Errico Malatesta

Errico Malatesta was an Italian anarchist. He spent much of his life exiled in total spent more than ten years in prison. Malatesta wrote and edited a number of radical newspapers and was a friend of Mikhail Bakunin. Errico Malatesta was born to a family of middle-class landowners in Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Italy on 14 December 1853. More distantly, his ancestors ruled Rimini as the House of Malatesta; the first of a long series of arrests came at age fourteen, when he was apprehended for writing an "insolent and threatening" letter to King Victor Emmanuel II. Malatesta was introduced to Mazzinian Republicanism while studying medicine at the University of Naples. Via his enthusiasm for the Paris Commune and via his friendship with Carmelo Palladino, he joined the Naples section of the International Workingmen's Association that same year, as well as teaching himself to be a mechanic and electrician. In 1872 he met Mikhail Bakunin, with whom he participated in the St. Imier Congress of the International.

For the next four years, Malatesta helped spread Internationalist propaganda in Italy. Following Bakunin, Malatesta became a freemason at Naples on 19 October 1875, hoping to influence younger members. However, when the lodge organised a reception honouring Giovanni Nicotera, the Interior Minister, Malatesta left on 18 March 1876 and became anti-Masonic. In April 1877, Carlo Cafiero, Sergey Stepnyak-Kravchinsky and about thirty others started an insurrection in the province of Benevento, taking the villages of Letino and Gallo without a struggle; the revolutionaries burned tax registers and declared the end of the King's reign and were met by enthusiasm. After leaving Gallo, they were arrested by government troops and held for sixteen months before being acquitted. After Giovanni Passannante's murder attempt on the king Umberto I, the radicals were kept under constant surveillance by the police. Though the anarchists claimed to have no connection to Passannante, being an advocate of social revolution, was included in this surveillance.

After returning to Naples, he was forced to leave Italy altogether in the fall of 1878 because of these conditions, beginning his life in exile. He went to Egypt visiting some Italian friends but was soon expelled by the Italian Consul. After working his passage on a French ship and being refused entry to Syria and Italy, he landed in Marseille where he made his way to Geneva, Switzerland – something of an anarchist centre, it was there that he befriended Élisée Reclus and Peter Kropotkin, helping the latter to produce La Révolte. The Swiss respite was brief and after a few months he was expelled from Switzerland, traveling first to Romania before reaching Paris, where he worked as a mechanic. In 1881 he set out for a new home in London, he would go from that city for the next 40 years. There Malatesta worked as a mechanic. Malatesta's mistress in the 1870s, Emilia Tronzio, was the step-sister of the internationalist Tito Zanardelli. With Malatesta's consent and support she married Giovanni Defendi, who came to stay with Malatesta in London in 1881 after being released from jail.

Malatesta attended the Anarchist Congress that met in London from 14 July 1881. Other delegates included Peter Kropotkin, Francesco Saverio Merlino, Marie Le Compte, Louise Michel and Émile Gautier. While respecting "complete autonomy of local groups" the congress defined propaganda actions that all could follow and agreed that "propaganda by the deed" was the path to social revolution. With the outbreak of the Anglo-Egyptian War in 1882, Malatesta organized a small group to help fight against the British. In August, he and three other men departed for Egypt, they landed in Abu Qir travelled towards Ramleh, Alexandria. After a difficult crossing of Lake Mariout, they were surrounded and detained by British forces, without having undertaken any fighting, he secretly returned to Italy the following year. In Florence he founded the weekly anarchist paper La Questione Sociale in which his most popular pamphlet, Fra Contadini, first appeared. Malatesta went back to Naples in 1884—while waiting to serve a three-year prison term—to nurse the victims of a cholera epidemic.

Once again, he fled Italy to escape this time heading for South America. He lived in Buenos Aires from 1885 until 1889, resuming publication of La Questione Sociale and spreading anarchist ideas among the Italian émigré community there, he was involved in the founding of the first militant workers' union in Argentina, the bakers union, left an anarchist impression in the workers' movements there for years to come. Returning to Europe in 1889, Malatesta first published a newspaper called L'Associazione in Nice, remaining there until he was once again forced to flee to London; the late 1890s were a time of social turmoil in Italy, marked by bad harvests, rising prices, peasant revolts. Strikes of workers were met by demands for repression and for a time it seemed as though government authority was hanging by a thread. Malatesta found the situation irresistible and early in 1898 he returned to the port city of Ancona to take part in the blossoming anarchist movement among the dockworkers there.

Malatesta was soon arrested. From jail Malatesta took a hard line against participation in elections on behalf of liberal and socialist politicians, contradicting Sav

1890 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship

The 1890 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship was the fourth staging of the All-Ireland hurling championship since its establishment by the Gaelic Athletic Association in 1887. The championship began on 3 August 1890 and ended on 16 November 1890. Dublin were the defending champions, they were defeated in the provincial series. Cork won the title, after launching an objection having been beaten by Wexford in the final. A total of eleven teams contested the championship, one more than the previous year; the Leinster championship was contested by five teams. Kildare made a return to the championship after a one-year absence, they failed to field a team and gave a walkover to their opponents. All six counties entered a team in the Munster championship, however, a number of walkovers meant that only two games were played. Once again, the hurling championship was not contested in either Ulster; the Leinster quarter-final between Wexford and Kilkenny was played in Waterford. It was the first time. In the provincial championships Cork win their first Munster title and Wexford win their first Leinster title.

