Show jumping known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that includes dressage, eventing and equitation. Jumping classes are seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics. Sometimes shows are limited to jumpers, sometimes jumper classes are offered in conjunction with other English-style events, sometimes show jumping is but one division of large, all-breed competitions that include a wide variety of disciplines. Jumping classes may be governed by various national horse show sanctioning organizations, such as the United States Equestrian Federation in the USA or the British Showjumping Association in Great Britain. International competitions are governed by the rules of the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Show jumping events have jumper classes and hunt seat equitation classes. Hunters are judged subjectively on the degree to which they meet an ideal standard of manners and way of going.
Conversely, jumper classes are scored objectively, based on a numerical score determined only by whether the horse attempts the obstacle, clears it, finishes the course in the allotted time. Jumper courses tend to be much more complex and technical than hunter courses because riders and horses are not being judged on style. Courses are colorful and at times, quite creatively designed. Hunters have meticulous turnout and tend toward quiet, conservative horse tack and rider attire. Hunter bits, crops and martingales are regulated. Jumpers, while caring for their horses and grooming them well, are not scored on turnout, are allowed a wider range of equipment, may wear less conservative attire, so long as it stays within the rules. Formal turnout always is preferred. In addition to hunters and jumpers, there are equitation classes, sometimes called hunt seat equitation, which judges the ability of the rider; the equipment and fence styles used in equitation more resemble hunter classes, although the technical difficulty of the courses may more resemble jumping events.
Jumper classes are held over a course of show jumping obstacles, including verticals and double and triple combinations with many turns and changes of direction. The intent is to jump cleanly over a set course within an allotted time. Time faults are assessed for exceeding the time allowance. Jumping faults are incurred for blatant disobedience, such as refusals. Horses are allowed a limited number of refusals before being disqualified. A refusal may lead to a rider exceeding the time allowed on course. Placings are based on "faults" accumulated. A horse and rider who have not accumulated any jumping faults or penalty points are said to have scored a "clear round". Tied entries have a jump-off over a raised and shortened course, the course is timed. In most competitions, riders are allowed to walk the initial course but not the jump-off course before competition to plan their ride. Walking the course before the event is a chance for the rider to walk the lines he or she will have to ride, in order to decide how many strides the horse will need to take between each jump and from which angle.
Going off course will cost time if minor errors are made and major departures will result in disqualification. The higher levels of competition, such as "A" or "AA" rated shows in the United States, or the international "Grand Prix" circuit, present more technical and complex courses. Not only is the height and width of an obstacle increased to present a greater challenge, technical difficulty increases with tighter turns and shorter or unusual distances between fences. Horses sometimes have to jump fences from an angle rather than straight on. For example, a course designer might set up a line so that there are six and a half strides between the jumps, requiring the rider to adjust the horse's stride in order to make the distance. Unlike show hunter classes, which reward calmness and style, jumper classes require boldness, power and control; the first round of the class consists of the rider and horse having to go around the course without refusing or knocking down any jumps while staying within the time allowed.
If the horse/rider combination completes the first round then they move on to the second round, called the "jump-off". In a jump-off, the rider needs to plan ahead of time because they need to be speedy and not have any faults; the jump-off has fewer jumps than the first round but is much more difficult. To win this round, the rider has to be the quickest while still not refusing or knocking down any jumps. Show jumping is a new equestrian sport; until the Inclosure Acts, which came into force in England in the 18th century, there had been little need for horses to jump fences but with this act of Parliament came new challenges for those who followed fox hounds. The Inclosure Acts brought fencing and boundaries to many parts of the country as common ground was dispersed amongst separate owners; this meant that those wishing to pursue their sport
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Sidesaddle riding is a form of equestrianism that uses a type of saddle which allows a rider to sit aside rather than astride an equine. Sitting aside dates back to antiquity and developed in European countries in the Middle Ages as a way for women in skirts to ride a horse in a modest fashion while wearing fine clothing, it has retained a specialty niche in the modern world. The earliest depictions of women riding with both legs on the same side of the horse can be seen in Greek vases and Celtic stones. Medieval depictions show women seated aside with the horse being led by a man, or seated on a small padded seat behind a male rider. Ninth century depictions planchette added to the pillion; these designs did not allow a woman to control a horse. In Europe, the sidesaddle developed in part because of cultural norms which considered it unbecoming for a woman to straddle a horse while riding. Further, long skirts were the usual fashion and riding astride in such attire was impractical and could be viewed as immodest.
