The V-2, technical name Aggregat 4, was the worlds first long-range guided ballistic missile. The V-2 rocket became the first artificial object to cross the boundary of space with the launch of MW18014 on 20 June 1944. Research into military use of long range rockets began when the studies of graduate student Wernher von Braun attracted the attention of the German Army, a series of prototypes culminated in the A-4, which went to war as the V-2. Beginning in September 1944, over 3,000 V-2s were launched by the German Wehrmacht against Allied targets during the war, first London and Antwerp and Liège. As Germany collapsed, teams from the Allied forces—the United States, the United Kingdom, Wernher von Braun and over 100 key V-2 personnel surrendered to the Americans. Eventually, many of the original V-2 team ended up working at the Redstone Arsenal, the US captured enough V-2 hardware to build approximately 80 of the missiles. The Soviets gained possession of the V-2 manufacturing facilities after the war, re-established V-2 production, in the late 1920s, a young Wernher von Braun bought a copy of Hermann Oberths book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen.
Starting in 1930, he attended the Technical University of Berlin, von Braun was working on his doctorate when the Nazi Party gained power in Germany. An artillery captain, Walter Dornberger, arranged an Ordnance Department research grant for von Braun, von Brauns thesis, Construction and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket, was kept classified by the German Army and was not published until 1960. By the end of 1934, his group had launched two rockets that reached heights of 2.2 and 3.5 km. At the time, Germany was highly interested in American physicist Robert H. Goddards research, before 1939, German engineers and scientists occasionally contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. Von Braun used Goddards plans from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the Aggregat series of rockets, during 28–30 September 1939, Der Tag der Weisheit conference met at Peenemünde to initiate the funding of university research to solve rocket problems.
By late 1941, the Army Research Center at Peenemünde possessed the essential to the success of the A-4. The four key technologies for the A-4 were large liquid-fuel rocket engines, supersonic aerodynamics, gyroscopic guidance, at the time, Adolf Hitler was not particularly impressed by the V-2, he pointed out that it was merely an artillery shell with a longer range and much higher cost. Hitler was sufficiently impressed by the enthusiasm of its developers, and needed a weapon to maintain German morale. The V-2s were constructed at the Mittelwerk site by prisoners from Mittelbau-Dora, the A-4 used a 74% ethanol/water mixture for fuel and liquid oxygen for oxidizer. The rocket reached a height of 80 km after shutting off the engine, the fuel and oxidizer pumps were driven by a steam turbine, and the steam was produced by concentrated hydrogen peroxide with sodium permanganate catalyst. Both the alcohol and oxygen tanks were an aluminium-magnesium alloy, the combustion burner reached a temperature of 2,500 to 2,700 °C
Walt Disney Studios (Burbank)
The Walt Disney Studios, in Burbank, United States, serves as the corporate headquarters for The Walt Disney Company media conglomerate. The Studios are one of two major studios that do not currently offer backlot tours to the general public, the other being 20th Century Fox. For several years, Adventures by Disney has offered tours of the studio, the other way to tour the studio is to join the official Disney D23 fan club, which offers tours to members every few months. The studio used to open to the once a year in November on the Saturday before Thanksgiving for its annual Magical Holiday Faire craft sale. As an aid to visitors, many buildings on the Disney lot are marked with identifying signs that include historical information. The Studio is a part of the Walt Disney Studios Disney Studio Services unit – along with Golden Oak Ranch, The Prospect Studios, prior to the official opening of the Burbank lot in 1940, the Walt Disney Studios was situated at several different locations in Los Angeles.
During summer 1923, Walt Disney created The Disney Bros, cartoon Studio in his uncle Robert Disneys garage, which was located at 4406 Kingswell Avenue, in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles. This garage has been on display at the Stanley Ranch Museum in Garden Grove since the 1980s and his brother Roy O. Disney was in Los Angeles at the time. During October 1923, the brothers leased office space on the side of a real estate agencys office at 4651 Kingswell Avenue. On October 16,1923, Walt Disney accepted an offer from Margaret Winkler of Universal Studios to distribute the new Alice Comedies starring Virginia Davis. It was at this site where on January 14,1924, Walt Disney met his future wife Lillian Bounds, in February 1924, the studio moved next door to an office of its own at 4649 Kingswell Avenue. The late Robert Disneys residence and the office building that is home to 4649 and 4651 Kingswell Avenue have survived to the present and are still in use. In 1925, Walt Disney placed a deposit on a new, considerably larger lot at 2719 Hyperion Avenue, and it was here where, after a train journey with his wife Lillian, Walt fully created the character of Mickey Mouse in 1928.
