A ridge or mountain ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size, there are several main types of ridges, Dendritic ridge, In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges. These are by far the most common ridges and these ridges usually represent slightly more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they often remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed, or other chance occurrences. This type of ridge is somewhat random in orientation, often changing direction frequently. Similar ridges have formed in such as the Black Hills. Sometimes these ridges are called hogback ridges, oceanic spreading ridge, In tectonic spreading zones around the world, such as at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the volcanic activity forming new plate boundary forms volcanic ridges at the spreading zone.
Isostatic settling and erosion gradually reduce the moving away from the zone. Crater ridges, Large meteorite strikes typically form large impact craters bordered by circular ridges, volcanic crater/caldera ridges, Large volcanoes often leave behind a central crater/caldera bordered by circular ridges. Fault ridges, Faults often form escarpments, sometimes the tops of the escarpments form not plateaus, but slope back so that the edges of the escarpments form ridges. Dune ridges, In areas of large-scale dune activity, certain types of dunes result in sand ridges and eskers, Glacial activity may leave ridges in the form of moraines and eskers. An arête is a ridge of rock that is formed by glacial erosion. Volcanic subglacial ridges, Many subglacial volcanoes create ridge-like formations when lava erupts through a glacier or ice sheet. Shutter ridges, A shutter ridge is a ridge which has moved along a fault line, typically, a shutter ridge creates a valley corresponding to the alignment of the fault that produces it
For sediment in beverages, see dregs. For example and silt can be carried in suspension in water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation. Sediments are most often transported by water, but wind, beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of transport and deposition. Glacial moraine deposits and till are ice-transported sediments, sediment can be classified based on its grain size and/or its composition. Sediment size is measured on a log base 2 scale, called the Phi scale, composition of sediment can be measured in terms of, parent rock lithology mineral composition chemical make-up. This leads to an ambiguity in which clay can be used as both a size-range and a composition, sediment is transported based on the strength of the flow that carries it and its own size, volume and shape. Stronger flows will increase the lift and drag on the particle, causing it to rise and streams carry sediment in their flows.
This sediment can be in a variety of locations within the flow and these relationships are shown in the following table for the Rouse number, which is a ratio of sediment fall velocity to upwards velocity. If the upwards velocity is less than the settling velocity, but still high enough for the sediment to move, it will move along the bed as bed load by rolling, sliding. If the upwards velocity is higher than the velocity, the sediment will be transported high in the flow as wash load. As there are generally a range of different particle sizes in the flow, sediment motion can create self-organized structures such as ripples, antidunes on the river or stream bed. These bedforms are often preserved in rocks and can be used to estimate the direction. Overland flow can erode soil particles and transport them downslope, the erosion associated with overland flow may occur through different methods depending on meteorological and flow conditions. If the initial impact of rain droplets dislodges soil, the phenomenon is called rainsplash erosion, if overland flow is directly responsible for sediment entrainment but does not form gullies, it is called sheet erosion.
If the flow and the substrate permit channelization, gullies may form, glaciers carry a wide range of sediment sizes, and deposit it in moraines. The overall balance between sediment in transport and sediment being deposited on the bed is given by the Exner equation and this expression states that the rate of increase in bed elevation due to deposition is proportional to the amount of sediment that falls out of the flow. This can be localized, and simply due to obstacles, examples are scour holes behind boulders, where flow accelerates
Pispala is a city area 2.5 km from the centre of Tampere, Finland. It is located on the slope of Pispalanharju, the highest esker in Finland. Together with Pyynikki, Pispala is widely considered the most beautiful area of Tampere and tourists are guided there for the view. A monument to the Finnish poet Lauri Viita is located near the highest point of the ridge, Pispala is named after the House of Pispa, which had the obligation to house the bishops during their travel. Pispala was all farming land until as recently as 1869, as Tampere was industrialised Pispala grew without a unified local development plan, resulting in unique building styles and solutions. Specifically factory and construction workers resided there with most of them being originally from Tampere or the areas such as ostrobothnia. The area was joined to the City of Tampere 1937 and it is a periurban area or urban village and many of the features of the place echo this aspect. Many well-known Finnish artists and celebrities have lived and live in Pispala and these include Lauri Viita, Olavi Virta, Mikko Alatalo, Hannu Salama, Seela Sella, Keith Armstrong, Aaro Hellaakoski.
