An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, aquatic plants; the term "aquarium", coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to". The aquarium principle was developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as the numbers of animals did not grow too large; the aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854. An aquarium is a water-filled tank. Small aquariums are kept in the home by hobbyists. There are larger public aquariums in many cities.
This kind of aquarium is other aquatic animals in large tanks. A large aquarium may have otters, turtles and other sea animals. Most aquarium tanks have plants. An aquarist owns fish or maintains an aquarium constructed of glass or high-strength acrylic. Cuboid aquaria are known as fish tanks or tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are known as fish bowls. Size can range from a small glass bowl, under a gallon in volume, to immense public aquaria of several thousand gallons. Specialized equipment maintains appropriate water quality and other characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents. In 1369, the Hongwu Emperor of China established a porcelain company that produced large porcelain tubs for maintaining goldfish. Leonhard Baldner, who wrote Vogel-, Fisch- und Tierbuch in 1666, maintained weather loaches and newts, it is sometimes held that the aquarium was invented by the Romans, who are said to have kept sea barbels in marble-and-glass tanks, but this is unlikely to be true. In 1832, Jeanne Villepreux-Power, a pioneering French marine biologist, became the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms.
In 1836, soon after his invention of the Wardian case, Dr. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward proposed to use his tanks for tropical animals. In 1841 he did so, though only with toy fish. However, he soon housed real animals. In 1838, Félix Dujardin noted owning a saltwater aquarium. In 1846, Anne Thynne maintained stony corals and seaweed for three years, was credited as the creator of the first balanced marine aquarium in London. English chemist Robert Warington experimented with a 13-gallon container, which contained goldfish and snails, creating one of the first stable aquaria; the aquarium principle was developed by Warington, explaining that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as their numbers do not grow too large. He published his findings in 1850 in the Chemical Society's journal; the keeping of fish in an aquarium spread quickly. In the United Kingdom, it became popular after ornate aquaria in cast-iron frames were featured at the Great Exhibition of 1851.
In 1853, the aquarium craze was launched in England by Philip Henry Gosse who created and stocked the first public aquarium in the London Zoo which came to be known as the Fish House. Gosse coined the word "aquarium", opting for this term in 1854 in his book The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea. In this book, Gosse discussed saltwater aquaria. In the 1850s, the aquarium became a fad in the United Kingdom. Tank designs and techniques for maintaining water quality were developed by Warington cooperating with Gosse until his critical review of the tank water composition. Edward Edwards developed these glass-fronted aquaria in his 1858 patent for a "dark-water-chamber slope-back tank", with water circulating to a reservoir beneath. Germans soon rivaled the British in their interest. In 1854, an anonymous author had two articles published about the saltwater aquaria of the United Kingdom: Die Gartenlaube entitled Der Ocean auf dem Tische. However, in 1856, Der See im Glase was published, discussing freshwater aquaria, which were much easier to maintain in landlocked areas.
In 1862 William Alford Lloyd bankrupt because of the craze in England being over, moved to Grindel Dammthor, Hamburg, to supervise the installation of the circulating system and tanks at the Hamburg Aquarium. During the 1870s, some of the first aquarist societies were appearing in Germany; the United States soon followed. Published in 1858, Henry D. Butler's The Family Aquarium was one of the first books written in the United States about the aquarium. According to the July issue of The North American Review of the same year, William Stimson may have owned some of the first functional aquaria, had as many as seven or eight; the first aquarist society in the United States was founded in New York City in 1893, followed by others. The New York Aquarium Journal, first published in October 1876, is considered to be the world's first aquarium magazine. In the Victorian era in the United Kingdom, a common design for the home aquarium was a glass front with the other sides made of wood; the bottom would be heated from below.
More advanced systems soon began to be introduced, along with tanks of
Escapism is the avoidance of unpleasant, arduous, scary, or banal aspects of daily life. It can be used as a term to define the actions people take to help relieve persistent feelings of depression or general sadness. Entire industries have sprung up to foster a growing tendency of people to remove themselves from the rigors of daily life – into the digital world. Many activities that are normal parts of a healthy existence can become avenues of escapism when taken to extremes or out of proper context. Indeed, the Oxford English Dictionary defined escapism as "The tendency to seek, or the practice of seeking, distraction from what has to be endured". However, many challenge the idea that escapism is fundamentally and negative. C. S. Lewis was fond of humorously remarking. J. R. R. Tolkien argued for escapism in fantasy literature as the creative expression of reality within a secondary world. Terry Pratchett considered that the twentieth century had seen the development over time of a more positive view of escapist literature.