However, women did ride horses and needed to be able to control their own horses, so there was a need for a saddle designed to allow control of the horse and modesty for the rider. The earliest functional "sidesaddle" was credited to Anne of Bohemia, it was a chair-like affair where the woman sat sideways on the horse with her feet on a small footrest. The design made it difficult for a woman to both stay on and use the reins to control the horse, so the animal was led by another rider, sitting astride; the insecure design of the early sidesaddle contributed to the popularity of the Palfrey, a smaller horse with smooth ambling gaits, as a suitable mount for women. A more practical design, developed in the 16th century, has been attributed to Catherine de' Medici. In her design, the rider sat facing forward, hooking her right leg around the pommel of the saddle with a horn added to the near side of the saddle to secure the rider's right knee; the footrest was replaced with a "slipper stirrup", a leather-covered Stirrup iron into which the rider's left foot was placed.
This saddle allowed the rider both to stay on and to control her own horse, at least at slower speeds. However, not all women adopted the sidesaddle at all times. Women such as Diane de Poitiers and Marie Antoinette were known to ride astride. Catherine the Great of Russia went so far as to commission a portrait showing her riding astride wearing a male officer's uniform. In the 1830s, Jules Pellier invented a sidesaddle design with a second, lower pommel to the sidesaddle. In this design, still in use today, one pommel is nearly vertical, mounted 10 degrees left of top dead center and curved to the right and up; the rider’s right leg goes around the upright, or fixed pommel, which supports the right thigh of the rider when it is lying across the top center of the saddle. The lower right leg rests along the shoulder of the left side of the horse and up against the second pommel which lies below the first on the left of the saddle, it is mounted about 20 degrees off the top of the saddle. This pommel is curved downward in order to curve over the top of the rider's left thigh, is attached in a manner so that it can pivot to adjust to the individual rider.
The rider places her left leg beneath this pommel, with the top of the thigh close or touching it, places her left foot in a single stirrup on that side. The impact of the second pommel was revolutionary. With this design, nearly all recreational equestrian pursuits were opened to women, yet they could conform to expectations of modesty. For example, a world record in sidesaddle show jumping was set at 6 ft, 6 inches at a horse show in Sydney, Australia in 1915; the leaping horn was the last major technological innovation for the sidesaddle and remains the core of basic design for saddles of contemporary manufacture made with modern materials. The riding habit worn by women riding sidesaddle was similar to clothing worn in everyday life, it wasn’t until the second half of the 16th century that a riding habit designed for sidesaddle riding was introduced, though sidesaddle habit design still tended to follow fashion of the day. In 1875, the first safety skirt was introduced and evolved into the open-sided apron.
Sidesaddle habits known as riding habits, developed as women became more active in the hunting field. The development of the leaping head on sidesaddles allowed women to jump fences while hunting. Cumbersome skirts were replaced by the apron still worn today—which is a half skirt worn over breeches; the sidesaddle apron can be attached to the right foot by a piece of elastic to hold it in place when riding. When dismounted the apron is wrapped behind the legs and attached to a button on the left hip to give the impression of a skirt. In the early 20th century, as it became acceptable for women to ride astride while wearing split skirts, breeches, the sidesaddle fell out of general use for several decades; the rise of women's suffrage played a role as women rejected traditional restrictions in their physical activities as well as seeking greater social and economic freedoms. However, there remained a place for sidesaddle riding in certain traditional and ceremonial circumstances, aficionad
Fine harness is a type of driving competition seen at horse shows, that feature light, refined horses with high action. Popular breeds in this event include the American Saddlebred, Arabian, Dutch Harness Horse, Hackney; some breeds of pony are shown in the fine harness style. These include the Hackney Pony, Welsh pony, the American-type Shetland Pony; the harness used is a breastplate type without a horse collar. The cart used is a light, four-wheeled design. Drivers wear formal attire
Campdrafting is a unique Australian sport involving a horse and rider working cattle. The riding style is Australian stock, somewhat akin to American Western riding and the event is similar to the American stock horse events such as cutting, working cow horse, team penning, ranch sorting. In a campdrafting competition, a rider on horseback must "cut out" one beast from the mob of cattle in the yard or the "camp" and block and turn the beast at least two or three times to prove to the judge that they have the beast under control; the outside course must be completed in less than 40 seconds. Events for juniors 8 years and under 13 years have one sound beast in the yard at all times. In other events it is recommended that there shall be a minimum of six head of sound stock in the camp at any time. Up to a total of 100 points are scored by horse and rider: "Cut out" is worth a total of 26 points. Most disqualifications occur. A "tail turn" executed by a horse in the opposite direction of the beast's line of travel incurs disqualification at any stage of the draft.
The sport requires consummate skill and horsemanship, the skill in selecting a beast from the mob that will run well, but is not too fast for that particular horse. Great prestige is bestowed on the winning rider of the competition, it is thought the sport developed in outback Queensland among the stockmen and drovers in informal competitions to prove horse skills. The first formal campdrafting competition occurred in Tenterfield at the Tenterfield Show Society's 1885 show. Competing at this event was Clarence Smith, a cattleman and horse breeder near Tenterfield, on the Northern Tablelands, New South Wales, he went on judging procedures that remain similar to the rules of today. The Warwick Gold Cup is one of the premier events on Australia's campdraft calendar where around 1,800 camp drafters compete for prize money over about four days of competition. Paradise Lagoons in Queensland is the venue of the richest campdraft in Australia with A$230,000 of prize money distributed over the four days of competition.
The Acton Super Beef Open Campdraft has prize money of $80,000. This event, alone attracted 605 entries, conducted with two rounds and a final; the Queensland Triple Crown of campdrafting consists of the Condamine Bell, Chinchilla Grandfather Clock and Warwick Gold Cup campdrafts. Walcha, New South Wales has held the National titles on several occasions as the district is one of the few able to supply the quantities of quality cattle needed for these big events. Most campdrafting days schedule an open, novice, ladies' and junior events. Larger competition days may include a draft for stallions and bareback riders. Campdrafting has become a popular family sport, with the husband, wife and a child sometimes competing on one horse in the ladies' campdraft, junior'draft and in another drafting event with the man up. There are 30,000 campdrafters registered and competing at various locations in Australia; the Equine influenza outbreak in Australia during 2007 and 2008 saw many horse events cancelled including campdrafting.
During this time some shows ran small campdraft events using motorcycles instead of horses. The Acton family has constructed a $3,000,000 purpose designed and constructed campdrafting complex situated on their property, Paradise Lagoons near Rockhampton, Queensland. In July 2008, $230,000 in prize money was available to successful competitors. During 2008, $500,000 was spent upgrading spectator facilities in preparation for the event; the annual Paradise Lagoons campdrafting events now have three non-stop arenas that operate for four days for increased prizemoney. In February 2009 the richest campdraft, the $50,000 Landmark Classic Campdraft was held at the Australian Equine and Livestock Events Centre, Tamworth. Following this a new Australian record was established for a non-Thoroughbred horse sale when the annual Landmark Classic Campdraft Horse Sale was held here; the 320 horses sold here for $2.9 million to a top of $46,000 and an average of $9,075.'Open campdrafting' is still practised on cattle properties when selected beasts are drafted from the mob while they are in their paddock, instead of droving the cattle for yard drafting.
The National Campdraft Council of Australia was formed around 2000 and oversees the four campdrafting bodies which are the Australian Bushmen's Campdraft and Rodeo Association, the Australian Campdraft Association, the Southern Campdrafters Association and Gippsland Campdraft Association. Campdrafting is recognised by the Australian Institute of Sport as a national sport; the ideal horse for this work is considered to be about 15 hands and agile enough to take a beast from the camp without trouble. He needs the speed to control the beast and the body weight to push a big bullock round by pressure on his shoulder, if needed. Beyond this, he has to be willing, have the cattle sense necessary in this most exacting, dangerous trial of strength between man and beast. A bigger horse is not suited to the sharp turns in this sport. A polo or polocrosse horses' work requirements are somewhat similar. A good campdrafting horse does not take his eye off the beast and the rider has to watch his own seat when the horse is propping and turning on the j
Polo is a horseback mounted team sport. It is one of the world's oldest known team sports. A game of Central Asian origin, polo was first played in Persia at dates given from the 6th century BC to the 1st century AD. Polo was at first a training game for cavalry units the king’s guard or other elite troops. From there it spread beyond, it is now popular around the world, with well over 100 member countries in the Federation of International Polo. It is played professionally in 16 countries, it was an Olympic sport from 1900 to 1936. It is known as the sport of kings, it has become a spectator sport for equestrians and society supported by sponsorship. The game is played by two opposing teams with the objective of scoring goals by hitting a small hard ball with a long-handled wooden mallet, through the opposing team's goal; each team has four mounted riders, the game lasts one to two hours, divided into periods called chukkas. Arena polo has similar rules, is played with three players per team; the playing area is smaller, of compacted sand or fine aggregate indoors.
Arena polo has more maneuvering due to space limitations, uses an air inflated ball larger than the hard field polo ball. Standard mallets are used, though larger head arena mallets are an option. Although the exact origins of the game are unknown it most began as a simple game played by mounted Iranian nomads in Central Asia, from where it spread to Persia and beyond. In time polo became. Women played as well as men. During the period of the Parthian Empire, the sport had great patronage under the kings and noblemen. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, was a Persian ball game and an important pastime in the court of the Sasanian Empire, it was part of royal education for the Sasanian ruling class. Emperor Shapur II learnt to play polo when he was seven years old in 316 AD. Known as chovgan it is still played in the region today. Valuable for training cavalry, the game was played from Constantinople to Japan by the Middle Ages; the game spread south to Arabia and to India and Tibet.
The game continued to be supported by Mongol rulers of Persia in the 11th century, as well as under the Safavid dynasty. In the 17th century, Naqsh-i Jahan Square in Isfahan was built as a polo field by King Abbas I; the game was learnt by the neighbouring Byzantine Empire at an early date. A tzykanisterion was built by emperor Theodosius II inside the Great Palace of Constantinople. Emperor Basil I excelled at it. After the Muslim conquests to the Ayyubid and Mameluke dynasties of Egypt and the Levant, their elites favoured it above all other sports. Notable sultans such as Saladin and Baybars were known to encourage it in their court. Polo sticks were features on the Mameluke precursor to modern day playing cards; the game spread to South Asia where it has had a strong presence in the north western areas of present-day Pakistan since at least the 15th-16th century. The name polo is said meaning ball. Qutubuddin Aibak, the Turkic slave from Central Asia who became the Sultan of Delhi in Northern India, ruled as a Sultan for only four years, from 1206 to 1210, dying an accidental death during a game of polo when his horse fell and he was impaled on the pommel of his saddle.
Polo travelled via the Silk Road to China where it was popular in the Chinese Tang dynasty capital of Chang'an, played by women, who wore male dress to do so. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, the popularity of polo in Tang China was "bolstered, no doubt, by the presence of the Sasanian court in exile". An archaic variation of polo, regionally referred to as buzkashi or kokpar, is still played in parts of Asia; the modern game of polo is derived from Manipur, where the game was known as'Sagol Kangjei','Kanjai-bazee', or'Pulu'. It was the anglicised form of the last, referring to the wooden ball, used, adopted by the sport in its slow spread to the west; the first polo club was established in the town of Silchar in Assam, India, in 1833. The origins of the game in Manipur are traced to early precursors of Sagol Kangjei; this was one of three forms of hockey in Manipur, the other ones being field hockey and wrestling-hockey. Local rituals such as those connected to the Marjing, the Winged-Pony God of Polo and the creation-ritual episodes of the Lai Haraoba festival enacting the life of his son, Khori-Phaba, the polo-playing god of sports.
These may indicate an origin earlier than the historical records of Manipur. According to Chaitharol-Kumbaba, a Royal Chronicle of Manipur King Kangba who ruled Manipur much earlier than Nongda Lairen Pakhangba introduced Sagol Kangjei. Further regular playing of this game commenced in 1605 during the reign of King Khagemba under newly framed rules of the game; however it was the first Mughal emperor, who popularised the sport in India and made a significant influence on England. In Manipur, polo is traditionally played with seven players to a side; the players are mounted on the indigenous Manipuri pony. There are no go