Happiness is used in the context of mental or emotional states, including positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. It is used in the context of life satisfaction, subjective well-being, eudaimonia and well-being. Since the 1960s, happiness research has been conducted in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including gerontology, social psychology and medical research and happiness economics.'Happiness' is the subject of debate on usage and meaning, on possible differences in understanding by culture. The word is used in several related areas: current experience, including the feeling of an emotion such as pleasure or joy, or a more general sense of'emotional condition as a whole'. For instance Daniel Kahneman has defined happiness as "what I experience here and now"; this usage is prevalent in dictionary definitions of happiness. Appraisal of life satisfaction, such as of quality of life. For instance Ruut Veenhoven has defined happiness as "overall appreciation of one's life as-a-whole."
Subjective well-being, which includes measures of life satisfaction. For instance Sonja Lyubomirsky has described happiness as “the experience of joy, contentment, or positive well-being, combined with a sense that one's life is good and worthwhile.” Eudaimonia, sometimes translated as flourishing. These uses can give different results. For instance the correlation of income levels has been shown to be substantial with life satisfaction measures, but to be far weaker, at least above a certain threshold, with affect measures; the implied meaning of the word may vary depending on context, qualifying happiness as a polyseme and a fuzzy concept. Some users continue to use the word because of its convening power. In the Nicomachean Ethics, written in 350 BCE, Aristotle stated that happiness is the only thing that humans desire for their own sake, unlike riches, health or friendship, he observed that men sought riches, or honour, or health not only for their own sake but in order to be happy. Note that eudaimonia, the term we translate as "happiness", is for Aristotle an activity rather than an emotion or a state.
Thus understood, the happy life is the good life, that is, a life in which a person fulfills human nature in an excellent way. Aristotle argues that the good life is the life of excellent rational activity, he arrives at this claim with the Function Argument. If it's right, every living thing has a function, that which it uniquely does. For humans, Aristotle contends, our function is to reason, since it is that alone that we uniquely do, and performing one's function well, or excellently, is good. Thus, according to Aristotle, the life of excellent rational activity is the happy life. Aristotle does not leave it at that, however, he argues. This second best life is the life of moral virtue. Many ethicists make arguments for how humans should behave, either individually or collectively, based on the resulting happiness of such behavior. Utilitarians, such as John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, advocated the greatest happiness principle as a guide for ethical behavior. Friedrich Nietzsche savagely critiqued the English Utilitarians' focus on attaining the greatest happiness, stating that "Man does not strive for happiness, only the Englishman does."
Nietzsche meant that making happiness one's ultimate goal and the aim of one's existence, in his words "makes one contemptible." Nietzsche instead yearned for a culture that would set higher, more difficult goals than "mere happiness." He introduced the quasi-dystopic figure of the "last man" as a kind of thought experiment against the utilitarians and happiness-seekers. These small, "last men" who seek after only their own pleasure and health, avoiding all danger, difficulty, struggle are meant to seem contemptible to Nietzsche's reader. Nietzsche instead wants us to consider the value of what is difficult, what can only be earned through struggle, difficulty and thus to come to see the affirmative value suffering and unhappiness play in creating everything of great worth in life, including all the highest achievements of human culture, not least of all philosophy. Darrin McMahon claims that there has been a transition over time from emphasis on the happiness of virtue to the virtue of happiness.
Happiness may be said to be a relative concept. Not all cultures seek to maximise happiness, some cultures are averse to happiness. Happiness forms a central theme of Buddhist teachings. For ultimate freedom from suffering, the Noble Eightfold Path leads its practitioner to Nirvana, a state of everlasting peace. Ultimate happiness is only achieved by overcoming craving in all forms. More mundane forms of happiness, such as acquiring wealth and maintaining good friendships, are recognized as worthy goals for lay people. Buddhism encourages the generation of loving kindness and compassion, the desire for the happiness and welfare of all beings. In Advaita Vedanta, the ultimate goal of life is happiness, in the sense that duality between Atman and Brahman is transcended and one realizes oneself to be the Self in all. Patanjali, author of the Yoga Sutras, wrote quite exhaustively on the psychological and ontological roots of bliss; the Chinese Confucian thinker Mencius, who had sought to give advice to ruthless political leaders during China's Warring States period, was convinced that the mind played a mediating role between the "lesser self" and the "greater self", that getting the pr
Leroy Eliot "Slam" Stewart was an American jazz double bass player whose trademark style was his ability to bow the bass and hum or sing an octave higher. He was a violinist before switching to bass at the age of 20. Stewart was born in Englewood, New Jersey, on September 21, 1914, began playing string bass while attending Dwight Morrow High School. While attending the Boston Conservatory, he heard Ray Perry singing along with his violin; this gave him the inspiration to follow suit with his bass. In 1937 Stewart teamed with Slim Gaillard to form the novelty jazz act Slam; the duo's biggest hit was "Flat Foot Floogie" in 1938. Stewart found regular session work throughout the 1940s with Lester Young, Fats Waller, Coleman Hawkins, Erroll Garner, Art Tatum, Johnny Guarnieri, Red Norvo, Don Byas, Benny Goodman, Beryl Booker. One of the most famous sessions he played on took place in 1945 when Stewart played with Dizzy Gillespie's group. Out of those sessions came some of the classics of bebop such as "Groovin' High" and "Dizzy Atmosphere".
He taught at Binghamton University in Binghamton, New York, at Yale University. He died on December 1987 in Binghamton. Slam Stewart Slam Bam Slamboree Fish Scales Two Big Mice Dialogue Shut Yo' Mouth! with Major Holley The Cats Are Swingin' Slipped Disc, 1945–46 Art Tatum Live 1951–1953 Volume 6 Hellzapoppin' Almost Married Boy! What a Girl! Stewart at Allmusic A Slam Stewart Biography www.myspace.com/slamstewart - Fan page with music, more Slam Stewart and other jazz musicians on Don Gabor's Continental Records Slam Stewart solo transcription on "I Got Rhythm" at Back Beat Magazine
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl "Fatha" Hines, was an American jazz pianist and bandleader. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of jazz piano and, according to one major source, is "one of a small number of pianists whose playing shaped the history of jazz"; the trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie wrote, "The piano is the basis of modern harmony. This little guy came out of Earl Hines, he changed the style of the piano. You can find the roots of Herbie Hancock, all the guys who came after that. If it hadn't been for Earl Hines blazing the path for the next generation to come, it's no telling where or how they would be playing now. There were individual variations but the style of... the modern piano came from Earl Hines."The pianist Lennie Tristano said, "Earl Hines is the only one of us capable of creating real jazz and real swing when playing all alone." Horace Silver said, "He has a unique style. No one can get that sound, no other pianist". Erroll Garner said, "When you talk about greatness, you talk about Art Tatum and Earl Hines".
Count Basie said that Hines was "the greatest piano player in the world". Earl Hines was born in Duquesne, Pennsylvania, 12 miles from the center of Pittsburgh, in 1903, his father, Joseph Hines, played cornet and was the leader of the Eureka Brass Band in Pittsburgh, his stepmother was a church organist. Hines intended to follow his father on cornet, but "blowing" hurt him behind the ears, whereas the piano did not; the young Hines took lessons in playing classical piano. By the age of eleven he was playing the organ in his Baptist church, he had a "good ear and a good memory" and could replay songs after hearing them in theaters and park concerts: "I'd be playing songs from these shows months before the song copies came out. That astonished a lot of people and they'd ask where I heard these numbers and I'd tell them at the theatre where my parents had taken me." Hines said that he was playing piano around Pittsburgh "before the word'jazz' was invented". With his father's approval, Hines left home at the age of 17 to take a job playing piano with Lois Deppe and His Symphonian Serenaders in the Liederhaus, a Pittsburgh nightclub.
