Eroticism is a quality that causes sexual feelings, as well as a philosophical contemplation concerning the aesthetics of sexual desire and romantic love. That quality may be found in any form of artwork, including painting, photography, film, music, or literature, it may be found in advertising. The term may refer to a state of sexual arousal or anticipation of such – an insistent sexual impulse, desire, or pattern of thoughts; as French novelist Honoré de Balzac stated, eroticism is dependent not just upon an individual's sexual morality, but the culture and time in which an individual resides. Because the nature of what is erotic is fluid, early definitions of the term attempted to conceive eroticism as some form of sensual or romantic love or as the human sex drive; because eroticism is wholly dependent on the viewer's culture and personal tastes pertaining to what defines the erotic, critics have confused eroticism with pornography, with the anti-pornography activist Andrea Dworkin saying, "Erotica is high-class pornography.
This confusion, as Lynn Hunt writes, "demonstrate the difficulty of drawing… a clear generic demarcation between the erotic and the pornographic": indeed arguably "the history of the separation of pornography from eroticism… remains to be written". Whereas traditionally eroticism has been dealt with in relation to culture and its pornographic outcomes, current evolutionary psychology shows how eroticism has shaped the evolution of human nature. Influenced by Sigmund Freud, psychotherapists have turned to Greek philosophy for an understanding of eros' heightened aesthetic. For Plato, Eros takes an transcendent manifestation when the subject seeks to go beyond itself and form a communion with the object/other: "the true order of going...to the things of love, is to use the beauties of earth as steps...to all fair forms, from fair forms to fair actions, from fair actions to fair notions, until from fair notions he arrives at the notion of absolute beauty". Modern French conceptions of eroticism can be traced to Age of Enlightenment, when "in the eighteenth century, dictionaries defined the erotic as that which concerned love...eroticism was the intrusion into the public sphere of something, at base private".
This theme of intrusion or transgression was taken up in the twentieth century by the French philosopher Georges Bataille, who argued that eroticism performs a function of dissolving boundaries between human subjectivity and humanity, a transgression that dissolves the rational world but is always temporary, as well as that, "Desire in eroticism is the desire that triumphs over the taboo. It presupposes man in conflict with himself". For Bataille, as well as many French theorists, "Eroticism, unlike simple sexual activity, is a psychological quest...eroticism is assenting to life in death". Queer theory and LGBT studies consider the concept from a non-heterosexual perspective, viewing psychoanalytical and modernist views of eroticism as both archaic and heterosexist, written by and for a "handful of elite, bourgeois men" who "mistook their own repressed sexual proclivities" as the norm. Theorists like Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Gayle S. Rubin and Marilyn Frye all write extensively about eroticism from a heterosexual and separatist point of view seeing eroticism as both a political force and cultural critique for marginalized groups, or as Mario Vargas Llosa summarized: "Eroticism has its own moral justification because it says that pleasure is enough for me.
Audre Lorde, a Caribbean-American writer and out-spoken feminist talks of the erotic being a type of power being specific to females. "There are many kinds of power The erotic is a resource within each of us that lies in a female and spiritual plane rooted in the power of our unexpressed or unrecognized feelings". In "The Uses of the Erotic" within Sister Outsider, she discusses how erotic comes from sharing, but if we suppress the erotic rather than recognize its presence, it takes on a different form. Rather than enjoying and sharing with one another, it is objectifying, which she says translates into abuse as we attempt to hide and suppress our experiences
An Irish pub is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises. Irish pubs are characterised by a unique culture centred around a casual and friendly atmosphere, hearty food and drink, Irish sports, traditional Irish music, their widespread appeal has led to the Irish pub theme spreading around the world. Irish pubs have existed for a millennium, with the title "oldest pub in Ireland" held by Sean's Bar in Athlone, County Westmeath, established in the 10th century; the Brazen Head in Dublin City was established in 1198 and holds the title "oldest pub in Dublin". It was not until 1635. Grace Neill's in Donaghadee, County Down, Northern Ireland, which became licensed in 1611, holds the title of "oldest licensed pub in Ireland". Irish pubs or public houses were the working man's alternative to the private drinking establishments frequented by those who could pay for entry. In 1735 the Drink on Credit to Servants Act was enacted stating that any publican who sold a drink on credit to servants, labourers or other low-wage earners had no right to seek help from the law in recovering that debt.