The first color animated film, the Silly Symphony Flowers and Trees, in 1937, the Hyperion studio produced the worlds first full-length animated feature film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Disneys staff began to grow to a size at the Hyperion studio. The current Walt Disney Studios, located at 500 South Buena Vista Street, was possible by the revenue from the 1937 release of Snow White. Walt Disney and his staff began the move from the old studio at Hyperion Avenue in Silver Lake on December 24,1939, a bungalow and other small buildings that were located at the Hyperion Avenue location were moved to Burbank. Disney purposely planned his new Burbank studio around the animation process, underground tunnels linked some of the buildings, and the lot included a movie theatre, a sound stage, and a commissary
Caesium or cesium is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a point of 28.5 °C. Caesium is a metal and has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The metal is extremely reactive and pyrophoric, reacting with water even at −116 °C, Caesium is one of the most reactive elements of all, even more reactive than fluorine, the most reactive nonmetal. It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale and it has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, the German chemist Robert Bunsen and physicist Gustav Kirchhoff discovered caesium in 1860 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. The first small-scale applications for caesium were as a getter in vacuum tubes, since then, caesium has been widely used in highly accurate atomic clocks. The radioactive isotope caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years and is used in applications, industrial gauges.
Although the element is only toxic, the metal is a hazardous material. It is a ductile, pale metal, which darkens in the presence of trace amounts of oxygen. When in the presence of oil, it loses its metallic lustre and takes on a duller. It has a point of 28.4 °C, making it one of the few elemental metals that are liquid near room temperature. Mercury is the elemental metal with a known melting point lower than caesium. In addition, the metal has a low boiling point,641 °C. Its compounds burn with a blue or violet colour, Caesium forms alloys with the other alkali metals and mercury. At temperatures below 650 °C, it does not alloy with cobalt, molybdenum, platinum, tantalum and it forms well-defined intermetallic compounds with antimony, gallium and thorium, which are photosensitive. It mixes with all the alkali metals, the alloy with a molar distribution of 41% caesium, 47% potassium. A few amalgams have been studied, CsHg 2 is black with a metallic lustre, while CsHg is golden-coloured
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the metal group. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with similar to those of other alkali metals. German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the developed technique. Rubidiums compounds have various chemical and electronic applications, rubidium metal is easily vaporized and has a convenient spectral absorption range, making it a frequent target for laser manipulation of atoms. Rubidium is not a nutrient for any living organisms. However, rubidium ions have the charge as potassium ions. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metal. It is the second most electropositive of the alkali metals. Similar to other metals, rubidium metal reacts violently with water. As with potassium and caesium, this reaction is vigorous enough to ignite the hydrogen gas it produces. Rubidium has reported to ignite spontaneously in air. It forms amalgams with mercury and alloys with gold, caesium and potassium, rubidium has a very low ionization energy of only 406 kJ/mol.