He got his board, two meals a day, $15 a week. Deppe, a well-known baritone concert artist who sang both classical and popular songs used the young Hines as his concert accompanist and took him on his concert trips to New York. In 1921 Hines and Deppe became the first African Americans to perform on radio. Hines's first recordings were accompanying Deppe – four sides recorded for Gennett Records in 1923, still in the early days of sound recording. Only two of these were issued, one of, a Hines composition, "Congaine", "a keen snappy foxtrot", which featured a solo by Hines, he entered the studio again with Deppe a month to record spirituals and popular songs, including "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" and "For the Last Time Call Me Sweetheart". In 1925, after much family debate, Hines moved to Chicago, Illinois the world's jazz capital, the home of Jelly Roll Morton and King Oliver. Hines started in Elite No. 2 Club but soon joined Carroll Dickerson's band, with whom he toured on the Pantages Theatre Circuit to Los Angeles and back.
Hines met Louis Armstrong in the poolroom of the Black Musicians' Union, local 208, on State and 39th in Chicago. Hines was 21, Armstrong 24, they played the union's piano together. Armstrong was astounded by Hines's avant-garde "trumpet-style" piano playing using dazzlingly fast octaves so that on none-too-perfect upright pianos "they could hear me out front". Richard Cook wrote in Jazz Encyclopedia that most dramatic departure from what other pianists were playing was his approach to the underlying pulse: he would charge against the metre of the piece being played, accent off-beats, introduce sudden stops and brief silences. In other hands this might sound clumsy or all over the place but Hines could keep his bearings with uncanny resilience. Armstrong and Hines shared a car. Armstrong joined Hines in Carroll Dickerson's band at the Sunset Cafe. In 1927, this became Armstrong's band under the musical direction of Hines; that year, Armstrong revamped his Okeh Records recording-only band, Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, hired Hines as the pianist, replacing his wife, Lil Hardin Armstrong, on the instrument.
Armstrong and Hines recorded what are regarded as some of the most important jazz records made.... with Earl Hines arriving on piano, Armstrong was approaching the stature of a concerto soloist, a role he would play more or less throughout the next decade, which makes these final small-group sessions something like a reluctant farewell to jazz's first golden age. Since Hines is magnificent on these discs the results seem like eavesdropping on great men speaking quietly among themselves. There is nothing in jazz finer or more moving than the playing on "West End Blues", "Tight Like This", "Beau Koo Jack" and "Muggles"; the Sunset Cafe closed in 1927. Hines and the drummer Zutty Singleton agreed that they would become the "Unholy Three" – they would "stick together and not play for anyone unless the three of us were hired", but as Louis Armstrong and His Stompers, they ran into difficulties trying to establish their own venue, the Warwick Hall Club. Hines went to New York and returned to find that Armstrong and Singleton had rejoined the rival Dickerson band at the new Savoy Ballro
Ella Jane Fitzgerald was an American jazz singer sometimes referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, intonation, a "horn-like" improvisational ability in her scat singing. After a tumultuous adolescence, Fitzgerald found stability in musical success with the Chick Webb Orchestra, performing across the country but most associated with the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem, her rendition of the nursery rhyme "A-Tisket, A-Tasket" helped boost both her and Webb to national fame. After taking over the band when Webb died, Fitzgerald left it behind in 1942 to start her solo career, her manager was Moe Gale, co-founder of the Savoy, until she turned the rest of her career over to Norman Granz, who founded Verve Records to produce new records by Fitzgerald. With Verve she recorded some of her more noted works her interpretations of the Great American Songbook. While Fitzgerald appeared in movies and as a guest on popular television shows in the second half of the twentieth century, her musical collaborations with Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, The Ink Spots were some of her most notable acts outside of her solo career.