Apart from literature, music has been valued as an artistic medium of escape, too. Freud considered a quota of escapist fantasy a necessary element in the life of humans: "hey cannot subsist on the scanty satisfaction they can extort from reality.'We cannot do without auxiliary constructions', Theodor Fontane once said". His followers saw wish fulfilment as useful tools in adjusting to traumatic upset. However, if permanent residence is taken up in some such psychic retreats, the results will be negative and pathological. Drugs cause some forms of escapism which can occur when certain mind-altering drugs are taken which make the participant forget the reality of where they are or what they are meant to be doing; some social critics warn of attempts by the powers that control society to provide means of escapism instead of bettering the condition of the people – what Juvenal called “bread and the games”. Escapist societies appear in literature; the Time Machine depicts the Eloi, a lackadaisical, insouciant race of the future, the horror their happy lifestyle belies.
The novel subtly criticizes capitalism, or at least classism, as a means of escape. Escapist societies are common in dystopian novels. In science fiction media escapism is depicted as an extension of social evolution, as society becomes detached from physical reality and processing into a virtual one, examples include the virtual world of Oz in the 2009 Japanese animated science fiction anime Summer Wars and the game "Society" in the 2009 American science fiction film Gamer, a play on the real-life MMO game Second Life. Other escapist societies in literature include The Reality Bug by D. J. McHale, where an entire civilization leaves their world in ruin while they'jump' into their perfect realities; the aim of the anti hero becomes a quest to make their realities less perfect in order to regain control over their dying planet. Social philosopher Ernst Bloch wrote that utopias and images of fulfilment, however regressive they might be included an impetus for a radical social change. According to Bloch, social justice could not be realized without seeing things fundamentally differently.
Something, mere "daydreaming" or "escapism" from the viewpoint of a technological-rational society might be a seed for a new and more humane social order, as it can be seen as an "immature, but honest substitute for revolution". The Norwegian psychologist Frode Stenseng has presented a dualistic model of escapism in relation to different types of activity engagements, he discusses the paradox that the flow state resembles psychological states obtainable through actions such as drug abuse, sexual masochism, suicide ideation. Accordingly, he deduces that the state of escape can have both positive and negative meanings and outcomes. Stenseng argues that there exist two forms of escapism with different affective outcomes dependent on the motivational focus that lies behind the immersion in the activity. Escapism in the form of self-suppression stems from motives to run away from unpleasant thoughts, self-perceptions, emotions, whereas self-expansion stems from motives to gain positive experiences through the activity and to discover new aspects of self.
Stenseng has developed the "escape scale" to measure self-suppression and self-expansion in people´s favorite activities, such as sports and gaming. Empirical investigations of the model have shown that: the two dimensions are distinctively different with regard to affective outcomes some individuals are more prone to engage through one type of escapism situational levels of well-being affect the type of escapism that becomes dominant at a specific time Alan Brinkley, author of Culture and Politics in the Great Depression, presents how escapism became the new trend for dealing with the hardships created by the stock market crash
A mail bag or mailbag is a generic term for a type of bag used for collecting, carrying and classifying different types of postal material, depending on its priority and method of transport. It is oftentimes used by a post office system in transporting these different grades of mail; the mailbag is carried by some means of transporting like a mail carrier, animal, or a mobile post office. Letters and printed material delivered by mail in the seventeen-hundreds were carried by horse in a saddle bag. There are several different types of mailbags for different purposes (e.g. transporting mail to and from post offices, delivering mail to businesses and homes. These different styles of mailbags depend on its purpose, it can range from "a large bag used for transporting mail on a truck, etc." to a simple "postbag" used by a mail carrier to deliver mail. The idea of having mail bags on board ships traveling between Jamaica and Great Britain was established as early as 1780; the name of the ship carrying a letter was put on the corner of the letter so that it would be put into the proper mail bag for the destination intended.
A mailbag throughout the United States history has been called various names depending on its form and function at the time, some of which are now obsolete. Among these names are mail sack, mail satchel, mail pouch, catcher pouch and portmanteau. Private Mail Bags or so-called "Locked Bags" are a worldwide solution for specialized mail delivery to a single location. Like PO Box addresses, Private Mail Bag addresses omit the name of the building and street, include only the number allocated to the user. Private Mail Bag addresses are used in countries in Africa where there may be no street delivery service. In Europe and North America, where street delivery is more commonplace, large users may be allocated their own postal codes, need only use their physical address in correspondence. Private mail bags may be in lieu of a Post Office Box, but sometimes can go so far as to have an individualized corporate zip code; the U. S. National Postal Museum says that any bag that carries mail is defined as a "Mailbag".
A mailbag is called a postbag in England. The form and structure of mailbags has implications for fatigue and industrial injuries to mail carriers. A mail sack is a lower security class mailbag used to carry second-class, third-class, fourth-class mail, it does not have a locking mechanism with it. A mail satchel is a device letter carriers use over-the-shoulder for assisting the delivery of personal mail to businesses and homes. A mail pouch is a strong material mail bag designed to lock at the top to prevent access into the bag, they are used for transporting First-class and registered mail to and from different post offices. Mail pouches carry military domestic and military airmail. A catcher pouch was a mail bag used only by the Railway Post Office in exchanging mail when the train did not stop at the town, it was most popular in the early twentieth century. A mochila was a removable lightweight leather cover put over a horse saddle for carrying mail and was used by the Pony Express. A portmanteau was a traveling suitcase used as a mailbag in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to carry both letters and newspapers.
When it opened it had one for letters and the other for newspapers. With the advent of Parcel Post in 1913, after some adults sent their children in the mails— with postage affixed to clothing— the U. S. Postmaster General issued regulations barring such shipment; the theory was that children were under the 50 lb. weight limit, that it was a lot cheaper to mail them than to pay rail fares. In part, the regulation followed a letter inquiring as to whether parcel post would be appropriate, the Postmaster General was of the opinion that children were not within the definition of "bees and bugs", which were the only fauna permitted to be mailed. Several children were mailed. On 13 June 1920, sending children by Parcel Post was forbidden. Thereafter, a mail bag stuffed with a child was prominently featured in a humorous photograph to illustrate the prohibition; the form of this sack is so evocative and iconic that it inspired the "counterfeit mail bag" in The J. Peterman Company catalog. Phantom Ranch, in the Grand Canyon, is one of two places in America where mail is still transported by mule in specially designed leather mailbags.
The other place is Supai, inhabited by Havasupai native American Indians in the Grand Canyon. Illusionist and Escapologist Houdini first popularized the so-called "Mailbag escape" using U. S. Postal Service mailbags, after having found the British postbags unsuitable. Cushing, Marshall; the Story of Our Post Office: The Greatest Government Department in all its Phases. Boston, Massachusetts: A. M. Thayer & Co – via Internet Archive. Melius, Louis; the American postal service: history of the postal service from the earliest times. The American system described with full details of operation. Washington, D. C.: National Capital Press. Retrieved August 15, 2012 – via Internet Archive; the U. S. Post Office - 1950s to 2011
Harry Houdini was a Hungarian-born American illusionist and stunt performer, noted for his sensational escape acts. He first attracted notice in vaudeville in the US and as "Harry Handcuff Houdini" on a tour of Europe, where he challenged police forces to keep him locked up. Soon he extended his repertoire to include chains, ropes slung from skyscrapers, straitjackets under water, having to escape from and hold his breath inside a sealed milk can with water in it. In 1904, thousands watched as he tried to escape from special handcuffs commissioned by London's Daily Mirror, keeping them in suspense for an hour. Another stunt saw him buried alive and only just able to claw himself to the surface, emerging in a state of near-breakdown. While many suspected that these escapes were faked, Houdini presented himself as the scourge of fake spiritualists; as President of the Society of American Magicians, he was keen to uphold professional standards and expose fraudulent artists. He was quick to sue anyone who imitated his escape stunts.
Houdini quit acting when it failed to bring in money. He was a keen aviator, aimed to become the first man to fly a plane in Australia. Erik Weisz was born in Budapest to a Jewish family, his parents were Cecília Steiner. Houdini was one of seven children: Herman M., Houdini's half-brother, by Rabbi Weisz's first marriage. Weisz arrived in the United States on July 3, 1878, on the SS Fresia with his mother and his four brothers; the family changed their name to the German spelling Weiss, Erik became Ehrich. The family lived in Appleton, where his father served as Rabbi of the Zion Reform Jewish Congregation. According to the 1880 census, the family lived on Appleton Street in an area, now known as Houdini Square. On June 6, 1882, Rabbi Weiss became an American citizen. Losing his job at Zion in 1882, Rabbi Weiss and family moved to Milwaukee and fell into dire poverty. In 1887, Rabbi Weiss moved with Ehrich to New York City, where they lived in a boarding house on East 79th Street, he was joined by the rest of the family.
As a child, Ehrich Weiss took several jobs, making his public début as a 9-year-old trapeze artist, calling himself "Ehrich, the Prince of the Air". He was a champion cross country runner in his youth; when Weiss became a professional magician he began calling himself "Harry Houdini", after the French magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, after reading Robert-Houdin's autobiography in 1890. Weiss incorrectly believed. In life, Houdini claimed that the first part of his new name, was an homage to Harry Kellar, whom he admired, though it was more adapted from "Ehri," a nickname for "Ehrich,", how he was known to his family; when he was a teenager, Houdini was coached by the magician Joseph Rinn at the Pastime Athletic Club. Houdini was a member of St. Cecile Lodge # 568 in New York City. In 1918, he registered for selective service as Harry Handcuff Houdini. Houdini had little success, he appeared in a tent act with strongman Emil Jarrow. He performed in dime museums and sideshows, doubled as "The Wild Man" at a circus.
Houdini focused on traditional card tricks. At one point, he billed himself as the "King of Cards"; some - but not all - professional magicians would come to regard Houdini as a competent but not skilled sleight-of-hand artist, lacking the grace and finesse required to achieve excellence in that craft. He soon began experimenting with escape acts. In 1893, while performing with his brother "Dash" at Coney Island as "The Brothers Houdini", Houdini met a fellow performer, Wilhelmina Beatrice "Bess" Rahner. Bess was courted by Dash, but she and Houdini married in 1894, with Bess replacing Dash in the act, which became known as "The Houdinis". For the rest of Houdini's performing career, Bess worked as his stage assistant. Houdini's big break came in 1899 when he met manager Martin Beck in Minnesota. Impressed by Houdini's handcuffs act, Beck advised him to concentrate on escape acts and booked him on the Orpheum vaudeville circuit. Within months, he was performing at the top vaudeville houses in the country.
In 1900, Beck arranged for Houdini to tour Europe. After some days of unsuccessful interviews in London, Houdini's British agent Harry Day helped him to get an interview with C. Dundas Slater manager of the Alhambra Theatre, he was introduced to William Melville and gave a demonstration of escape from handcuffs at Scotland Yard. He succeeded in baffling the police so that he was booked at the Alhambra for six months, his show was an immediate hit and his salary rose to $300 a week. Houdini became known as "The Handcuff King." He toured England, the Netherlands, Germany and Russia. In each city, Houdini challenged local police to restrain him with shackles and lock him in their jails. In many of these challenge escapes, he searched. In Moscow, he escaped from a Siberian prison transport van, claiming that, had he been unable to free himself, he would have had to travel to Siberia, where the only key was kept. In Cologne, he sued a police officer, Werner Graff, who alleged that he made his escapes via bribery.
Houdini won the case when he opened the judge's safe (he said th
Mister Miracle is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. He first was created by Jack Kirby. Mister Miracle debuted in the first issue of the eponymous series cover dated April 1971 as part of the Fourth World tetralogy. Big Barda, the character's love interest, was introduced in Mister Miracle #4. According to creator Jack Kirby's then-assistant Mark Evanier, Kirby wanted to be a comics creator and creative supervisor at DC Comics, rather than a regular writer-artist: "... we were going to turn Mr. Miracle over to Steve Ditko after a couple of issues and have me write it and Ditko draw it. Carmine Infantino, publisher of DC at the time, vetoed that and said Kirby had to do it all himself." Evanier did unofficially co-plot most issues of the series. The original title featuring this character was the longest-lasting of the Fourth World titles, lasting 18 issues while the other titles, New Gods and The Forever People, were cancelled after only 11 issues.