Rubidium and potassium show a very similar purple color in the flame test, rubidium silver iodide has the highest room temperature conductivity of any known ionic crystal, a property exploited in thin film batteries and other applications. Rubidium forms a number of oxides when exposed to air, including rubidium monoxide, Rb6O, rubidium forms salts with halides, producing rubidium fluoride, rubidium chloride, rubidium bromide, and rubidium iodide. Although rubidium is monoisotopic, rubidium in the Earths crust is composed of two isotopes, the stable 85Rb and the radioactive 87Rb, natural rubidium is radioactive, with specific activity of about 670 Bq/g, enough to significantly expose a photographic film in 110 days. Twenty four additional rubidium isotopes have been synthesized with half-lives of less than 3 months, Rubidium-87 has a half-life of 48. 8×109 years, which is more than three times the age of the universe of ×109 years, making it a primordial nuclide. It readily substitutes for potassium in minerals, and is fairly widespread
Otto Haxel was a German nuclear physicist. During World War II, he worked on the German nuclear energy project, after the war, he was on the staff of the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Göttingen. During 1956 and 1957, he was a member of the Nuclear Physics Working Group of the German Atomic Energy Commission, from 1970 to 1975, he was the Scientific and Technical Managing Director of the Karlsruhe Research Center. Haxel was a signatory of the Manifesto of the Göttingen Eighteen, from 1927 to 1933, Haxel studied at the Technische Hochschule München and the Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen. He received his doctorate in 1933, under Hans Geiger at the University of Tübingen, from 1933 to 1936, Haxel was Geiger’s teaching assistant there, and he completed his Habilitation in 1936. Haxel went to the Technische Hochschule Berlin and became an assistant there in 1936. It was in 1940 that Haxel met a future collaborator, from at least 1940 to early 1942, Haxel worked on the German nuclear energy project, called the Uranverein.
He specialized in studies of neutron absorption in uranium, Haxel was called up for military service in early 1942. He was put in charge of a group doing nuclear research for the German Navy under Admiral Rhein, from 1946 to 1950, Haxel was a staff assistant to Werner Heisenberg at the Max-Planck Institut für Physik, in Göttingen. While there, he and Fritz Houtermans collaborated, Houtermans was at the II, physikalischen Institut of the University of Göttingen. In 1949, Haxel was appointed professor at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. From 1950 to 1974, Haxel was a professor of physics at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. At the University of Heidelberg, Haxel was director of the II, in the 1950s, mainly through the impetus of Haxel, environmental physics was developed there through the application of nuclear physics. This led to the founding of the Institut für Umweltphysik in 1975, during 1956 and 1957, Haxel was a member of the Arbeitskreis Kernphysik of the Fachkommission II „Forschung und Nachwuchs“ of the Deutschen Atomkommission.
Wolfgang Paul was a member of the group during 1957, from 1970 to 1975, Haxel was the wissenschaftlich-technischen Geschäftsführer of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Haxel was a signatory of the manifesto of the Göttinger Achtzehn, haxel’s friend, Fritz Houtermans was married four times. Charlotte Riefenstahl, a physicist educated at the University of Göttingen, was his first, in February 1944, Houtermans married Ilse Bartz, a chemical engineer, they worked together during the war and published a paper. Houtermans divorced Ilse and remarried Charlotte in August 1953, Haxel married Ilse after her divorce from Houtermans
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich is a public research university located in Munich, Germany. The University of Munich is among Germanys oldest universities, in 1802, the university was officially named Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität by King Maximilian I of Bavaria in his as well as the universitys original founders honour. Among these were Wilhelm Röntgen, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, pope Benedict XVI was a student and professor at the university. The LMU has recently been conferred the title of university under the German Universities Excellence Initiative. LMU is currently the second-largest university in Germany in terms of student population, in the semester of 2015/2016. Of these,8,671 were freshmen while international students totalled 7,812 or almost 15% of the student population, the university was founded with papal approval in 1472 as the University of Ingolstadt, with faculties of philosophy, medicine and theology. Its first rector was Christopher Mendel of Steinfels, who became bishop of Chiemsee.
In the period of German humanism, the universitys academics included names such as Conrad Celtes, the theologian Johann Eck taught at the university. From 1549 to 1773, the university was influenced by the Jesuits, the Jesuit Petrus Canisius served as rector of the university. At the end of the 18th century, the university was influenced by the Enlightenment, in 1800, the Prince-Elector Maximilianv IV Joseph moved the university to Landshut, due to French aggression that threatened Ingolstadt during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1802, the university was renamed the Ludwig Maximilian University in honour of its two founders, Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria. The Minister of Education, Maximilian von Montgelas, initiated a number of reforms sought to modernize the rather conservative. In 1826, it was moved to Munich, the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the university was situated in the Old Academy until a new building in the Ludwigstraße was completed. The locals were critical of the number of Protestant professors Maximilian.
