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Escort carrier

The escort carrier or escort aircraft carrier called a "jeep carrier" or "baby flattop" in the United States Navy or "Woolworth Carrier" by the Royal Navy, was a small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the United States Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II. They were half the length and a third the displacement of larger fleet carriers, carried fewer planes, more-lightly armed and armored. Escort carriers were most built upon a commercial ship hull, so they were cheaper and could be built quickly; this was their principal advantage as they could be completed in greater numbers as a stop-gap when fleet carriers were scarce. However, the lack of protection made escort carriers vulnerable, several were sunk with great loss of life; the light carrier was a similar concept to escort carriers in most respects, but were capable of higher speeds to allow operation alongside fleet carriers. Escort carriers were too slow to keep up with the main forces consisting of fleet carriers and cruisers.

Instead, they were used to escort convoys, defending them from enemy threats such as submarines and planes. In the invasions of mainland Europe and Pacific islands, escort carriers provided air support to ground forces during amphibious operations. Escort carriers served as backup aircraft transports for fleet carriers and ferried aircraft of all military services to points of delivery. In the Battle of the Atlantic, escort carriers were used to protect convoys against U-boats. Escort carriers accompanied the merchant ships and helped to fend off attacks from aircraft and submarines; as numbers increased in the war, escort carriers formed part of hunter-killer groups that sought out submarines instead of being attached to a particular convoy. In the Pacific theater, CVEs provided air support of ground troops in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, they lacked the speed and weapons to counter enemy fleets, relying on the protection of a Fast Carrier Task Force. However, at the Battle off Samar, one U. S. task force of escort carriers managed to defend itself against a much larger Japanese force of battleships and cruisers.

The Japanese met a furious defense of carrier aircraft, screening destroyers, destroyer escorts, proving that CVEs could appear to have the same striking power as full CVs. Of the 151 aircraft carriers built in the U. S. during World War II, 122 were escort carriers. Though no examples survive to this day, the Casablanca class was the most numerous class of aircraft carrier, with 50 launched. Second was the Bogue class, with 45 launched. In the early 1920s, the Washington Naval Treaty imposed limits on the maximum size and total tonnage of aircraft carriers for the five main naval powers. Treaties kept these provisions; as a result, construction between the World Wars had been insufficient to meet operational needs for aircraft carriers as World War II expanded from Europe. Too few fleet carriers were available to transport aircraft to distant bases, support amphibious invasions, offer carrier landing training for replacement pilots, conduct anti-submarine patrols, provide defensive air cover for deployed battleships and cruisers.

The foregoing mission requirements limited use of fleet carriers′ unique offensive strike capability demonstrated at the Battle of Taranto and the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Conversion of existing ships provided additional aircraft carriers until new construction became available. Conversions of cruisers and passenger liners with speed similar to fleet carriers were identified by the U. S. as "light aircraft carriers" able to operate at battle fleet speeds. Slower conversions were classified as "escort carriers" and were considered naval auxiliaries suitable for pilot training and transport of aircraft to distant bases; the Royal Navy had recognized a need for carriers to defend its trade routes in the 1930s. While designs had been prepared for "trade protection carriers" and five suitable liners identified for conversion, nothing further was done because there were insufficient aircraft for the fleet carriers under construction at the time. However, by 1940 the need had become urgent and HMS Audacity was converted from the captured German merchant ship MV Hannover and commissioned in July 1941.

For defense from German aircraft, convoys were supplied first with fighter catapult ships and CAM ships that could carry a single fighter. In the interim, before escort carriers could be supplied, they brought in merchant aircraft carriers that could operate four aircraft. In 1940, Admiral William Halsey recommended construction of naval auxiliaries for pilot training. In early 1941 the British asked the US to build on their behalf six carriers of an improved Audacity design but the US had begun their own escort carrier. On 1 February 1941, the United States Chief of Naval Operations gave priority to construction of naval auxiliaries for aircraft transport. U. S. ships built to meet these needs were referred to as auxiliary aircraft escort vessels in February 1942 and auxiliary aircraft carrier on 5 August 1942. The first U. S. example of the type was USS Long Island. Operation Torch and North Atlantic anti-submarine warfare proved these ships capable aircraft carriers for ship formations moving at the speed of trade or amphibious invasion convoys.

