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An escapement is a mechanical linkage in mechanical watches and clocks that gives impulses to the timekeeping element and periodically releases the gear train to move forward, advancing the clock's hands. The impulse action transfers energy to the clock's timekeeping element to replace the energy lost to friction during its cycle and keep the timekeeper oscillating; the escapement is driven by force from a coiled spring or a suspended weight, transmitted through the timepiece's gear train. Each swing of the pendulum or balance wheel releases a tooth of the escapement's escape wheel, allowing the clock's gear train to advance or "escape" by a fixed amount; this regular periodic advancement moves the clock's hands forward at a steady rate. At the same time the tooth gives the timekeeping element a push, before another tooth catches on the escapement's pallet, returning the escapement to its "locked" state; the sudden stopping of the escapement's tooth is what generates the characteristic "ticking" sound heard in operating mechanical clocks and watches.

The first mechanical escapement, the verge escapement, was invented in medieval Europe during the 13th century, was the crucial innovation which led to the development of the mechanical clock. The design of the escapement has a large effect on a timepiece's accuracy, improvements in escapement design drove improvements in time measurement during the era of mechanical timekeeping from the 13th through the 19th century. Escapements are used in other mechanisms besides timepieces. Manual typewriters used escapements to step the carriage. A liquid-driven escapement was used for a washstand design in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world Ptolemaic Egypt, while liquid-driven escapements were applied to clockworks beginning in Tang dynasty China and culminating during the Song dynasty; the importance of the escapement in the history of technology is that it was the key invention that made the all-mechanical clock possible. The invention of the first all-mechanical escapement, the verge escapement, in 13th-century Europe initiated a change in timekeeping methods from continuous processes, such as the flow of water in water clocks, to repetitive oscillatory processes, such as the swing of pendulums, which could yield more accuracy.

Oscillating timekeepers are used in every modern clock. The earliest liquid-driven escapement was described by the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium in his technical treatise Pneumatics as part of a washstand. A counterweighted spoon, supplied by a water tank, tips over in a basin when full, releasing a spherical piece of pumice in the process. Once the spoon has emptied, it is pulled up again by the counterweight, closing the door on the pumice by the tightening string. Remarkably, Philo's comment that "its construction is similar to that of clocks" indicates that such escapement mechanisms were integrated in ancient water clocks. In China, the Tang dynasty Buddhist monk Yi Xing along with government official Liang Lingzan made the escapement in 723 to the workings of a water-powered armillary sphere and clock drive, the world's first clockwork escapement. Song dynasty horologists Zhang Sixun and Su Song duly applied escapement devices for their astronomical clock towers, before the technology stagnated and retrogressed.

According to historian Derek J. de Solla Price, the Chinese escapement spread west and was the source for Western escapement technology. According to Ahmad Y. Hassan, a mercury escapement in a Spanish work for Alfonso X in 1277 can be traced back to earlier Arabic sources. Knowledge of these mercury escapements may have spread through Europe with translations of Arabic and Spanish texts. However, none of these were true mechanical escapements, since they still depended on the flow of liquid through an orifice to measure time. For example, in Su Song's clock, water flowed into a container on a pivot; the escapement's role was to tip the container over each time it filled up, thus advancing the clock's wheels each time an equal quantity of water was measured out. The time between releases depended on the rate of flow; the rate of flow of a liquid through an orifice varies with temperature and viscosity changes, decreases with pressure as the level of liquid in the source container drops. The development of mechanical clocks depended on the invention of an escapement which would allow a clock's movement to be controlled by an oscillating weight.

The first mechanical escapement, the verge escapement, was used in a bell ringing apparatus called an alarum for several centuries before it was adapted to clocks. In 14th-century Europe it appeared as the timekeeper in the first mechanical clocks, which were large tower clocks Its origin and first use is unknown because it is difficult to distinguish which of these early tower clocks were mechanical, which were water clocks. However, indirect evidence, such as a sudden increase in cost and construction of clocks, points to the late 13th century as the most date for the development of the modern clock escapement. Astronomer Robertus Anglicus wrote in 1271 that clockmakers were trying to invent an escapement, but hadn't been successful yet. On the other hand, most sources agree that mechanical escapement clocks existed by 1300; the earliest description of an escapement, in Richard of Wallingford's 1327 manuscript Tractatus

Pacifism in Germany

The existence of pacifism in Germany has changed over time, with the consistent feature of having diverse groups with a shared belief in an opposition to participating in war. These movements both individually and collectively, have been small in their numbers and have not been well organised. With a culture of war in the early history of Germany, pacifism was not a culturally significant group; this was driven by the government as they attempted to use the media in order to promote the expansion of Germany as a growing empire. The exception to this is during the Cold War with the Bonn demonstration with a large turnout of around 300,000 people. Christian peace groups have been the most consistent groups within the classification of pacifists as an opposition to violence is a key part of their faith; the size, whilst remaining small varies over the history of the Federal Republic of Germany. The reception from the public regarding pacifists changes depending on the historical period. With the unification of Germany as a single state, the country began to expand militarily as an international power, which in turn created a pacifist movement in Germany.

This first movement was called the German Peace Society and was founded in 1892. However, the movement was small with only 10,000 active members at its peak, as it did not resonate with the wider population, in favour of the German expansion. With low support the ability of the movement to grow was limited to the ability to speak, limited due to the government declaring a state of war; the rapid military expansion of Germany was largely popular with the population. The movement, prior to the outbreak of war began to decline in support for the movement as the public support of a war grew and avoid a response from the government. During this time there were two Hague Peace Conferences, these conferences resulted in various multi-lateral treaties regarding military expansion and foreign policy; the conference was about establishing the universal values and therefore the obligations of states. In 1899 there was a Hauge Peace Conference, Germany did not attend, it was not until the 1907 conference where Germany would participate.

At this conference Germany was considered uncooperative, due to the restrictions on their ability to expand their military power. As Germany was a rising power there was a hesitation to reduce their expansion as it would restrict their self-defence capabilities. German Pacifism was not as organised in this era. During this period a group of female war opponents emerged, a pacifist group who were opposed to the war as it was, according to this group, caused by masculine values and attitudes; this group overlapped with the group of advocates for women’s’ rights during the same period, as well as the socialist movement. This activism from female groups was the result of changing cultural and social roles of women which had developed during the war. Early in the war attitudes towards war were positive, this along with the conscription of German soldiers resulted in the pacifists’ movement remaining a small group; as the country was in a state of war, the government was involved in censorship of the population, so the pacifist publications were censored to not have views which directly opposed the government, rather they would be written in order to talk about the wider issue of war with other countries having the primary role at the beginning of war.

The government remained lenient towards those with pacifist attitudes which contrasts the government attitude of the Nazi Government and other governments which enacted the concept of total war on the home front. In 1915 at the Hague, the Women's Peace Conference met to discuss methods to end the war through negotiations. Attending this event was four German delegates. After this conference, the government began to restrict pacifists and their groups as there was a consensus that this conference had weakened the position of Germany for negotiations. Towards the end of the war, the public support massively declines, which resulted in an increase in the support for pacifist ideas, despite this the movement remained small in size. At this time the government tried to assert more control over the home front in order to provide more resources for soldiers on the front line. With the Russian Revolution, the pacifist movement gained support and inspiration through the Marxist ideology behind the revolution.

The literature during the war was restricted and the literature, promoted all displayed similar views. These views support the war effort, achieved through the justification of the war, as well as the celebration of acts of heroism and sacrifice. Pacifist literature was non-existent during this time period which continued until the end of the war before it became more discussed in the literature; the existence of pacifists in Germany is at its lowest and least organised during this time, as a result of the Nazi Government’s policies regarding movements which oppose their regime. Pacifists during this time are individuals, who may not be a part of a formalised group, rather they act out the ideology of pacifism. A key reason for this was the continued support of the war effort as well as public support for the Fuhrer of Germany, Adolf Hitler remaining high throughout the war; this period was when popular support for pacifism was at its lowest as there was significant support for the war effort.

As Nazism was built on the outcome of the First World War, there was significant pro-war sentiment in the ideology as a means of resolving the issues

The Andromeda Nebula

The Andromeda Nebula is a 1967 Soviet science fiction film starring Sergei Stolyarov and directed by Yevgeni Sherstobitov at the Dovzhenko Film Studios. The film was intended to be the first episode of a series of films, alternatively titled as The Andromeda Nebula: Episode I. Prisoners of the Iron Star, but the remaining parts were never made due to Stolyarov's death; the film is based upon the Andromeda Nebula novel by Ivan Yefremov and follows the story of a group of humans on the spaceship Tantra who are tasked with investigating the home planet of an alien race. They discover that artificial radioactivity has killed all life on that planet. During the voyage home the ship is trapped by the gravitational force of an iron star and lands on a planet orbiting the star. Surrounded by predators who destroy human nervous system through space suits, the crew has to fight to see Earth again. Wingrove, David. Science Fiction Film Source Book The Andromeda Nebula on IMDb