The only Finnish writer awarded with the Nobel Prize in Literature, F. E. Sillanpää located his novel Hiltu ja Ragnar − which the author considered his best work, in Pispala. More recently it has featured as a setting for the events in The Butterfly from Ural animated short film directed by Katariina Lillqvist in 2008. There are many associations in the area and they are supported by an umbrella organization called the Pispalan kumppanuus. Pispala houses the oldest still active public sauna in Finland, rajaportin sauna began its operation in 1906 and is currently owned by the City of Tampere. However it is run by a local Pispala Sauna Association and it contains an anarchist bookshelf and small gallery space. Also found in Pispala is Kurpitsatalo a community gardening project that celebrates the cycle of the year with traditional pagan festivals and has various allotments. Today Pispala has a vibrant artivist atmosphere and has much in kin with other bohemian arts areas such as Užupis, Greenwich Village or Freetown Christiania
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany
Weymouth is a city in metropolitan Greater Boston. As of the 2010 census, Weymouth had a population of 55,643. Weymouth is one of fourteen Massachusetts municipalities that have applied for and it is named after Weymouth, Dorset, a coastal town in England. It is the second-oldest European settlement in Massachusetts, as of the census of 2010, there were 53,743 people,22,435 households, and 13,595 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,174.2 people per square mile, There were 22,573 housing units at an average density of 1,327.1 per square mile. 75% housing units were owner-occupied and 25% of housing units were renter-occupied. The racial makeup of the city was 89. 7% White,3. 1% Black or African American,0. 2% Native American,3. 2% Asian,0. 0% Pacific Islander,0. 6% from other races, and 1. 2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 1% of the population,30. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.42 and the family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was out with 22. 0% under the age of 18,6. 6% from 18 to 24,32. 7% from 25 to 44,23. 4% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males, the median income for a household in the city was $41,665, and the median income for a family was $54,083. Males had an income of $42,497 versus $35,963 for females. The per capita income for was $24,976, about 9. 1% of families and 9. 8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7. 3% of those under age 18 and 7. 4% of those age 65 or over. Weymouth has the 10th highest Irish population in the United States, data is from the 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. Weymouth is located at 42°12′23″N 70°56′45″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.6 square miles, of which,17.0 square miles of it is land and 4.6 square miles of it is water.
Weymouth contains the Weymouth Back River and the Weymouth Fore River, its surroundings, formerly industrial, are now set aside as parks, There are a lot of streets named after people and trees. Weymouth residents often designate which of four districts they live in
Sims Corner Eskers and Kames
It is located on the Waterville Plateau of the Columbia Plateau in north central Washington state in the United States. The Sims Corner Eskers and Kames National Natural Landmark is located on the Waterville Plateau, which lies in the northwest corner of the Columbia River Plateau. The plateau is formed on top of the Columbia River Basalt Group, a large province that lies across parts of the states of Washington, Oregon. Eruptions were most vigorous from 17–14 million years ago, when over 99% of the basalt was released, less extensive eruptions continued from 14–6 million years ago. Two million years ago the Pleistocene epoch began and ice age glaciers invaded the area and they scoured the Columbia River Plateau, reaching as far south as the middle of the Waterville Plateau highlands above the Grand Coulee and south to the head of Moses Coulee. In some areas north of the Grand Coulee they were as much as 3 km thick, grooves in the exposed granite bedrock are still visible in the area from the movement of glaciers and numerous glacial erratics in the elevated to the northwest of the coulee.
The Okanogan lobe of the Cordilleran Glacier moved down the Okanogan River valley and blocked the ancient route of the Columbia River, initially water discharged from Lake Spokane by running up through the head of Grand Coulee and down through Foster Coulee to rejoin the Columbia River. As the Okanogan lobe grew, it blocked Moses Coulee as well, list of National Natural Landmarks Boulder Park National Natural Landmark, Douglas County, Washington U. S. National Park Service on Sims Corner Eskers and Kames
In geology, the sedimentary structures known as cross-bedding are the horizontal units that are internally composed of inclined layers. This is a case in geology in which the original depositional layering is tilted, cross-beds or sets are the groups of inclined layers, and the inclined layers are known as cross strata. Cross bedding forms during deposition on the surfaces of bedforms such as ripples and dunes. Examples of these bedforms are ripples, anti-dunes, sand waves, bars, Cross-bedding is widespread in many environments. Environments in which movement is fast enough and deep enough to develop large-scale bed forms fall into three natural groupings, tide-dominated coastal and marine settings. Cross beds can tell much about what an area was like in ancient times. The direction the beds are dipping indicates paleocurrent, the direction of sediment transport. The type and condition of sediments can tell geologists the type of environment, studying modern analogs allows geologists to draw conclusions about ancient environments.
Paleocurrent can be determined by seeing a cross-section of a set of cross-beds, however, to get a true reading, the axis of the beds must be visible. It is difficult to distinguish between the beds of a dune and the cross beds of an antidune. This could lead to misinterpretation since dunes dip downstream while antidunes dip upstream, the direction of motion of the cross-beds can show ancient flow or wind directions. The foresets are deposited at the angle of repose, so geologists are able to measure dip direction of the cross-bedded sediments, most cross-beds are not tabular, they are troughs. Since troughs can give a 180 degree variation of the dip of foresets, in this case, true paleocurrent direction is determined by the axis of the trough. Paleocurrent direction is important in reconstructing past climate and drainage patterns, sand dunes preserve the prevalent wind directions, Cross-bedding is formed by the downstream migration of bedforms such as ripples or dunes in a flowing fluid.
