Erzurum is a city in eastern Anatolia. It eponymous capital of Erzurum Province, it is situated 1757 meters above sea level. Erzurum had a population of 361,235 in the 2000 census, increasing to 367,250 by 2010; as Ancient Theodosiopolis in Armenia, the former bishopric remains. The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif, a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period. Erzurum hosted the 2011 Winter Universiade; the city was known in Armenian as Karno K'aghak', meaning city of Karin, to distinguish it from the district of Karin. After the Arab conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā. During Roman times, Erzurum was named Theodosiopolis, or – in Armenia or – in Cappadocia to distinguish is from several namesakes, it got its present name after its conquest by the Seljuks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. A neighboring commercial city named Artze was sacked by the Seljuk Turks in 1048/49, its Armenian and other Christian inhabitants moved to Theodosiopolis, which they began calling "Artsn Rum" to distinguish it from their former residence.

After the Arab conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian name Karno K'aghak', meaning "Karin City", to distinguish it from the district of Karin. Some older sources derive the name Erzurum from the Arabic Arḍ ar-Rūm'land of the Rûm'. In the words of Parvaneh Pourshariati / Encyclopædia Iranica: In fact, the powerful noble family of the Kamsarakan in Armenia traced their genealogy to the Iranian Kārin Pahlav family of the Arsacid period, to one Pērōzmat; the Armenian Kārins, the Kamsarakan, remained a powerful dynastic family in the region, directly involved in the history of the Byzantines and the Sasanians, in Armenian political sphere up to the 14th century, carrying the surname of Pahlavuni, in commemoration of their origins. They lent their name to important localities, so that ancient Theodosiopolis was named Kārin, before the name was changed to Erzurum in centuries. During the Georgian rule city was called as Karnu-kalaki.

The surroundings of Erzurum at the Urartian period belonged to Diauehi. Erzurum existed under the Armenian name of Karin. During the reigns of the Artaxiad and Arsacid kings of Armenia, Karin served as the capital of the eponymous canton of Karin, in the province Bardzr Hayk'. After the partition of Armenia between the Eastern Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD, the city passed into the hands of the Romans, they fortified the city and renamed it Theodosiopolis, after Emperor Theodosius I. As the chief military stronghold along the eastern border of the empire, Theodosiopolis held a important strategic location and was fiercely contested in wars between the Byzantines and Persians. Emperors Anastasius I and Justinian I both refortified the city and built new defenses during their reigns. Theodosiopolis was conquered by the Umayyad general Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik in 700/701, it became the capital of the emirate of Ḳālīḳalā and was used as a base for raids into Byzantine territory. Though only an island of Arab power within Christian Armenian-populated territory, the native population was a reliable client of the Caliph's governors.

As the power of the Caliphate declined, the resurgence of Byzantium began, the local Armenian leaders preferred the city to be under the control of powerless Muslim emirs rather than powerful Byzantine emperors. In 931, again in 949, Byzantine forces led by Theophilos Kourkouas, grandfather of the future emperor John I Tzimiskes, captured Theodosiopolis, its Arab population was expelled and the city was resettled by Greeks and Armenians. Emperor Basil II rebuilt the city and its defenses in 1018 with the help of the local Armenian population. In 1071, after the decisive battle at Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks took possession of Theodosiopolis; the Saltukids were rulers of an Anatolian beylik centered in Erzurum, who ruled from 1071 to 1202. Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200. Theodosiopolis repelled many attacks and military campaigns by the Seljuks and Georgians until 1201 when the city and the province was conquered by the Seljuk sultan Süleymanshah II.

