Patrick "Paddy" Hine, who rose to Air Chief Marshal and Joint Commander of all British forces during the Gulf War.1976-77 saw Wildenrath's role within RAF Germany change as it became home to the command's air defence squadrons with 19 Sqn and 92 Sqn's moving in from Gutersloh, having converted from the English Electric Lightning to the F-4 Phantom and taking advantage of the Phantom's longer range.

3 and 4 squadrons went the other way, moving to Gutersloh, while 20 Squadron stood down from the Harrier, reforming at RAF Bruggen with the SEPECAT Jaguar. While nominally a communication and light transport squadron, 60 Sqn had a secondary, role. Using the Hunting Percival Pembrokes and the Hawker Siddeley Andover from the mid-to-late 1980s, they were employed to take photographs of Soviet and East German armed forces while flying along the Berlin air corridors, it operated DH Devon and DH Heron aircraft. In addition to its other overt and covert functions, 60 Squadron acted as visiting aircraft flight for Wildenrath, hosting every type of RAF and NATO aircraft and civilian "trooper" BAC-111s and Boeing 737s. Wildenrath was home to an Army Air Corps flight operating light helicopters and fixed wing aircraft such as the Westland Scout and De Havilland Beaver; the flight had its own hangar facilities on the base and various flight designations throughout its tenancy. Known as 12 Independent Liaison Flight it was renamed to 31 flight 131 Flight Royal Corps of Transport, No. 669 Squadron AAC, in its last colours with a return to the 12 Flight title.

The flight was manned by members of the corps under which the flight was named with the REME providing the technical servicing and maintenance of the aircraft. On 1 May 1988 two airmen from the RAF Regiment squadron based at RAF Wildenrath were attacked by armed assailants whilst sitting in a car in the nearby Dutch town of Roermond. One of the airmen died from gunshot wounds, the other was injured. In October 1989 an RAF corporal and his infant daughter were shot dead at the petrol station in Wildenrath village, outside the RAF base; the IRA claimed. Wildenrath had five dispersals around the single runway. Alpha and Echo were not used in the normal flying operations of the station. No 19 Squadron operated from one of the 3 dispersals on the far side of the airfield designated'Bravo Dispersal', it housed the two operational'Battle Flights' for both fighter squadrons. No 92 Squadron flew from'Delta Dispersal' with both squadrons using the hardened shelters in'Charlie Dispersal' for spare space to house Phantoms when necessary.

Charlie Dispersal was u

L'Étoile du Nord (film)

L'Étoile du Nord is a 1982 French film directed by Pierre Granier-Deferre and based on a novel by Georges Simenon, starring Simone Signoret, Philippe Noiret, Fanny Cottençon and Julie Jézéquel. It won a César Award for Best Adaptation and Best Supporting Actress, was nominated for Best Actress, Most Promising Actress and Best Editing. On a ship in the 1930s sailing from Alexandria to Marseille, Édouard Binet, a French adventurer, meets Nemrod Loktum, a shady Egyptian businessman, Sylvie Baron, a Belgian exotic dancer. Nemrod takes the Étoile du Nord train to Brussels, on which he is killed. Édouard takes a room at the boarding house in Charleroi of Madame Baron, Sylvie’s mother, with bloodstained clothes and a lot of money that he hides. Despite the suspicions of her younger daughter Antoinette and the other lodgers, the frosty Madame Baron is charmed by the suave Frenchman and believes his stories; the police learn of his presence and, after trial, he is sent to the infamous Île de Ré for transportation to the penal colonies.

Madame Baron is among the grieving relatives. Simone Signoret as Mme Louise Baron Philippe Noiret as Edouard Binet Fanny Cottençon as Sylvie Baron Julie Jézéquel as Antoinette Baron Liliana Gerace as Jasmina Gamil Ratib as Nemrod Lobetoum Jean-Yves Chatelais as Valesco Jean Dautremay as L'ingénieur Pierre Forget as Albert Jean-Pierre Klein as Moïse L'Étoile du Nord on IMDb L'Étoile du Nord at Box Office Mojo