The most traditionally super-heroesque comic of the various Fourth World titles, the last seven issues as well as incarnations of the series would downplay the Fourth World mythology in favor of more traditional superhero fare. The character teamed up with Batman three times in the Bold; the title was revived in September 1977 by Marshall Rogers. Steve Gerber and Michael Golden produced three issues ending with #25 with several story lines unresolved. Mister Miracle teamed with Superman in DC Comics Presents #12 and met the Justice League of America and the Justice Society of America in Justice League of America #183–185; when the character was revived as part of the Justice League International lineup in 1987, a one-shot special by writer Mark Evanier and artist Steve Rude was published in 1987. This special was followed by an ongoing series that began in January 1989, written by J. M. DeMatteis and drawn by Ian Gibson. Other writers who contributed to the title include Keith Giffen, Len Wein, Doug Moench.
This run lasted 28 issues before cancellation in 1991. The series was humor-driven, per Giffen's reimagining Scott Free, his wife Big Barda, their friend Oberon, who pretended to be Scott's uncle, as living in suburbia when they were not fighting evil with the Justice League. In 1996, a series written by Kevin Dooley showed Scott attempting to escape his destiny as a New God by setting up a charitable foundation in New York; this ran for seven issues, before all Fourth World titles were canceled for the launch of Jack Kirby's Fourth World. In addition, Scott's ally and wife Big Barda was made a member of the revived Justice League and appeared in the Jack Kirby's Fourth World series by John Byrne. With the launching of Grant Morrison's meta-series Seven Soldiers, Mister Miracle was revived as a four-issue miniseries; this miniseries focused instead on Scott's sidekick and apprentice Shilo Norman, who Morrison established as a new Mister Miracle. In 2017, it was announced the character would return in his own 12 issue limited series written by Tom King and illustrated by Mitch Gerads.
That year the first five issues of Mister Miracle were released among critical and commercial acclaim with the rest of the series being published monthly throughout 2018. The twelfth and final issue was released on November 14, 2018. Mister Miracle was one of four DC Comics series in Kirby's ambitious, but short-lived, Fourth World saga. Mister Miracle, Super Escape Artist was inspired by comic book writer/artist Jim Steranko. Mister Miracle's relationship with his wife Big Barda is based on Kirby's relationship with his own wife Roz. Thaddeus Brown was a circus escape artist; as the first escape artist to use the name Mister Miracle, Brown earned a modest living and practiced his art into his years. Brown met Scott Free as he was practicing an outdoor escape with his long-time friend and assistant Oberon. Scott aided Brown as he was being coerced by Intergang thugs by fighting them off. Unbeknownst to Scott, Intergang was an Earth crime organization run by Darkseid. Brown told Scott that he was being harassed by the local Intergang Capo known as Steel Hand.
Brown and Steel Hand had been in a hospital together and made a bet that Brown couldn't escape death. While practicing an escape of being tied to a tree with a projectile speeding toward him, Brown was shot by an Intergang sniper while Scott and Oberon stood by helplessly. After Brown's murder, Scott put on Brown's costume and exacted his revenge on Steel Hand by bringing him down. Scott Free hired his assistant Oberon. Scott and Oberon joined by Big Barda, toured the country as the Mister Miracle Super Escape Artist show. Thaddeus was one of Batman's teachers - educating a young Bruce Wayne in the art of escape. Scott Free is the son of Izaya Highfather, the ruler of New Genesis, his wife, Avia; as part of a diplomatic move to stop a destructive, techno-cosmic war against the planet Apokolips, Highfather agreed to an exchange of heirs with the galactic tyrant Darkseid. The exchange of heirs as hostages was supposed to guarantee that neither side would attack the other. Scott was traded for Darkseid's second-born son Orion.