U. S. classification revision to escort aircraft carrier on 15 July 1943 reflected upgraded status from auxiliary to combatant. They were informally known as "Jeep carriers" or "baby flattops", it was fou

Parish of Liberty Plains

Liberty Plains Parish is one of the 57 parishes of Cumberland County, New South Wales, a cadastral unit for use on land titles. It is bounded by Parramatta Road in the north, it includes the suburbs of Regents Park, Potts Hill, Chester Hill, Bass Hill and Lidcombe. It includes the Rookwood Cemetery. Before the parish was proclaimed in 1835, the Liberty Plains district was in the same area; the name had been given when the first settlers had desired a settlement midway between Parramatta and Sydney city. The name is still used on a motor inn in the area. In the 1851 census there were 270 people in the Liberty Plains parish. Edmund Perrin and Terry Kass. "Liberty Plains". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 28 September 2015. "Liberty Plains". Geographical Names Register of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 4 August 2013

Eilhard Wiedemann

Eilhard Ernst Gustav Wiedemann was a German physicist and historian of science. He was the son of physicist Gustav Heinrich Wiedemann, an older brother to Egyptologist Alfred Wiedemann, he studied physics at the Universities of Heidelberg and Leipzig, obtaining his doctorate in 1872 with the thesis "Über die elliptische Polarisation und ihre Beziehung zu den Oberflächenfarben der Körper. From 1878 to 1886, he was an associate professor of physics at Leipzig, afterwards relocating to the University of Erlangen as a full professor. In addition to his duties as a physicist, he was a prolific author of works involving "history of science" themes, in particular, science as it pertained to Arab traditions. Physikalisches Praktikum. Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der physikalisch-chemischen Methoden, Braunschweig, 1890 - Practical physics, with special emphasis on physical-chemical methods. Über die Hamburg 1890 - On Arab natural sciences. Das neue Physikalische Institut der Universität Erlangen, 1896 - On the new institute of physics at the University of Erlangen.

Über Trinkgefäße und Tafelaufsätze nach al-Gazarî und den Benu Mûsà, Straßburg 1918. Zur Alchemie bei Erlangen 1922 - On Arab alchemy. Aufsätze zur arabischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte, with Wolf Dietrich Fischer. Hildesheim, New York, G. Olms, 1970 - Essays on the Arab history of science. Gesammelte Schriften zur arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte, with Dorothea Girke. University of Leipzig Overview of courses taught by Eilhard Wiedemann at Leipzig


PTAAGMB The PTAAGMB Model is used for calculating a glacier's mass balance, the primary indicator of its health, plots the changes to its mass balance over time to predict its future. Developed in the mid-1990's by glaciologist Wendell Tangborn, the PTAAGMB model provides an easy and reliable alternative to the challenging task of manually measuring glaciers using snow pits and ablation stakes; the PTAAGMB model only requires data from the precipitation and temperature observations from nearby low-altitude weather stations and the glacier's area-altitude distribution. Glaciers are ultra-sensitive to minute changes in the climate and respond by changing their size and by advancing or retreating; the mass balance, or the difference between snow accumulation and snow and ice ablation, is crucial to glacier health and its survival. The Columbia Glacier in Alaska is a large tidewater glacier that began a drastic retreat in the 1970s due to climate fluctuations and began discharging large quantities of icebergs into Prince William Sound.

These icebergs were responsible for a massive oil spill in 1989 when an oil tanker captain tried to avoid them and went aground. The key to the PTAAGMB model is the glacier’s area-altitude distribution, the glacier’s surface area as a function of elevation; the AA profile is a unique feature of a glacier, shaped by thousands of years of erosion of the bedrock underlying the glacier. Thus, the area altitude distribution has embedded within it the past climate history that has formed the glacier; the PTAAGMB model uses daily values of such balance variables as snowline altitude, zero balance altitude, glacier balance, balance flux and the accumulation area ratio are correlated throughout the ablation season using two-degree polynomial regressions to obtain the lowest fitting error. When the minimum average error is attained, the generated balances and other variables are considered to be real. A simplex optimization technique is used to determine the optimal coefficient values that are used in algorithms to convert meteorological observations to snow accumulation and snow and ice ablation.

The PTAAGMB model has been used on a number of glaciers in various parts of the world: in the United States, the Alaskan glaciers Bering, Lemon Creek, Mendenhall and Wrangell Range. The mass balance and runoff of Langtang Glacier in Nepal was determined with the PTAAGMB model using daily meteorological observations observed at Kathmandu; this is the only Himalayan glacier for which runoff have been calculated. Another feature of the PTAAGMB model is the capability to estimate glacier thickness from ice flow velocity and mass balance measurements; the average thickness of South Cascade Glacier was found to be 83 meters in 1965, based on flow velocity and balance measurements. Borehole depth measurements of the glacier made approximately agree with this estimate; the mass balance and surges of Bering Glacier were calculated with the PTAAGMB model using weather observations at Cordova and Yakutat, Alaska. Ice volume loss measured with the PTAAGMB model agrees within 0.8% of the loss measured with the geodetic method.

Runoff from Bering Glacier correlates with four of the glacier surges that have occurred since 1951. Comparison of glacier mass balance by glaciological and mapping methods revealed that glaciers internally store a significant amount of liquid water. Stored water in glaciers is now considered the key to understanding the disintegration of Antarctic and Greenland Ice Caps. A website with PTAAGMB results reported from 9 different glaciers, 5 of which are compared with available manual measurements, can be seen at Glacier mass balance NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center Using Low-Altitude Meteorological Observations to Calculate the Mass Balance of Alaska’s Columbia Glacier PTAAGMB

The Peahen

The Peahen is a public house in St Albans, England. The pub has been managed by McMullens Brewery since 1936. There has been an inn on the site since the fifteenth century; the original half-timbered building served as one of a number of coaching inns on Holywell Hill which runs into St Albans from the south. From the late 1600s, St Albans was a major stop for coaches heading north from London through Barnet; this road followed the tortuous route via Holywell Hill into the town centre. When the New London Road bypass was completed in 1796, the Peahen benefited now being the first inn for traffic arriving from London; the inn was rebuilt at the end of the nineteenth century. By this time the coaching era was over, but the Peahen continued to offer stabling into the twentieth century. Website

Salisu Yusuf

Salisu Yusuf is a Nigerian professional football manager and former player. He was the chief coach of the Nigeria national football team. Yusuf spent all his playing career in the Nigerian League and represented Nigeria at both junior and senior levels, he started his playing career as a midfielder for ABU Football Club before he went on to play for several Nigerian football clubs including Ranchers Bees and El-Kanemi Warriors Yusuf started his professional managerial career in 2002 as the head coach of Nigeria Professional Football League side Nasarawa United before he moved to Lobi Stars as an assistant coach and helping them win the National Challenge Cup in 2003. He moved to Dolphins F. C. where he worked as assistant coach until 2008 when he joined Kano Pillars as chief coach and led them to win the 2008 Nigeria Premier League title. In 2009, the Nigeria Football Federation employed Yusuf as assistant coach to Samson Siasia, serving as the head coach of the Nigeria national football team.

Yusuf was still working with Siasia when Kano Pillars appointed him as technical adviser in 2010, a move that saw the club qualify for the 2010 CAF Champions League. In November 2012, he moved to Enyimba where he replaced Austin Eguavoen as technical adviser and guiding them to win the 2013 Federation Cup trophy. Upon leaving Enyimba Football Club, Yusuf joined El-Kanemi Warriors as technical adviser before he went on to be named assistant coach to Stephen Keshi, serving as head coach of the Nigerian senior football team. On 24 October 2016, he was appointed by the Nigeria Football Federation as the chief coach of the Nigeria national football team. On 24 July 2018, Salisu Yusuf was seen accepting a cash gift in a video released by BBC Africa following a series of investigations on the state of football in Africa. Yusuf was said to have accepted bribe after two investigative reporters approached him to include two footballers in his squad at the 2018 African Championship. The BBC did however state in the documentary that there was no evidence that the cash received by Salisu Yusuf affected any decisions he made in the player selection process.

Salisu Yusuf subsequently denied any wrongdoing, stating that the inducement did not affect his decision to field the players. In November 2019 he became manager of Rangers International. Nigerian FA Cup: 2003, 2013 Nigeria Premier League: 2008 Salisu Yusuf at Soccerway