These partnerships produced some of her best-known songs such as "Dream a Little Dream of Me", "Cheek to Cheek", "Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall", "It Don't Mean a Thing". In 1993, she ended her nearly 60-year career with her last public performance. Three years she died at the age of 79 after years of declining health, her accolades included fourteen Grammy Awards, the National Medal of Arts, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Fitzgerald was born on April 1917, in Newport News, Virginia, she was the daughter of Temperance "Tempie" Henry. Her parents lived together for at least two and a half years after she was born. In the early 1920s, Fitzgerald's mother and her new partner, a Portuguese immigrant named Joseph Da Silva, moved to Yonkers, in Westchester County, New York, her half-sister, Frances Da Silva, was born in 1923. By 1925, Fitzgerald and her family had moved to a poor Italian area, she began her formal education at the age of six and was an outstanding student, moving through a variety of schools before attending Benjamin Franklin Junior High School in 1929.
Starting in third grade, Fitzgerald admired Earl Snakehips Tucker. She performed for her peers on the way at lunchtime, she and her family were Methodists and were active in the Bethany African Methodist Episcopal Church, where she attended worship services, Bible study, Sunday school. The church provided Fitzgerald with her earliest experiences in music. Fitzgerald listened to jazz recordings by Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby, The Boswell Sisters, she idolized the Boswell Sisters' lead singer Connee Boswell saying, "My mother brought home one of her records, I fell in love with it... I tried so hard to sound just like her."In 1932, when Fitzgerald was fifteen, her mother died from injuries received in a car accident. Her stepfather took care of her until April 1933; this swift change in her circumstances, reinforced by what Fitzgerald biographer Stuart Nicholson describes as rumors of "ill treatment" by her stepfather, leaves him to speculate that Da Silva might have abused her. Fitzgerald began skipping school, her grades suffered.
She worked as a lookout with a Mafia-affiliated numbers runner. She never talked publicly about this time in her life; when the authorities caught up with her, she was placed in the Colored Orphan Asylum in Riverdale in the Bronx. When the orphanage proved too crowded, she was moved to the New York Training School for Girls, a state reformatory school in Hudson, New York. While she seems to have survived during 1933 and 1934 in part from singing on the streets of Harlem, Fitzgerald made her most important debut at age 17 on November 21, 1934, in one of the earliest Amateur Nights at the Apollo Theater, she had intended to go on stage and dance, but she was intimidated by a local dance duo called the Edwards Sisters and opted to sing instead. Performing in the style of Connee Boswell, she sang "Judy" and "The Object of My Affection" and won first prize, she won the chance to perform at the Apollo for a week but because of her disheveled appearance, the theater never gave her that part of her prize.
In January 1935, Fitzgerald won the chance to perform for a week with the Tiny Bradshaw band at the Harlem Opera House. She was introduced to drummer and bandleader Chick Webb, who had asked his signed singer Charlie Linton to help find him a female singer. Although Webb was "reluctant to sign her...because she was gawky and unkempt, a'diamond in the rough,'" he offered her the opportunity to test with his band when they played a dance at Yale University. Met with approval by both audiences and her fellow musicians, Fitzgerald was asked to join Webb's orchestra and gained acclaim as part of the group's performances at Harlem's Savoy Ballroom. Fitzgerald recorded several hit songs, including "Love and Kisses" and " You'll Have to Swing It", but it was her 1938 version of the nursery rhyme, "A-Tisket, A-Tasket", a song she co-wrote, that brought her public acclaim. "A-Tisket, A-Tasket" became a major hit on the radio and was one of the biggest-selling records of the decade. Webb died of spinal tuberculosis on June 16, 1939, his band was renamed Ella and Her Famous Orchestra with Fitzgerald taking on the role of bandleader.
She recorded nearly 150 songs with Webb's orchestra between 1935 and 1942. In The New York Times obituary o
The Allegheny River is a 325-mile long headwater stream of the Ohio River in western Pennsylvania and New York, United States. The Allegheny River runs from its headwaters just below the middle of Pennsylvania's northern border northwesterly into New York in a zigzag southwesterly across the border and through Western Pennsylvania to join the Monongahela River at the Forks of the Ohio on the "Point" of Point State Park in Downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Allegheny River is, by volume, the main headstream of both the Mississippi Rivers. The Allegheny was considered to be the upper Ohio River by both Native Americans and European settlers; the shallow river has been made navigable upstream from Pittsburgh to East Brady by a series of locks and dams constructed in the early 20th century. A 24-mile long portion of the upper river in Warren and McKean counties of Pennsylvania and Cattaraugus County in New York is the Allegheny Reservoir known as Lake Kinzua, created by the erection of the Kinzua Dam in 1965 for flood control.