They were dubbed the Nordlichter and especially physician Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis was quite angry about them, in the second half of the 19th century, the university rose to great prominence in the European scientific community, attracting many of the worlds leading scientists. It was a period of great expansion, from 1903, women were allowed to study at Bavarian universities, and by 1918, the female proportion of students at LMU had reached 18%. In 1918, Adele Hartmann became the first woman in Germany to earn the Habilitation, during the Third Reich, academic freedom was severely curtailed. In 1943 the White Rose group of anti-Nazi students conducted their campaign of opposition to the National Socialists at this university, the university has continued to be one of the leading universities of West Germany during the Cold War and in the post-reunification era
Konrad Dannenberg was a German-American rocket pioneer and member of the German rocket team brought to the United States after World War II. Dannenberg was born in Weißenfels, Province of Saxony, at the age of two, he and his family moved to Hannover, where he spent his youth. He became interested in space technology while attending a lecture by Max Valier and he witnessed two tests with a rocket-driven railroad car in Burgwedel near Hannover and joined Albert Püllenbergs group of amateur rocketeers. He took part in the stages of the Battle of France. In the spring of 1940, through the influence of Püllenberg, Dannenberg was discharged from the army, under Walter Thiels guidance, he became a rocket propulsion specialist. His main assignment was developing an engine for the V-2 ballistic missile. He was at Peenemünde on 3 October 1942 to witness the launch of the first man-made object to reach outer space and this was the first man made vehicle to ever reach space which most experts agree is over 50 miles in altitude.
Many improvements on which he worked could not be completed in time for production, after Thiels death in an August 1943 bombing raid, a design freeze stopped all development efforts. Dannenberg became Walter Riedels deputy and headed the effort to finalize production drawings of the V-2. He was interviewed for the documentary The Hunt for Hitlers Scientists, after the end of World War II, Dannenberg was brought to the United States with 117 other German specialists under Operation Paperclip to Fort Bliss, Texas. Most members of the group performed calculations and designs of future advanced launch vehicles with longer ranges, about 30 members trained the U. S. Army and the support contractor General Electric to launch V-2s at the White Sands Proving Ground. Due to range limitations, all rockets were launched vertically, to limit their range, robert H. Goddards idea of upper atmosphere research could now be conducted on a large scale. Due to these circumstances, Dannenberg became Liaison Engineer at NAAs Rocketdyne Division and procured rocket engines for the Redstone and he became responsible for production of the Redstone and Jupiter missile systems for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at the Chrysler plant in Detroit, Michigan.
In 1960, Dannenberg joined NASAs newly established Marshall Space Flight Center as Deputy Manager of the Saturn program. He received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal in 1973 for successfully initiating development of the largest rocket ever built, the Saturn V, when Arthur Rudolph came back from the Armys development of the Pershing missile system, von Braun assigned the management of the Saturn system to him. Dannenberg started to work on Saturn-based space stations, which were replaced by the Space Shuttle-based ISS. Dannenberg retired from the Marshall Space Flight Center in 1973 and became an Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Dannenberg was a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and past president of the Alabama/Mississippi Chapter of this organization. In 1990, he received the prestigious DURAND Lectureship, and in 1996 and he was a member of the NASA/MSFC Retirees Association, an honorary member of the Hermann Oberth Society of Germany and a charter member of the L5 Society, which is now the National Space Society
Wernher von Braun
He was one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany, where he was a member of the Nazi Party and the SS. In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Germanys rocket development program, following the war, von Braun worked for the United States Army on an intermediate-range ballistic missile program before his group was assimilated into NASA. In 1975, he received the National Medal of Science and he continued insisting on the human mission to Mars throughout his life. Wernher von Braun was born on 23 March 1912 in the town of Wirsitz, in the Posen Province. He was the second of three sons and he belonged to a noble family, inheriting the German title of Freiherr. His father, conservative civil servant Magnus Freiherr von Braun, served as a Minister of Agriculture in the Reich Cabinet during the Weimar Republic, Von Braun had an older brother, and a younger brother, named Magnus. After Wernher von Brauns Lutheran confirmation, his mother gave him a telescope, the family moved to Berlin in 1915 where his father worked at the Ministry of the Interior.