It is the oldest law related to pubs in Ireland, still in effect. During the 18th century it became illegal to be married in a pub. Irish pubs underwent a major transformation during the 19th century when a growing temperance movement in Ireland forced publicans to diversify their businesses to compensate for declining spirit sales. Thus, the'Spirit grocery' was established. Pub owners combined the running of the pub with a grocery, hardware or other ancillary business on the same premises. Spirit groceries continued to operate through World War One when British law limited the number of hours that pubs could operate; some spirit groceries continued after the war, only closing in the 1960s when supermarkets and grocery chain stores arrived. With the arrival of increased competition in the retail sector, many pubs lost the retail end of their business and concentrated on the licensed trade. Many pubs in Ireland still resemble grocer's shops of the mid nineteenth century, with the bar counter and rear shelving taking up the majority of the space in the main bar area leaving little room for customers.
This counter-productive arrangement is a design artefact dating from earlier operation as a spirit grocery, accounts for the differing external appearance of British and Irish pubs. Spirit grocers in Northern Ireland were forced to choose between either the retail or the licensed trades upon the partition of Ireland in 1922, so this pub type can no longer be found in the North. Unlike their British counterparts, Irish pubs are named after the current or previous owner or the street they are located on. Elaborate exterior decoration is rare, but was typified by The Irish House on Wood Quay in Dublin, surrounded in 1870 by coloured friezes of nationalist heroes, with iconic traditional themes such as round towers. Parts of Ulysses were filmed in this pub in 1967. Irish pubs traditionally did not sell food; that changed in the 1970s and food is now a significant part of the Irish pub experience. Over the years, individual Irish pubs have been associated with famous Irish writers and poets such as Patrick Kavanagh, Brendan Behan and James Joyce.
In 2004, the Irish government passed a law outlawing smoking in pubs resulting in many pubs having outdoor smoking areas. The vast majority of pubs on the island of Ireland are independently owned and licensed, or owned by a chain that does not have any brewery involvement meaning that nearly every pub sells a similar but extensive range of products. Following the introduction of smoking bans in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland many pubs offer enclosed and heated outdoor smoking areas. Pubs in Northern Ireland are identical to their counterparts in the Republic except for the aforementioned lack of spirit grocers. Traditional pubs in Belfast include The Crown Liquor Saloon and the city's oldest bar, White's Tavern, established in 1630 as a wine shop. Outside Belfast, pubs such as the House of McDonnell in Ballycastle are representative of the traditional country pub. Peadar O'Donnell's is a famous traditional pub on Waterloo Street in Derry, while The Farmers Home is another fine traditional pub in Strabane, County Tyrone.
For centuries, the Irish public house has been an integral part of Irish social culture. In Ireland the local pub is a pillar of the community the same way, it functions as both a place to consume alcohol at leisure as well as a place in which to meet and greet the people of a locality. In many cases, Irish people will have one pubs which are referred to as'the local', the pub which they frequent most often. There is a close and mutual understanding and informality between the customer and the staff and, in many cases in country pubs all of the regular customers will know each other well; that warm and friendly atmosphere extends to outsiders as well and it is not uncommon for strangers or tourists to be drawn into conversations with locals. In addition to the casual social atmosphere, hearty food and drink and traditional Irish music are hallmarks of pub culture. Food is simple and traditional featuring classic Irish dishes like Irish stew and Irish soda bread. Drinks include a variety of spirits and beers on tap but one can
Ermesinde I, reigned as Countess of Luxembourg from 1197 until her death in 1247. She was his second wife, Agnes of Guelders. Prior to her birth, her aging father Henry had recognized his nephew, Count Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut as his heir presumptive. However, the 72-year-old count fathered a daughter, who displaced Baldwin as heir presumptive. Upon Henry's death in 1197, a war of succession took place. At its end, it was decided that Count Henry's fiefs would be split: Baldwin would have Namur, Ermesinde would have Durbuy and La Roche, Luxembourg would revert to their common liege, the Holy Roman Emperor. Emperor Henry VI gave the fief to his brother Otto I, Count of Burgundy. Ermesinde was betrothed to Henry II of Champagne, but the engagement was cancelled in 1189. Instead her first husband was Theobald I of Bar, he negotiated with Philip of Namur and his brother Baldwin for renunciation of Luxembourg, thus making Theobald and Ermesinde the Count and Countess of Luxembourg. When Theobald died in 1214, Ermesinde married Waleran III, Count of Limburg, who would rule as the Count of Luxembourg.