The name of the river comes from one of a number of Delaware Indian phrases which are homophones of the English name, with varying translations. The name Allegheny comes from Lenape welhik hane or oolikhanna, which means'best flowing river of the hills' or'beautiful stream'. There is a Lenape legend of a tribe called "Allegewi"; the following account of the origin of the name Allegheny was given in 1780 by Moravian missionary David Zeisberger: "All this land and region, stretching as far as the creeks and waters that flow into the Alleghene the Delawares called Alligewinenk, which means'a land into which they came from distant parts'. The river itself, however, is called Alligewi Sipo; the whites have made Alleghene out of this, the Six Nations calling the river the Ohio."Indians, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Allegheny and Ohio rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohiːyo'. The Geographic Names Information System lists O-hi-o as variant names.
The river is called Ohi:'i:o` in the Seneca language. In New York, areas around the river are named with the alternate spelling Allegany in reference to the river. Port Allegany, located along the river in Pennsylvania near the border with New York follows this pattern; the Allegheny River rises in north central Pennsylvania, on Cobb Hill in Alleghany Township in north central Potter County, 8 miles south of the New York border and a few miles northwest of the eastern triple divide. The stream flows south and passes under Pennsylvania Route 49 11 miles northeast of Coudersport where a historical marker that declares the start of the river is located. Cobb Hill is about a mile north; the stream flows southwest paralleling Route 49 to Coudersport. It continues west to Port Allegany turns north into western New York, looping westward across southern Cattaraugus County for 30 miles, past Portville, Olean and Salamanca and flowing through Seneca Indian Nation lands close to the northern boundary of Allegany State Park before re-entering northwestern Pennsylvania within the Allegheny Reservoir just east of the Warren-McKean county line, approx.
10 miles northeast of Warren. It flows in a broad zigzag course southwest across Western Pennsylvania. South of Franklin it turns southeast across Clarion County in a meandering course turns again southwest across Armstrong County, flowing past Kittanning, Ford City and Freeport; the river enters both Allegheny and Westmoreland counties, the Pittsburgh suburbs, the City of Pittsburgh from the northeast. It passes the North Side, downtown Pittsburgh, Point State Park; the Allegheny joins with the Monongahela River at the "Point" in downtown Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River. The river is 325 miles long, running through the U. S. states of New Pennsylvania. It drains a rural dissected plateau of 11,580 square miles in the northern Allegheny Plateau, providing the northeastern most drainage in the watershed of the Mississippi River, its tributaries reach to within 8 miles of Lake Erie in southwestern New York. Water from the Allegheny River flows into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
The Allegheny Valley has been one of the most productive areas of fossil fuel extraction in United States history, with its extensive deposits of coal and natural gas. In its upper reaches, the Allegheny River is joined from the south by Potato Creek 1.7 miles downstream of Coryville and from the north by Olean Creek at Olean, New York. Tunungwant "Tuna" Creek joins the river from the south in New York. After re-entering Pennsylvania, the river is joined from the east by Kinzua Creek 10 miles upstream of Warren.
52nd Street (Manhattan)
52nd Street is a 1.9-mile long one-way street traveling west to east across Midtown Manhattan, New York City. A short section of it was known as the city's center of jazz performance from the 1930s to the 1950s. Following the repeal of Prohibition in 1933, 52nd Street replaced 133rd street as "Swing Street" of the city; the blocks of 52nd Street between Fifth Avenue and Seventh Avenue became renowned for the abundance of jazz clubs and lively street life. The street was convenient to musicians playing on Broadway and the'legitimate' nightclubs and was the site of a CBS studio. Musicians who played for others in the early evening played for themselves on 52nd Street. In its heyday from 1930 through the early 1950s, 52nd Street clubs hosted such jazz legends as Miles Davis, Harry Gibson, Dizzy Gillespie, Billie Holiday, Nat Jaffe, Marian McPartland, Thelonious Monk, Charlie Parker, Louis Prima, Art Tatum, Fats Waller, Trummy Young, many more. Although musicians from all schools performed there, after Minton's Playhouse in uptown Harlem, 52nd Street was the second most important place for the dissemination of bebop.