The All-Ireland final between Cork and Wexford was the first championship meeting between the two teams. The game was unfinished and Cork awarded the title after Cork withdraw on the grounds of excessively rough play by the opposition. Corry, The GAA Book of Lists. Donegan, The Complete Handbook of Gaelic Games. 1890 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship results

Wuxi New Area

Wuxi New District, abbreviated as WND, is a district of Wuxi in Jiangsu Province. It has been viewed as the economic engine behind the opening-up of Wuxi and a center of scientific innovation and industrial transformation. Known as Wuxi National Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone, WND was founded in 1992 as an industrial zone to attract large foreign companies. After undergoing some administrative changes in 1995, 2002 and 2005, it has now six sub-districts---Wangzhuang, Jiangxi, Meicun and Xin'an, is administrating the Wuxi Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone, Wuxi International Technology Park, Wuxi Airport Industrial Park, China Industrial Expo Park, China Wu Culture Expo Park, International Education and Living Community; the Wuxi New District covers a total area of 220 square kilometers and a population of 600,000. WND is located in the suburb of Wuxi city in southeastern part of East China's Jiangsu province, between Shanghai and Nanjing, it lies within China's most industrialized area.

The district enjoys convenient transportation with an airport. It borders a great highway network and top international ports. Wuxi New District has an area of 218.72 square kilometres and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 550,000 inhabitants. Among them 319,000 are registered population; the 2010 Census shows that the area has a migrant population of 345,000, including 2,857 foreign nationals. According to Wuxi Almanac 2014, by the end of 2013, Wuxi New District has 112,651 households and a permanent population of 332,239. While the migrant people have reached 362,434, including 5,849 foreign nationals. WND has built up a pillar industry in equipment manufacturing, cultivated emerging industries in micro-electronics, Internet of things, new materials and bio-pharmaceuticals, three characteristic industries namely airport logistics, software & service outsourcing and cultural industry. WND has taken the second place in comprehensive evaluation among national development parks in Jiangsu for nine consecutive years.

In 2014, its GDP reached 126.1 billion yuan. The industrial output value above designated size totaled at 287.4 billion yuan. The Wuxi New District generates 15 percent of Wuxi's GDP with 4.6 percent land of the city and 6.8 percent of its population. As of 2012, the 20th anniversary of its establishment, WND has won 28 national-level titles for its brands and bases, including recognition as a national innovation park, national ecological industry demonstration zone and national pilot zone for intellectual property. According to the latest updates on the official website of Wuxi New District, high-end equipment manufacturing industry is the economic engine of WND; the district has more than 400 equipment manufacturing enterprises operating in fields including the whole machine equipment, auto parts, energy saving and environmental protection equipment, engineering machinery, mechanical and electrical equipment. It is the first industrial cluster in WND with the total output value exceeding 100 billion yuan.

In November 2009, the State Council approved Wuxi as a national innovation and demonstration area for wireless sensor network. In 2013, the output value of Internet of Things core industry in Wuxi New District exceeded 70 billion yuan, accounting for 38.4 percent of the output value of the whole high-tech industry in the district. Wuxi New District has formed a cloud computing industrial distribution, featuring hardware and application; the new material industry in Wuxi New District takes metal material, optoelectronic material and nonmetallic composite as its development priorities. Leading enterprises in the field such as Osram and Sharp are settled in the district. Wuxi New District is growing up to be a biological medicine industry cluster involving life sensor, biological pharmacy, medical instruments and health services. More than 200 biological medicine companies, some of which are leading giants in their respective fields worldwide, have got their branches in the district. WND's annual industrial output from the biological medicine industry was 14.3 billion yuan in 2013.

Wuxi was made the southern base of China's microelectronics industry during the 1980s. The overall size of its integrated circuit industry now takes up 25 percent of the country's total microelectronics industry. WND is the most conducive area in Wuxi for the development of integrated circuit industry with an industrial scale accounting for more than 70 percent of the city's total in the sector; the district ranks first in the development pace of the microelectronics industry in China as far as total industrial output and processing technology level and attracting professional talent are concerned. WND is one of the eight major integrated circuit design industrialization bases approved by the State Ministry of Science and Technology; the microelectronics industry operating carrier in the district includes three professional parks---the National Integrated Circuit Design Park, the Information Industry Science and Technology Park and Integrated Circuit Industry Park. WND is home to around 1,000 software and service outsourcing enterprises, including 25 world's top 500 enterprises, 26 global service outsourcing top 100 companies, such as Microsoft, Oracle, IBM, NTT data, Pactera, ChinaSoft International and Unissoft.

In 2013, WND's output value of software and service outsourcing industry was 61 billion yuan. Wuxi New District, with Shuofang International Airport located in the area, houses an industrial logistics cluster involving airport logistics, newport logistics and high-tech logistics. A number of lo