Scott grew up in one of Granny Goodness' "Terror Orphanages" with no knowledge of his own heritage, but still refused to allow his spirit to break under the ever-present torturous training of the institution. As he matured, Scott rebelled against the totalitarian ideology of Apokolips. Hating himself for being unable to fit in despite his unfailing defiance of the
Chinese Water Torture Cell
The Chinese Water Torture Cell is a predicament escape made famous by Hungarian-American magician Harry Houdini. The illusion consists of three parts: first, the magician's feet are locked in stocks; the original Chinese Water Torture Cell was built in England in 1911. Houdini first performed the escape for an audience of one person as part of a one-act play he called Houdini Upside Down!. This was; the first public performance was at the Circus Busch in Berlin, Germany, on September 21, 1912. In letters Houdini referred to the effect as "the Upside Down" or "USD". Houdini continued to perform the escape until his death in 1926. Despite two Hollywood movies depicting Houdini dying in the Torture Cell, the escape had nothing to do with his demise. After Houdini's death, the cell was willed to his brother Theodore Hardeen. Hardeen never performed the cell himself, despite Houdini's instructions for it to be "burned and destroyed" upon Hardeen's death, his brother gave the cell to Houdini collector Sidney Hollis Radner in the 1940s.
The cell remained in the Radner basement until 1971 when it was put on display at The Houdini Magical Hall of Fame in Niagara Falls, Canada. Here the cell suffered from theft. At one point, the museum owners put a fish tank inside the cell to achieve an aquarium effect; the leaky tank caused damage to the cell wood and structure. In 1995, the Houdini Magical Hall of Fame burned to the ground, it was reported that the cell was destroyed, but the metal frame survived and the cell was restored by illusion builder John Gaughan. In 2004, the restored cell was sold at auction to magician David Copperfield, it now resides as part of his massive private magic collection in his home in Nevada. Sidney Radner gave the burned wood, nails, metal straps and many other unused pieces of the original Water Torture Cell to Geno Munari. In August 1998, John Gaughan subsequently sent those items to Geno Munari, owner of Houdini's Magic Shops, in Las Vegas. Additionally, Geno Munari provided John Gaughan an original back-up Water Torture Cell glass plate from The Houdini Museum in Las Vegas.
This backup glass traveled with Houdini as a spare in case the Water Torture Cell had to be axed to save Houdini's life. In 2003, an exact duplicate of the Water Torture Cell was discovered, leading to controversy over the authenticity of the restored cell. Sidney Radner filed suit against John Gaughan. In 2012, a never-before-seen photo of Houdini performing his Water Torture Cell in 1920 was unearthed and put on display in Scotland; the photo shows two horizontal bands wrapped around the cell. Several magicians and escape artists have performed the escape since Houdini, among them Al Marks, Dill-Russel and Norman Bigelow. In the 1950s, magician Leo Irby performed the escape for "You Asked for It". In 1975, magician Doug Henning performed a version of the Water Torture Cell during his first live television special on NBC. In his version, a twist ending revealed the magician to be one of the hooded ax-wielding assistants standing beside the cell. In the Happy Days episode "The Magic Show", magician James Randi is scheduled to perform the trick, performed only by three magicians, as part of a magic show at a charity function, but he inadvertently drinks alcohol and becomes too intoxicated to do so.
The Fonz takes over Randi's act and performs admirably, but the audience insists on seeing the milkcan escape. Unwilling to fail the charity recipients, the Fonz enters the tank. By now, Randi has recovered and, horrified to learn the Fonz has been in the tank for nearly half a minute, insists he be released before he drowns, but the Fonz surprises everyone present by escaping without assistance. According to the episode's opening credits, all magic tricks during the episode, including the milkcan escape, were performed without special effects. In the Spring of 1980, Magician John R. Hall purchased a Chinese Water Torture Cell from Tony Spina of Louis Tannen and performed the escape on the television show PM Magazine in October 1980 and in other venues throughout 1980 and 1981; the Chinese Water Torture Cell purchased by Keoni was represented by Louis Tannen as a duplicate of the cell constructed for Doug Henning's live television broadcast on NBC. Like Doug Henning's performance, Keoni's escape ended with a twist, when the curtain around the cell was lowered, the cell was empty and Keoni retook the stage by running from the back of the theaters, down the aisles, to the stage.
In the 1980s, the English magician Paul Daniels reproduced the illusion for his television show, with his son Martin Daniels as the performer. This performance of the illusion was intended to be as near as possible to original illusion, sourcing from photographs and plans of the original; the replica "Houdini Water Torture" escape, as seen on The Paul Daniel's Magic Show, is now owned by of Merlins of Wakefield, who plan to exhibit it in a museum of magical props and memorabilia. As the original British built Houdini cell was destroyed in a fire, this is now believed to be the only one to have been made and used in the UK. Escape artist Steven Baker performed the Water Torture Cell for many years, including a performance on Dick Clark's LIVE Wednesday. Escape artist Kristen Johnson perfo
Physical restraint refers to means of purposely limiting or obstructing the freedom of a person's bodily movement. Binding objects such as handcuffs, ropes, straps or straitjackets are used for this purpose. Alternatively different kinds of arm locks deriving from unarmed combat methods or martial arts are used to restrain a person, which are predominantly used by trained police or correctional officers; this less also extends to joint locks and pinning techniques. The freedom of movement in terms of locomotion is limited, by locking a person into an enclosed space, such as a prison cell and by chaining or binding someone to a heavy or immobile object; this effect can be achieved by seizing and withholding specific items of clothing, that are used for protection against common adversities of the environment. Examples can be protective clothing against temperature, forcing the individual to remain in a sheltered spot. A practice employed in countries including Zimbabwe is to take away a prisoner's shoes, forcing them to remain barefoot.
The freedom of movement is restricted in many everyday situations without the protection offered by conventional footwear. Various ground textures in urban as well as natural areas can cause substantial physical distress for a shoeless person and hinder the locomotion. Ground textures consisting of crushed stone or similar construction aggregate can be impossible for a person to walk or run over without wearing shoes. Aside from extreme circumstances, an unshod person is compromised by the usual imponderabilities of most surroundings and localities. Controlling the free movement of detainees by keeping them barefoot is therefore common practice in many countries. A main motive can be seen in the fact, that the principal effects of frustrating prison escape and curbing acts of resistance are obtained without cost and with only minimal effort. Further it is an effective complementation of binding restraints. British Police officers are authorised to use leg and arm restraints, if they have been instructed in their use.
Guidelines set out by the Association of Chief Police Officers dictate that restraints are only to be used on subjects who are violent while being transported, restraining the use of their arms and legs, minimising the risk of punching and kicking. Pouches carrying restraints are carried on the duty belt, in some cases carried in police vans. For restraint for medical or psychiatric purposes, see medical restraint. Physical restraints are used: by police and prison authorities to obstruct delinquents and prisoners from escaping or resisting to enforce corporal punishment by impeding motions of the target, as is still practiced in penal functions of several countries by specially-trained teachers or teaching assistants to restrain children and teenagers with severe behavioral problems or disorders like autism or Tourette syndrome, to prevent hurting others or themselvesapproximately 70 % of teachers who work with students with behavioral disabilities use a type of physical restraint used in emergency situations or for de-escalation purposes many educators believe restraints are used to maintain the safety and order of the classroom and students, while those who oppose their use believe they are dangerous to the physical and mental health of children and may result in death and.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has stated that "Restraints may not be used as an alternative to adequate staff". "restraint may be used only when aggressive behavior interferes with an individual's own ability to benefit from programming or poses physical threat to others".by escapologists and stunt performers to restrain people who are suffering from involuntary physical spasms, to prevent them from hurting themselves controversially, in psychiatric hospitalsrestraints were developed during the 1700s by Philippe Pinel and performed with his assistant, Jean-Baptiste Pussin in hospitals in Franceby a kidnapper or other material for eroticismthe chemical mixed with sodium, causes anxiety Restraining someone against their will is a crime in most jurisdictions, unless it is explicitly sanctioned by law.. The misuse of physical restraint has resulted in many deaths. Physical restraint can be dangerous, sometimes in unexpected ways. Examples include: postural asphyxia unintended strangulation death due to choking or vomiting and being unable to clear the airway death due to inability to escape in the event of fire or other disaster death due to dehydration or starvation due to the inability to escape cutting off of blood circulation by restraints nerve damage by restraints cutting of blood vessels by struggling against restraints, resulting in death by loss of blood death by hypothermia or hyperthermia whilst unable to escape death from deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism due to lack of movementFor these and many other reasons, extreme caution is needed in the use of physical restraint.
Gagging a restrained person is risky, as it involves a substantial risk of asphyxia, both from the gag itself, from choking or vomiting and being unable to clear the airway. In practice, simple gags do not restrict communication much. Gags that prevent communication may prevent the communication of di