In fact, a tune called "52nd Street Theme" by Thelonious Monk became a bebop anthem and jazz standard. Every great jazz player and singer of the era performed at clubs: 52nd, between 6th & 7th Kelly's Stable, 137 W 52 The Hickory House, 144 W 5252nd, between 5th & 6th 21 Club, 21 W 52 Leon & Eddie's, 33 W 52 Famous Door35 W 52 66 W 52 201 W 52 56 W 52 Note: The Cotton Club opened in 1943 on the site occupied by the Famous Door. By the late 1940s the jazz scene began moving elsewhere around the city and urban renewal began to take hold of the street. By the 1960s, most of the legendary clubs fell into disrepair; the last jazz club there closed its doors in 1968. Today, the street is full of banks and department stores and shows little trace of its jazz history; the block from 5th to 6th Avenues is formally co-named "Swing Street" and one block west is called "W. C. Handys Place"; the 21 Club is the sole surviving club on 52nd Street that existed during the 1940s. The venue for the original Birdland at 1674 Broadway, which came into existence in 1949, is now a "gentlemen's club."
The current Birdland is between 8th and 9th Avenues. This is a list of notable places within one block of 52nd Street; the route begins at the West Side Highway. Opposite the intersection is the New York Passenger Ship Terminal and the Hudson River Hustler Club on south side De Witt Clinton Park on north (the whole west side neighborhood of Clinton derives its name from the park Studios of The Daily Show broadcast The section between Eleventh and Tenth Avenues is signed "Joe Hovarth Way" in tribute to Joseph Hovarth who located the Police Athletic League William J. Duncan Center on the block after moving from its original location; the Duncan Center is named for a patrolman, shot while chasing a stolen car in the neighborhood on May 17, 1930. Closed Midtown Branch of Saint Vincent's Catholic Medical Center The Manhattan School – Public School 35, special ed. Radio City Station Post Office The Link, 43-story, 215–unit, glass tower condominium, opened in 2007 on site of the S. I. R. Building at 310 W 52nd, known as the Palm Gardens Building.
S. I. R. Occupied the building from 1974 until 2004. Cheetah, the well-known club that had once been at 53rd and Broadway, occupied the Palm Gardens building from 1968 to 1974. Cheetah became a popular Latin-American dance club that helped popularize Salsa to mainstream America. Neil Simon Theatre August Wilson Theatre Gallagher's Steak House Novotel 26-floor, 272 ft hotel opened in 1984 1675 Broadway - 35-floor, 485 ft office building opened in 1990 Sheraton Manhattan Hotel at Times Square, 22-story, 225 ft opened in 1962 Seventh to Sixth is signed W. C. Handy's Place AXA Center, 54-floor, 752 ft office tower opened in 1986 Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers, 51-story, 501 ft opened in 1962 Flatotel New York City, 46-floor, 475 ft Flatotel that opened in 1992 and is the street's Credit Lyonnais Building 45-floor, 609 ft office building that opened in 1964 1285 Avenue of the Americas, 42-story, 545 ft office building In the middle of block between Sixth and Seventh Avenues is a pedestrian corridor named by the city "Sixth and a Half Avenue", which runs from 51st to 57th Streets.
Sixth Avenue to Fifth Avenue is signed "Swing Street". AXA Financial Center 43-story, 571 ft completed in 1963, it has a large Thomas Hart Benton mural in lobby. CBS Building, headquarters of the network and popularly referred to as "Black Rock" 31 West 52nd Street 30-floor, 411 ft completed in 1986 for the E. F. Hutton headqu