Caleb Hanie

Caleb Jeffrey Hanie is a former American football quarterback. He played college football at Colorado State and was signed by the Chicago Bears as an undrafted free agent in 2008, he played for the Denver Broncos, Cleveland Browns, New England Patriots. Hanie played high school football for Forney High School in Forney and led his team to consecutive top 3 finishes in class 3A in 2002 and 2003. Hanie was the starting quarterback for the Colorado State Rams in 2006 and 2007. Hanie was signed by the Chicago Bears as a free agent following the 2008 NFL Draft on April 28, 2008, he made the Bears' 53-man roster prior to the start of the 2008 season. He made his first regular season contribution as a Bear towards the end of their blowout loss to the Cincinnati Bengals on October 25, 2009, he completed one of two passes for two yards. He went on to make another appearance against the Baltimore Ravens on December 20, 2009, completing two of five passes for eight yards. During that game, he threw his first career interception on an acrobatic play by Domonique Foxworth.

On October 3, 2010 Bears starter Jay Cutler and backup Todd Collins both suffered injuries in a game against the New York Giants, Hanie entered the game as the third-string quarterback. He went three of four for 36 yards, but the Bears still suffered their first loss of the 2010 season. On October 10, 2010, with Cutler on the bench due to a concussion suffered the previous week, Collins started the game but proved ineffective, throwing four interceptions. Hanie went 2-3 for 19 yards; the Bears won the game 23-6 on points scored in the early part of the first quarter, scored two fourth-quarter field goals on drives led by Hanie. Hanie entered the 2010 NFC Championship Game as the third-string quarterback in the third quarter after starter Jay Cutler left with a second-degree sprain of his MCL and second-string quarterback Todd Collins left with a shoulder injury, he led the Bears to a touchdown in his first series on the field but was intercepted by defensive lineman B. J. Raji, who returned the interception for a touchdown.

On the following drive, Hanie led the Bears to a second touchdown in only 81 seconds of game time. He threw another interception, this time to Sam Shields, with 37 seconds left in the game. Overall, Hanie completed 13 passes in 20 attempts for 153 yards and a touchdown with two interceptions; the Bears lost to the Packers 21–14. After a back-and-forth preseason, Hanie won a battle with Nate Enderle for the second position on the depth chart. Against the San Diego Chargers in week 11, starting quarterback Jay Cutler suffered a broken thumb on his throwing hand; the following day, the Bears reported that Cutler would need surgery on the thumb ending his season. Hanie was named the starter for the Bears until Cutler's return. On November 27, 2011 Hanie started his first NFL game against the Oakland Raiders, he threw two touchdowns and three interceptions in the 25-20 loss, snapping the Bears' five-game winning streak. Hanie became the first quarterback since 1983 to throw a postseason touchdown before a regular season touchdown.

In that game, with 8 seconds left, looking to spike the ball, Hanie stepped backwards, as if attempting a pass, spiked the ball. He was charged with intentional grounding and was forced to runoff the clock 10 more seconds, preserving a Raiders win; the following week, Hanie threw three interceptions in a 10-3 loss to the Kansas City Chiefs. The Bears lost in overtime to the Denver Broncos 13-10. After getting swept against the Seattle Seahawks 38-14, Hanie was replaced by Josh McCown for Week 16 against the Packers and Minnesota Vikings in Week 17; the Bears stated that they would not re-sign Hanie for 2012. Hanie signed with the Denver Broncos on March 24, 2012. In the 2012 preseason and newly acquired quarterback Peyton Manning faced Hanie's former team in the Bears in Week 1 of the preseason. During the game, though Hanie was sacked three times by Shea McClellin, Cheta Ozougwu, Nate Collins, Hanie completed 7/14 passes for 79 yards and a 67.3 passer rating, en route to a 31-3 victory. Hanie signed a one-year contract with the Baltimore Ravens on April 16, 2013 as competition for Tyrod Taylor for the backup quarterback position.