In 1223 Ermesinde and Waleran pressed their claim to Namur against Margrave Philip II, but were unsuccessful. After Waleran's death, Ermesinde ruled Luxembourg alone for two decades, she proved to be an effective administrator, granting charters of freedom to several towns and increasing the prosperity of her country. Legend has it that the Countess was one day walking in the area near Eischen. There she saw a woman coming down from a hill, who had in her arms a child, wrapped in sheepskin, on, a black cross; the Countess was convinced that this was the Virgin Mary, therefore planned the construction on this spot of the abbey that would become the Abbey of Notre-Dame de Clairefontaine. In her will she asked; the Abbey of Clairefontaine was in fact only built by her son, Henry V. After many years, the abbey was destroyed in the late 18th century by French troops; the Jesuits reconstructed a part of it from 1875 to 1877, including the old chapel. During these works, the Jesuit Martin Paul on 11 May 1875 found a gravestone, along with human remains.
Next to the skeleton was a plaque with the inscription: "Voici les precious ossements de la très Illustre et Pieuse Princesse Ermesinde, Comtesse Souveraine de Luxembourg et de Namur. Notre heureuse fondatrice que Dieu Glorifie et sans fin Bénisse" In 1747, shortly before the old abbey was destroyed by the French, the nuns had hidden Ermesinde's remains here; the remains are in the crypt of the chapel of Clairefontaine. The children of Ermesinde and her first husband, Theobald I of Bar, were: Renaud, Seigneur of Briey Elisabeth, married Valéran of Limburg, Lord of Monschau Margaret, first married Hugh III, Count of Vaudémont; the children of Ermesinde and Waleran III, Count of Limburg were: Henry V of Luxembourg, Count of Luxembourg Gérard I of Durbuy, Count of Durbuy Catherine of Limburg, wife of Matthias II, Duke of Lorraine Ermesinde de Luxembourg's French Wikipedia page Cawley, Charles, ERMENSENDE de Namur, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Namur Family Genealogy
Geer Cemetery is an abandoned African-American cemetery located on Colonial Street between McGill Place and Camden Avenue in northeast Durham, North Carolina. It has been known as City Cemetery, Old City Cemetery, East Durham Cemetery, Mason Cemetery, it occupies about 4 acres, contains the graves of over 1,500 African Americans, many born into slavery. It was the first cemetery for African Americans in Durham, from 1876, when it opened, to 1924 it was the only one. In 1939 it was closed as overcrowded by the health department, although there was a burial in 1944; the city of Durham lists ownership of the cemetery as "Unknown". In 2004 the cemetery was "heavily overgrown and...nearly invisible". The city, in collaboration with Friends of Geer, a volunteer group, Keep Durham Beautiful Inc. has cleared the site of trees and debris, suppressed vine and weed growth, restored tilted and fallen headstones, smoothed a gravel road through the cemetery. A stone sign was erected on Camden Street. In 2015, the 150th anniversary of North Carolina's ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, the Friends of Geer held an event at the cemetery.
Edian Markham, founder of St. Joseph's African Methodist Episcopal Church Margaret Ruffin Faucette, founder of Durham's White Rock Baptist Church Augustus Shepard, father of James E. Shepard, founder of North Carolina Central University Friends of Geer Cemetery List of known burials in Geer Cemetery Another list of burials in Geer Cemetery
Doron Sheffer, is a retired Israeli professional basketball player. He spent most of his club career playing with Maccabi Tel Aviv. During his playing career, at a height of 1.96 m tall, he played at the point guard and shooting guard positions. During his playing days, his nickname was "The Iceman". Sheffer first gained fame at age 21, in the Israeli Premier League, when he led Hapoel Galil Elyon to a victory in the Israeli League semifinals, over powerhouse Maccabi Tel Aviv, in 1993. Following fellow Israeli Nadav Henefeld, Sheffer played college basketball, under head coach Jim Calhoun, at the University of Connecticut, with the UConn Huskies, from 1993 to 1996. In the 1993–94 season, Sheffer was the Big East Conference Rookie of the Year. While at UConn, Sheffer formed a trio with fellow starters Ray Allen and Kevin Ollie, that won the Big East basketball championship in three straight years, he is the only player from UConn with 500 assists, in three varsity seasons. He was named to the school's All-20th Century team.
Sheffer was selected in the 1996 NBA Draft, by the Los Angeles Clippers, with the 36th overall pick, but he chose to sign with Maccabi Tel Aviv. After four years with Maccabi, where he won four straight Israeli League championships and played in the 2000 EuroLeague Final Four, Sheffer retired walking away from the public's eye, to travel the world, to India, South America, Costa Rica. During this time, he had a cancerous tumor removed from his testicles. Despite the illness, the time away from basketball, Sheffer decided to make a comeback. After finishing his contract with Maccabi, he signed with Hapoel Jerusalem. In 2004, he won the ULEB Eurocup championship with Hapoel. Sheffer retired again in 2005, made another comeback in 2006, he retired again in 2008. 5 years in 2013, he made a final comeback to the game, before retiring for good, in 2014. Sheffer was a member of the senior Israeli national basketball team. With Israel, he played at the 1993 EuroBasket, the 1995 EuroBasket, the 1997 EuroBasket, the 1999 EuroBasket.