Erzen-Erzurum fell to the Mongol siege in 1242, the city was looted and devastated. After the fall of the Sultanate of Rum in early 14th century, it became an administrative province of the Ilkhanate, on the city was under Empire of Trebizond occupation for a while around the 1310s. Became part of the Çoban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, empire of Timur Lenk and White Sheep Turkmen, it subsequently passed to Safavid Persia, until the Ottomans under Selim I in 1514 conquered it through the Battle of Chaldiran. During the Ottoman Empire reign, the city served as the main base of Ottoman military power in the region, it served as the capital of the eyalet of Erzurum. Early in the seventeenth century, the province was threatened by Safavid Persia and a revolt by the province governor Abaza Mehmed Pasha; this revolt was combined with Jelali Revolts, backed by Iran and lasted until 1628. In 1733, the Irania

Cranbourne Business and Enterprise College

Cranbourne is a large co-educational secondary school in Basingstoke, northern Hampshire, England. The school serves Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 students between the ages of 11 and 16; the school follows the National Curriculum. A vibrant exciting, vital and supportive environment in which productive learning can flourish and each individual is able to achieve and thrive. Cranbourne was founded as the Cranbourne Bi-Lateral School in 1967 as a bilateral school for 11- to 18-year-olds, on the site of a former nursery, it became a comprehensive school in 1972 following the establishment of Queen Mary's Sixth Form College, as Cranbourne Business and Enterprise College in September 2004. Cranbourne became the first of two Business and Enterprise Colleges in Hampshire in 2004 and features scola architecture refurbished in 2006. CBEC features a small swimming pool and a 3-story Science block; the School changed its name to Cranbourne in September 2018 introducing Uniform. Cranbourne introduced a new House System and Vertical Tutor Groups in September 2018.

Cranbourne students are members of one of our four Houses. Each House has House Captains, Sports Captains and House Mentors to encourage and support every student; each House has a Head of House and a Cranbourne Parent Partner overseeing each student’s progress and pastoral care. Cranbourne’s four Houses are dedicated to local people, who have achieved amazing things by following their passions and interests, they are true role models for Cranbourne students. At the end of the 2015-2016 academic year, Headmistress Betty Elkins resigned and Jane Aplin took over as Head. There are plans to merge the students of Fort Hill Community School with CBEC's due to low numbers at Fort Hill. At the county councils decision in June 2017, it was recommended and approved that Fort Hill will close on 31 August 2017. All Fort Hill pupils will start at Cranbourne in September 2017. Parents who received a place at Fort Hill for their child have been automatically given a place at Cranbourne. On 11 June 2009, a fire broke out after school hours in the upper floor of G block, damaging three classrooms including the main Art classroom.

Nobody was hurt in the incident After investigation, it was found that the fire started by sunlight reflecting off a mirror in a storage cupboard. The block re-opened in November 2009. Official website


GeoLotto was a owned, map-based lottery game operating in the United Kingdom. GeoLotto known as Geosweep, was created in 2010 by London based technology company, Geonomics; the idea started with brothers Henry and James Oakes who secured funding for a prototype location-based betting website funded by a £2 million investment. Tipp24, a publicly-listed company and lottery specialist, invested a significant amount into the product in 2012. In 2013 it was revealed that the Atlantic Lottery Corporation spent nearly C$2 million promoting Geosweep before cancelling the game. Despite having a "daily $250,000 prize" no one won it in over a year of draws. Geosweep's parent company was paid $8.7 million. Players must be at least 18 years old to play; the games may only be played by residents of the UK. The games were web-based, requiring an Internet Browser to play. Games that operated under the GeoLotto brand: Usually referred to as'GeoLotto', this game was the flagship product of the site; the premise of the game was that a player could select squares to own out of a grid of squares overlaid onto a satellite representation of Great Britain.

Each Square had an equal probability chance to win one of the various prizes assigned randomly at the end of the game. A Square was valued at £1 a week; the draw conducted every Saturday with the results announced at 11 pm. Players could enter by paying for a Square for a fixed number of weeks or they could subscribe for ongoing entry until they decide to cancel. GeoLotto was regulated by the UK Gambling Commission, certified by GamCare and carried the'Verified by Norton' tag