He was taken into custody by the police until his father came to collect him. Wernher von Braun was an amateur pianist who could play Beethoven. He learned to both the cello and the piano at an early age and at one time wanted to become a composer. He took lessons from the composer Paul Hindemith, the few pieces of von Braun’s youthful compositions that exist are reminiscent of Hindemith’s style. Beginning in 1925, von Braun attended a school at Ettersburg Castle near Weimar. There he acquired a copy of By Rocket into Planetary Space by rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth, in 1928, his parents moved him to the Hermann-Lietz-Internat on the East Frisian North Sea island of Spiekeroog. Space travel had always fascinated von Braun, and from on he applied himself to physics and mathematics to pursue his interest in rocket engineering. In 1930, he attended the Technische Hochschule Berlin, where he joined the Spaceflight Society, in spring 1932, he graduated from the Technische Hochschule Berlin, with a diploma in mechanical engineering.
His early exposure to rocketry convinced him that the exploration of space would require far more applications of the current engineering technology. He studied at ETH Zürich, although he worked mainly on military rockets in his years there, space travel remained his primary interest. In 1930, von Braun attended a presentation given by Auguste Piccard, after the talk the young student approached the famous pioneer of high-altitude balloon flight, and stated to him, You know, I plan on traveling to the Moon at some time
Marshall Space Flight Center
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is the U. S. governments civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center. The largest NASA center, MSFCs first mission was developing the Saturn launch vehicles for the Apollo moon program, located on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, MSFC is named in honor of General of the Army George Marshall. The center contains the Huntsville Operations Support Center, a facility that supports ISS launch, the HOSC monitors rocket launches from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station when a Marshall Center payload is on board. The largest and best-known activity was called Operation Paperclip, in August 1945,127 missile specialists led by Wernher von Braun signed work contracts with the U. S. Armys Ordnance Corps. Most of them had worked on the V-2 missile development under von Braun at Peenemünde, Von Braun and the other Germans were sent to Fort Bliss, joining the Armys newly formed Research and Development Division Sub-office. Von Braun had long had a great interest in rocketry for space science, toward this, he was allowed to use a WAC Corporal rocket as a second stage for a V-2, the combination, called Bumper, reached a record-breaking 250 miles altitude.
During World War II, the production and storage of shells was conducted by three arsenals nearby to Huntsville, Alabama. After the war, these were closed, and the three areas were combined to form Redstone Arsenal, a year later, the Secretary of the Army approved the transfer of the rocket research and development activities from Fort Bliss to the new center at Redstone Arsenal. Beginning in April 1950, about 1,000 persons were involved in the transfer, at this time, R&D responsibility for guided missiles was added, and studies began on a medium-range guided missile that eventually became the Redstone rocket. Over the next decade, the development on Redstone Arsenal greatly expanded. Many small free-flight and guided rockets were developed, and work on the Redstone rocket got underway, although this rocket was primarily intended for military purposes, von Braun kept space firmly in his mind, and published a widely read article on this subject. In mid-1952, the Germans who had worked under individual contracts were converted to civil service employees.
Von Braun was appointed Chief of the Guided Missile Development Division, in September 1954, von Braun proposed using the Redstone as the main booster of a multi-stage rocket for launching artificial satellites. A year later, a study for Project Orbiter was completed, detailing plans, the Armys official role in the U. S. space satellite program was delayed, after higher authorities elected to use the Vanguard rocket being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. In February 1956, the Army Ballistic Missile Agency was established, von Braun was the director of the Development Operations Division. One of the programs was a 1, 500-mile, single-stage missile that was started the previous year. The first Jupiter IRBM flight took place from Cape Canaveral in March 1957 with the first successful flight to full range on 31 May, Jupiter was eventually taken over by the U. S. Air Force. The ABMA developed Jupiter-C was composed of a Redstone rocket first stage, while the Jupiter C capability was such that it could have placed the fourth stage in orbit, that mission had been assigned to the NRL
Technical University of Berlin
The Technische Universität Berlin, known as TU Berlin and unofficially as the Technical University of Berlin, is a research university located in Berlin, Germany. It was founded in 1879 and became one of the most prestigious institutions in Europe. It has one of the highest proportions of students in Germany. It belongs to the Conference of European Schools for Advanced Engineering Education, the TU Berlin is home of two innovation centers designated by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. The university is known for its highly ranked engineering programmes, especially in engineering and engineering management. The university alumni and professor list include US National Academies members, the TH Charlottenburg was named after the borough of its location in Charlottenburg just outside Berlin. Beforehand, the college had been, for several decades under the auspices of the Frederick William University. After Charlottenburgs absorption into Greater Berlin in 1920 and Germany being turned into Weimar Republic, in 1927, the Department of Geodesy of the Agricultural College of Berlin was incorporated into the TH Berlin.