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Armanism and Ariosophy are esoteric ideological systems pioneered by Guido von List and Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels in Austria between 1890 and 1930. The term'Ariosophy', meaning wisdom concerning the Aryans, was first coined by Lanz von Liebenfels in 1915 and became the label for his doctrine in the 1920s. In research on the topic, such as Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke's book The Occult Roots of Nazism, the term'Ariosophy' is used generically to describe the Aryan-esoteric theories of a subset of the'Völkische Bewegung'; this broader use of the word is retrospective and was not current among the esotericists themselves." List called his doctrine'Armanism', while Lanz used the terms'Theozoology' and'Ario-Christianity' before the First World War. The ideas of Von List and Lanz von Liebenfels were part of a general occult revival in Austria and Germany of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, inspired by historical Germanic paganism and holistic philosophy as well as esoteric concepts influenced by German romanticism and Theosophy.
The connection of this Germanic mysticism with historical Germanic culture is evident in the mystics' fascination with runes, in the form of Guido von List's Armanen runes. Ideology regarding the Aryan race (in the sense of Indo-Europeans, runic symbols, the swastika, sometimes occultism are important elements in Ariosophy. From around 1900, esoteric notions entered Guido List's thoughts by 1899 at the latest. In April 1903 he sent his manuscript, proposing what Goodrick-Clarke calls a "monumental pseudoscience" concerning the ancient German faith, to the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna onwards; these Ariosophic ideas contributed to an occult counterculture in Germany and Austria. A historic interest in this topic has stemmed from the ideological relation of Ariosophy to Nazism, is obvious in such book titles as: The Occult Roots of Nazism by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke Der Mann, der Hitler die Ideen gab, Wilfried Daim's biography of Lanz von LiebenfelsHowever, Goodrick-Clarke's comprehensive study finds little evidence of direct influence, except in the case of the idiosyncratic ancient-German mythos elaborated by the "clairvoyant" SS-Brigadeführer Karl Maria Wiligut, of which the practical consequences were, the incorporation of Wiligut's symbolism into the ceremonies of an elite circle within the SS.
The most notable other case is Himmler's Ahnenerbe. Goodrick-Clarke examines what evidence there is for influences on Hitler and on other Nazis, but he concludes that "Ariosophy is a symptom rather than an influence in the way that it anticipated Nazism". While a broad definition of the term'Ariosophy' is useful for some purposes, various of the authors, including Ellegaard Ellerbek, Philipp Stauff and Günther Kirchoff, can more be described as cultivating the Armanism of List. In a less broad approach one could treat rune occultism separately. Although the Armanen runes go back to List, Rudolf John Gorsleben distinguished himself from other völkisch writers by making the esoteric importance of the runes central to his world view. Goodrick-Clarke therefore refers to the doctrine of Kummer and Gorsleben and his followers as rune occultism, a description which fits the eclectic work of Karl Spiesberger. Practical systems of rune occultism, influenced by List, were developed by Friedrich Bernhard Marby and Siegfried Adolf Kummer.
Worthy of mention are Peryt Shou, the occult novelist. Frank Glahn, noted more for his pendulum dowsing. Organisations include: the Guido von List Society, the High Armanen Order, the Lumen Club, the Ordo Novi Templi, the Germanenorden and the Thule Society. Guido von List elaborated a racial religion premised on the concept of renouncing the imposed foreign creed of Christianity and returning to the pagan religions of the ancient Indo-Europeans. List recognised the theoretical distinction between the Proto-Indo-European language and its daughter Proto-Germanic language but obscured it by his tendency to treat them as a single long-lived entity. In this, he became influenced by the Theosophical thought of Madame Blavatsky, which he blended however with his own original beliefs, founded upon Germanic paganism. Before he turned to occultism, Guido List had written articles for German Nationalist newspapers in Austria, as well as four historical novels and three plays, some of which were "set in tribal Germany" before the advent of Christianity.
He had written an anti-semitic essay in 1895. List adopted the aristocratic von between 1903 and 1907. List called his doctrine Armanism after the Armanen a body of priest-kings in the ancient Aryo-Germanic nation, he claimed that this German name had been Latinized into the tribal name Herminones mentioned in Tacitus and that it meant the heirs of the sun-king: an estate of intellectuals who were organised into a priesthood called the Armanenschaft. His conception of the original religion of the Germanic tribes was a form of sun worship, with its priest-kings