The fluid flow causes sand grains to saltate up the side of the bedform. At this point, the crest of granular material has grown too large and will be overcome by the force of the depositing fluid, repeated avalanches will eventually form the sedimentary structure known as cross-bedding, with the structure dipping in the direction of the paleocurrent. The angle and direction of cross-beds are generally fairly consistent, individual cross-beds can range in thickness from just a few tens of centimeters, up to hundreds of feet or more depending upon the depositional environment and the size of the bedform. Cross-bedding can form in any environment in which a fluid flows over a bed with mobile material and it is most common in stream deposits, tidal areas, and in aeolian dunes
In geology and related fields, a stratum is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The stratum is the unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy. Each layer is one of a number of parallel layers that lie one upon another. They may extend over hundreds of thousands of kilometers of the Earths surface. Strata are typically seen as bands of different colored or differently structured material exposed in cliffs, road cuts, individual bands may vary in thickness from a few millimeters to a kilometer or more. Each band represents a mode of deposition, river silt, beach sand, coal swamp, sand dune, lava bed. Geologists study rock strata and categorize them by the material of beds, each distinct layer is typically assigned to the name of sheet, usually based on a town, mountain, or region where the formation is exposed and available for study. For example, the Burgess Shale is an exposure of dark, occasionally fossiliferous.
Slight distinctions in material in a formation may be described as members, formations are collected into groups while groups may be collected into supergroups. Archaeological horizon Geologic formation Geologic map Geologic unit Law of superposition Bed GeoWhen Database
A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock. Crevasses form as a result of the movement and resulting stress associated with the shear stress generated when two pieces above a plastic substrate have different rates of movement. The resulting intensity of the stress causes a breakage along the faces. Crevasses often have vertical or near-vertical walls, which can melt and create seracs, arches. These walls sometimes expose layers that represent the glaciers stratigraphy, Crevasse size often depends upon the amount of liquid water present in the glacier. A crevasse may be as deep as 45 metres, as wide as 20 metres, a crevasse may be covered, but not necessarily filled, by a snow bridge made of the previous years accumulation and snow drifts. The result is that crevasses are rendered invisible, and thus potentially lethal to anyone attempting to navigate their way across a glacier, occasionally a snow bridge over an old crevasse may begin to sag, providing some landscape relief, but this cannot be relied upon.
Anyone planning to travel on a glacier should be trained in crevasse rescue, the presence of water in a crevasse can significantly increase its penetration. Longitudinal crevasses form parallel to flow where the width is expanding. They develop in areas of stress, such as where a valley widens or bends. They are typically concave down and form a greater than 45° with the margin. Splashing crevasses result from shear stress from the margin of the glacier and they extend from the glaciers margin and are concave up with respect to glacier flow, making an angle less than 45° with the margin. At the centre line of the glacier, there is zero pure shear from the margins, transverse crevasses are the most common crevasse type. They form in a zone of longitudinal extension where the stresses are parallel to the direction of glacier flow. These crevasses stretch across the glacier transverse to the flow direction and they generally form where a valley becomes steeper. Bergschrund Bowie Crevasse Field Glaciology Paterson, W. S.
B,1994, The Physics of Glaciers, 3rd edition, ISBN 0-7506-4742-6. Boon, S. M. J. Sharp,2003, The role of hydrologically-driven ice fracture in drainage system evolution on an Arctic glacier, Geophysical Research Letters,30, pp.1916. Van der Veen, C. J.1998, Fracture mechanics approach to penetration of surface crevasses on glaciers, Cold Regions Science and Technology,27, pp. 31–47
Gravel /ˈɡrævəl/ is composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel is categorized by the Udden-Wentworth scale into granular gravel and pebble gravel, one cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg. Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications, many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac, both sand and small gravel are important for the manufacture of concrete. Large gravel deposits are a geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations and this can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits.
Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages. As of 2006, the United States is the leading producer and consumer of gravel. The word gravel comes from the Breton language, adding the -el suffix in Breton denotes the component parts of something larger. Thus gravel means the stones which make up such a beach on the coast. Many dictionaries ignore the Breton language, citing Old French gravele or gravelle, Gravel often has the meaning a mixture of different size pieces of stone mixed with sand and possibly some clay. American English allows small stones without sand mixed in known as crushed stone, types of gravel include, Bank gravel, naturally deposited gravel intermixed with sand or clay found in and next to rivers and streams. Also known as Bank run or River run, bench gravel, a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
Creek rock, this is rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types. It is used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface. Crushed stone, rock crushed and graded by screens and mixed to a blend of stones and fines and it is widely used as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from granite, dolomite, known as crusher run, DGA QP, and shoulder stone