He was released on August 30, 2013. Hanie was signed by the Cleveland Browns on December 3, 2013. However, he was waived on December 10. Hanie was signed to a one-year deal by the Dallas Cowboys on April 23, 2014. Hanie was released by the team on August 26, 2014. Key GP: games played GS: games started COMP: completions ATT: pass attempts PCT: completion percentage YDS: passing yards AVG: average yards per pass attempt TD: passing touchdowns INT: interceptions SCK: times sacked SCKY: total yards lost via sacks RATE: quarterback rating RATT: rushing attempts RYDS: rushing yards RAVG: average yards per rush RTD: rushing touchdowns FUM: fumbles FUML: fumbles lost Chicago Bears bio Colorado State Rams bio

Rostami (surname)

Rostami or Rustami or Rostamian is a family name that refers to the ancient Persian hero called Rostam. The ancient monuments of Naqsh-e Rustam and The Book of Kings narrate all about Rostam The Invincible. Both Rostam and Rostami are popular in many regions of the Middle East and might be found in Asia. Notable people with the surname include: Abbas Kia Rostami, Renowned film director and producer Jamil Rostami, Film director Kianoush Rostami, Weightlifter Mohammad Rostami, Footballer Mehrnegar Rostam, Tajik singer Morteza Rostami, Taekwondo athlete Rahim Rostami, Kurdish asylum seeker Rouhollah Rostami, Powerlifter Shahram Rostami, Fighter pilot Amir Hossein Rostami, Iranian actor Rostam Rostam Rostami

Smiling Faces Sometimes

"Smiling Faces Sometimes" is a soul song written by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong for the Motown label. It was recorded by the Temptations in 1971. Producer Norman Whitfield had the song re-recorded by the Undisputed Truth the same year, resulting in a number-three Billboard Hot 100 position for the group. "Smiling Faces" was the only Top 40 single released by the Undisputed Truth, was included on their debut album The Undisputed Truth. Both versions of "Smiling Faces Sometimes" deal with the same subject matter, "back-stabbing" friends who do their friends wrong behind their backs, but in different ways; the Temptations' original uses an arrangement similar to a haunted house film score to represent feelings of fear and timidness. Included on the 1971 Sky's the Limit album, "Smiling Faces Sometimes" runs over 12 minutes, most of, extended instrumental passages without any vocals. An edited version was planned as the Temptations' summer 1971 single release, but this plan was dropped when lead vocalist Eddie Kendricks, frustrated by personnel problems within the group, quit the Temptations and signed a solo deal with Motown in March 1971.

Whitfield was known for recording different versions of the same song with different Motown artists, including Smokey Robinson & the Miracles' "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" and the Temptations' "War". After Kendricks left The Temptations, an undaunted Whitfield re-recorded the song with his latest protégés, psychedelic trio the Undisputed Truth. Billboard ranked the resulting single as the #14 song for 1971, it has since been covered by Bobbi Humphrey, Joan Osborne, Rare Earth, others. Future Undisputed Truth singles would never make it higher than #63, a position attained by both 1972's "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" and 1974's "Help Yourself". "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" was re-recorded by The Temptations shortly after its release, this re-recorded version became not only a #1 pop hit, but a three-time Grammy Award winner as well. The O'Jays' themed 1972 hit "Back Stabbers" quotes the lyrics "smiling faces, smiling faces sometimes..." in the refrain near the end of the song. Whitfield revisited the song for the 1973 album Ma, recorded by Motown's white rock band, Rare Earth, which he produced and wrote.

Virginia "Vee" McDonald, the female lead singer in the second incarnation of The Undisputed Truth, recorded a solo version of the song in 1990 for Ian Levine and his Motorcity Records project. In 1995, it was featured in the film Dead Presidents. In 2013, "Smiling Faces Sometimes" was featured in the video game Grand Theft Auto V. In 2019, "Smiling Faces Sometimes" was featured in American Soul, Season 1 Episode 1 "Man is First Destiny". Written by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong Produced by Norman Whitfield Instrumentation by the Funk Brothers Lead vocals by Eddie Kendricks and Dennis Edwards Background vocals by Dennis Edwards, Melvin Franklin, Paul Williams, Eddie Kendricks, Otis Williams Lead and background vocals by Joe Harris, Billie Rae Calvin, Brenda Joyce Released on their self-titled album in 1971 and re-issued in 2007. Released on her 1972 album Dig This!. Released on their 1973 album Ma produced by Norman Whitfield, with lead vocals by Peter Hoorelbeke. Released on his 1974 album Me'N Rock'N Roll Are Here To Stay produced by Norman Whitfield.

Released on her 2002 album How Sweet It Is with Isaac Hayes List of cover versions of "Smiling Faces Sometimes" at