The shell construction remained unfinished after the outbreak of World War II and after Beckers suicide in 1940, the north section of the main building of the university was destroyed during a bombing raid in November 1943. Due to the fighting at the end of the Second World War. Planning for the re-opening of the school began on June, 2nd 1945, once the acting rectorship led by Gustav Ludwig Hertz and Max Volmer was appointed. As both Hertz and Volmer remained in exile in the Soviet Union for some time to come, since 2009 the TU Berlin houses two Knowledge and Innovation Communities designated by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. The TU Berlin covers 604,000 m², distributed over various locations in Berlin, the main campus is located in the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. The seven schools of the university have some 33,933 students enrolled in 90 subjects, El Gouna campus, Technische Universität Berlin has established a satellite campus in Egypt to act as a scientific and academic field office.
The nonprofit public-private partnership aims to offer services provided by Technische Universität Berlin at the campus in El Gouna on the Red Sea, in addition there are 2,651 student assistants and 126 trainees. International student mobility is applicable through ERASMUS programme or through Top Industrial Managers for Europe network, the new common main library of Technische Universität Berlin and of the Berlin University of the Arts was opened in 2004 and holds about 2.9 million volumes. The library building was sponsored partially by Volkswagen and is named officially University Library of the TU Berlin, a source of confusion to many, the letters above the main entrance only state Volkswagen Bibliothek – without any mentioning of the universities. Bruno Ahrends, architect Steffen Ahrends, architect Stancho Belkovski, Bulgarian architect, head of Higher Technical School in Sofia, wilhelm Cauer, essential contributions to the design of filters
The Juno I was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched Americas first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958. A member of the Redstone rocket family, it was derived from the Jupiter-C sounding rocket and it is commonly confused with the Juno II launch vehicle, which was derived from the PGM-19 Jupiter medium-range ballistic missile. Both the four-stage Juno I and three-stage Jupiter-C launch vehicles were the same height, the rocket family is named for the Roman goddess and queen of the gods Juno for its position as the satellite-launching version of the Jupiter-C. The name was proposed by JPL Director Dr. William Pickering in November 1957, the September 1956 test launch of a Jupiter-C for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency could have been the worlds first satellite launch. Had the fourth stage been loaded and fueled, the cone would have overshot the target. Although Juno Is launch of the Explorer 1 satellite was a success for the U. S. space program. The American public was happy and relieved that America had finally managed to launch a satellite after the failures in the Vanguard.
With the relative success of the Juno I program, von Braun developed the Juno II, using a PGM-19 Jupiter first stage, rather than a Redstone. The six launches of Juno I were, January 31,1958, orbited Explorer 1 weighing 30.66 lb with 18.35 lb of payload, perigee 224 mi, apogee 1,575 mi. Explorer 1 ceased transmission of data on May 23,1958 when its batteries died and it made a fiery reentry over the Pacific Ocean on March 31,1970. March 5,1958, attempted orbit of Explorer 2, weighing 31.36 lb with 18.83 lb of payload, failed because fourth stage did not ignite. March 26,1958, orbited Explorer 3, weighing 31.0 lb with 18.53 lb of payload, perigee 119 mi, apogee 1,740 mi. July 26,1958, orbited Explorer 4, weighing 37.16 lb with 25.76 lb of payload, perigee 163 mi, august 24,1958, attempted orbit of Explorer 5,37.16 lb with 25.76 lb of payload. It failed after booster collided with second stage separation, causing upper stage firing angle to be off. October 23,1958, attempted orbit of 12 ft inflatable Beacon satellite 31.5 lb with 18.3 lb of payload and it failed when second stage separated prematurely from booster.
Source, Data Sheet, Department of Astronautics, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution