SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Escutcheon (heraldry)

In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms. The word is used in two related senses. First, as the shield on which a coat of arms is displayed. Escutcheon shapes are derived from actual shields used by knights in combat, thus are varied and developed by region and by era; as this shape has been regarded as a war-like device appropriate to men only, British ladies customarily bear their arms upon a lozenge, or diamond-shape, while clergymen and ladies in continental Europe bear theirs on a cartouche, or oval. Other shapes are in use, such as the roundel used for arms granted to Aboriginal Canadians by the Canadian Heraldic Authority or the Nguni shield used in African heraldry. Though it can be used as a charge on its own, the most common use of an escutcheon charge is to display another coat of arms as a form of marshalling; these escutcheons are given the same shape as the main shield. When there is only one such shield, it is sometimes called an inescutcheon.

The word escutcheon is based on Old North French escuchon "shield". The earliest depictions of proto-heraldic shields in the second half of the 12th century still have the shape of the Norman kite shield used throughout the 11th and 12th centuries. By about the 1230s, shields used by heavy cavalry had become shorter and more triangular, now called heater shields. Transitional forms intermediate between kite and heater are seen in the late 12th to early 13th centuries. Transition to the heater was complete by 1250. For example, the shield of William II Longespée shown with his effigy at Salisbury Cathedral is triangular, while the shield shown on the effigy of his father William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury is still of a more elongated form; the shield on the enamel monument to Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou is of full-body length. The heater was used in warfare during the apogee of the Age of Chivalry, at about the time of the Battle of Crecy and the founding of the Order of the Garter; the shape is therefore used in armorials from this "classical age" of heraldry.

Beginning in the 15th century, more throughout the early modern period, a great variety of escutcheon shapes develops. In the Tudor era the heraldic escutcheon became more square, taking the shape of an inverted Tudor arch. Continental European designs use the various forms used in jousting, which incorporate "mouths" used as lance rests into the shields; the mouth is shown on the dexter side only, as jousting pitches were designed for right-handed knights. Heraldic examples of English shields à bouche can be seen in the spandrels of the trussed timber roof of Lincoln's Inn Hall, London; the shape of the top, the sides and the base may be separately described, these elements may be combined. The complex Baroque style shields of the 17th century come in many artistic variations. In English heraldry, the lozenge has been used by women since the 13th century for the display of their coats of arms instead of the escutcheon or shield, which are associated with warfare. In this case the lozenge is shown without helm.

For the practical purpose of categorisation the lozenge may be treated as a variety of heraldic escutcheon. Traditionally limited categories of females have been able to display their own arms, for example a female monarch—who uses an escutcheon as a military commander, not a lozenge—and suo jure peeresses, who may display their own arms alone on a lozenge if married. In general a female was represented by her paternal arms impaled by the arms of her husband on an escutcheon as a form of marshalling. In modern Canadian heraldry, certain other modern heraldic jurisdictions, women may be granted their own arms and display these on an escutcheon. Life peeresses in England display their arms on a lozenge. An oval or cartouche is also used instead of the lozenge for armigerous women; as a result of rulings of the English Kings of Arms dated 7 April 1995 and 6 November 1997, married women in England, Northern Ireland and Wales and in other countries recognising the jurisdiction of the College of Arms in London have the option of using their husband's arms alone, marked with a small lozenge as a difference to show that the arms are displayed for the wife and not the husband.

Divorced women may theoretically until remarriage use their ex-husband's arms differenced with a mascle. Widowed women display a lozenge-shaped shield impaled, unless they are heraldic heiresses, in which case they display a lozenge-shaped shield with the unaltered escutcheon of pretence in the centre. Women in same-sex marriages may use a shield or banner to combine arms, but can use only a lozenge or banner when one of the spouses dies; the lozenge shape of quasi-escutcheon is used for funerary hatchments for both men and women. Pretoria High School for Girls in South Africa is one of the few all-girls schools, granted permission to use the lozenge as part of its coat of arms; the points of the shield refer to specific positions thereon and are used in blazons to describe where a charge should be placed. An inescutcheon is a smaller escutcheon, placed within or superimposed over the main shield of a coat of arms; this may be used in the following cases: as a simple mobile charge, for example as borne by the French family of Abbeville, illustrated below.

SER Q class

The SER Q class was a class of 0-4-4T steam locomotives of the South Eastern Railway. The class was designed by James Stirling and introduced in 1881; these locomotives should not be confused with the SR Q class 0-6-0. The locomotives passed to the South Eastern and Chatham Railway in 1899 and 55 were rebuilt by Harry Wainwright to class Q1 between 1903 and 1919. Thirty-two unrebuilt locomotives survived into Southern Railway ownership on 1 January 1923 with random numbers between 6 and 424. All had been withdrawn by 1929. Ahrons, E. L.. The British Steam Railway Locomotive. Ian Allan. Casserley, H. C.. W.. Locomotives at the Grouping 1, Southern Railway. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0552-4

Codex Vaticanus 354

Codex Vaticanus, designated by S or 028, ε 1027 called Codex Guelpherbytanus, is a Greek manuscript of the four Gospels which can be dated to a specific year instead of an estimated range. The colophon of the codex lists the date as 949; this manuscript is one of the four oldest New Testament manuscripts dated in this manner, the only dated uncial. The manuscript has complex contents; the codex contains 235 parchment leaves, with complete text of the four Gospels. The text is written in 27 lines per page, 15-17 letters per line, it is written in large and compressed uncial letters. It has no accents; the nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated way. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, their τιτλοι at the top. There is a division according to the smaller Ammonian sections, with references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains the Epistula ad Carpianum, lists of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel, subscriptions at the end of each Gospel, with numbers of stichoi.

It contains many corrections, margin notes predominantly added by hand. It includes neumes, it is one of the oldest manuscript with neumes; the writing is large oblong and compressed, appears Slavic. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type in close relationship to the codices Codex Mosquensis II, Codex Washingtonianus. Kurt Aland placed it in Category V, it belongs to the textual family K1. In it has marginal comment: "In many ancient copies which I have met with I found Barabbas himself called Jesus; the disputed texts of.44, Pericope Adultera are marked by asterisks as questionable texts. In it reads επορευετο instead of επορευθη; the name of the scribe was Michael, a monk, who finished his work "in the month of March, the fifth day, the sixth hour, the year 6457, the seventh indiction". The manuscript was described by Bianchini, it was collated with some errors by Birch in 1781-1783, but collators in his day noticed orthographical forms. Tischendorf in 1866 corrected the collation of Birch.

Tischendorf states that facsimile of Bianchini was coarsely executed, he made another for himself. The codex is located in Rome. List of New Testament uncials List of New Testament papyri Textual criticism Andreas Birch, Variae Lectiones ad Textum IV Evangeliorum, Haunie 1801, p. IV-V Giovanni Mercati, "Un frammento delle Ipotiposi di Clemente Alessandrino" Bruce M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Paleography, Oxford University Press, New York - Oxford, 1991, p. 110 Edward Maunde Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin palaeography, Clarendon Press: Oxford 1912, p. 215. Codex Vaticanus 354, S at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism