Patsy Ruth Miller
Patricia Ruth "Patsy" Miller was an American film actress who played Esmeralda in The Hunchback of Notre Dame opposite Lon Chaney. Miller was raised in St. Louis, Missouri; as a girl, she had a screen test in Hollywood, but her mother was advised to take her home because she had no potential to be an actress. She was born Ruth Mae Miller but changed her name to avoid confusion with another actress, Ruth Miller, active in film. After being discovered by actress Alla Nazimova at a Hollywood party, Miller got her first break with a small role in Camille, which starred Rudolph Valentino, her roles improved, she was chosen as a WAMPAS Baby Star in 1922. In 1923, she was acclaimed for her performance as Esmeralda in The Hunchback of Notre Dame opposite Lon Chaney. In the part of the decade Miller appeared chiefly in light romantic comedies, opposite such actors as Clive Brook and Edward Everett Horton. Among her film credits in the late 1920s are Broken Hearts of Hollywood, A Hero for a Night, Hot Heels, The Aviator.
She retired from films in 1931. She made a cameo appearance in the 1951 film Quebec, which starred John Barrymore Jr. and stated in her autobiography that she had participated as a joke. She came out of retirement to do the film Mother in 1978, she achieved recognition as a writer. She won three O. Henry Awards for her short stories, wrote a novel, radio scripts, plays, she performed for a brief time on Broadway. Miller was married three times, the first two ended in divorce, her first husband was film director Tay Garnett and the second was screenwriter John Lee Mahin. Her third husband, businessman E. S. Deans, died in 1986; the frequent news about her love life once earned Miller the sobriquet "the most engaged girl in Hollywood." In 1988, BearManor Media published My Hollywood: When Both of Us Were Young. Reviewer Richard Brody of The New Yorker called the memoir "a hidden masterwork of the genre". Patsy Ruth Miller died at her home at the age of 91 in California. My Hollywood: When Both of Us Were Young Patsy Ruth Miller on IMDb Patsy Ruth Miller at the Internet Broadway Database Patsy Ruth Miller at Find a Grave Patsy Ruth Miller at Virtual History Patsy Ruth Miller papers, 1922-1986, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
The pillory is a device made of a wooden or metal framework erected on a post, with holes for securing the head and hands used for punishment by public humiliation and further physical abuse. The pillory is related to the stocks; the word is documented in English since 1274, stems from Old French pellori, itself from medieval Latin pilloria, of uncertain origin a diminutive of Latin pila "pillar, stone barrier". Rather like the lesser punishment called the stocks, the pillory consisted of hinged wooden boards forming holes through which the head and/or various limbs were inserted. Pillories were set up to hold people in marketplaces and other public places, they were placed on platforms to increase public visibility of the person. A placard detailing the crime was placed nearby. In being forced to bend forward and stick their head and hands out in front of them, offenders in the pillory would have been uncomfortable during their punishment. However, the main purpose in putting criminals in the pillory was to publicly humiliate them.
On discovering that the pillory was occupied, people would excitedly gather in the marketplace to taunt and laugh at the offender on display. Those who gathered to watch the punishment wanted to make the offender's experience as unpleasant as possible. In addition to being jeered and mocked, those in the pillory might be pelted with rotten food, offal, dead animals, animal excrement. Sometimes people were killed or maimed in the pillory because crowds could get too violent and pelt the offender with stones and other dangerous objects. However, when Daniel Defoe was sentenced to the pillory in 1703 for Seditious libel, he was regarded as a hero by the crowd and was pelted with flowers; the criminal could be sentenced to further punishments while in the pillory: humiliation by shaving off some or all hair or regular corporal punishment, notably flagellation or permanent mutilation such as branding or having an ear cut off, as in the case of John Bastwick. In Protestant cultures, the pillory would be the worldly part of a church punishment.
The delinquent would therefore first serve the ecclesiastical part of his punishment on the pillory bench in the church itself, be handed to the worldly authorities to be bound to the Skampåle for public humiliation. In 1816, use of the pillory was restricted in England to punishment for subornation; the pillory was formally abolished as a form of punishment in England and Wales in 1837, but the stocks remained in use, though infrequently, until 1872. The last person to be pilloried in England was Peter James Bossy, convicted of "wilful and corrupt perjury" in 1830, he was offered the choice of seven years' penal transportation or one hour in the pillory, chose the latter. In France, time in the "pilori" was limited to two hours, it was replaced in 1789 by "exposition", abolished in 1832. Two types of devices were used: The poteau was a simple post with a board around only the neck, was synonymous with the mode of punishment; this was the same as the schandpaal in Dutch. The carcan, an iron ring around the neck to tie a prisoner to such a post, was the name of a similar punishment, abolished in 1832.
A criminal convicted to serve time in a prison or galleys would, prior to his incarceration, be attached for two to six hours to the carcan, with his name and sentence written on a board over his head. A permanent small tower, the upper floor of which had a ring made of wood or iron with holes for the victim's head and arms, on a turntable to expose the condemned to all parts of the crowd. Like other permanent apparatus for physical punishment, the pillory was placed prominently and constructed more elaborately than necessary, it served as a symbol of the power of the judicial authorities, its continual presence was seen as a deterrent, like permanent gallows for authorities endowed with high justice. In Portugal, it is called Pelourinho, there are monuments of great importance because they are known since the Roman times, they are located on the main square of the town, and/or in front of a major church or a palace. They are made of stone with the top carved. Pelourinhos are considered major local monuments, several bearing the coat of arms of a king or queen.
The same is true of its former colonies, notably in Brazil and Africa, always as symbols of royal power. In Spain it was called picota; the pillory was in common use in other western countries and colonies, similar devices were used in other, non-Western cultures. According to one source, the pillory was abolished as a form of punishment in the United States in 1839, but this cannot be true because it was in use in Delaware as as 1901. Governor Preston Lea signed a bill to abolish the pillory in Delaware in March 1905. Punishment by whipping-post remained on the books in Delaware until 1972, when it became the last state to abolish it. Delaware was the last state to sentence someone to whipping in 1963; the last whipping in Delaware was in 1952. There was a variant, called a barrel pillory
Salma Hayek Pinault is a Mexican and American film actress and former model. She began her career in Mexico starring in the telenovela Teresa and starred in the film El Callejón de los Milagros for which she was nominated for an Ariel Award. In 1991 Hayek moved to Hollywood and came to prominence with roles in films such as Desperado, From Dusk till Dawn and Wild Wild West, her breakthrough role was in the 2002 film Frida, as Mexican painter Frida Kahlo, for which she was nominated in the category of Best Actress for an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, Golden Globe Award. This movie was a critical and commercial success, she won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing in a Children/Youth/Family Special in 2004 for The Maldonado Miracle and received an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series in 2007 after guest-starring in the ABC television comedy-drama Ugly Betty. She guest-starred on the NBC comedy series 30 Rock from 2009 to 2013.
In 2017, she was nominated for an Independent Spirit Award for her role in Beatriz at Dinner. Hayek's recent films include Grown Ups, Puss in Boots, Grown Ups 2, Tale of Tales and The Hitman's Bodyguard. Salma Hayek Jiménez was born in Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, her younger brother, Sami, is a furniture designer. Her mother, Diana Jiménez Medina, is an opera talent scout, her father, Sami Hayek Domínguez, is an oil company executive and owner of an industrial-equipment firm, who once ran for mayor of Coatzacoalcos. Her father is Mexican of Christian Lebanese descent, with his family being from the city of Baabdat, Lebanon, a city Salma and her father visited in 2015 to promote her movie Kahlil Gibran's The Prophet, her mother is Mexican of Spanish descent. In a 2011 interview with V magazine, Hayek mentioned that she was once an illegal immigrant in the United States, although it was not for a long period of time. In an interview in 2015 with Un Nuevo Día while visiting Madrid, Hayek described herself as fifty-percent Lebanese and fifty-percent Spanish, stating that her grandmother/maternal great-grandparents were from Spain.
Raised in a wealthy, devout Roman Catholic family, she was sent to the Academy of the Sacred Heart in Grand Coteau, Louisiana, at the age of twelve. In school, she was diagnosed with dyslexia, she attended university in Mexico City, where she studied International Relations at the Universidad Iberoamericana. At the age of 23, Hayek landed the title role in Teresa, a successful Mexican telenovela that made her a star in Mexico. In 1994, Hayek starred in the film El Callejón de los Milagros, which has won more awards than any other movie in the history of Mexican cinema. For her performance, Hayek was nominated for an Ariel Award. Hayek moved to California, in 1991 to study acting under Stella Adler, she had limited fluency in English, dyslexia. Robert Rodriguez, his producer and then-wife, Elizabeth Avellan, soon gave Hayek a starring role opposite Antonio Banderas in 1995's Desperado, she followed her role in Desperado with a brief role as a vampire queen in From Dusk till Dawn, in which she performed a table-top snake dance.
Hayek had a starring role opposite Matthew Perry in the 1997 romantic comedy Fools Rush In. In 1999 she co-starred in Will Smith's big-budget Wild Wild West, played a supporting role in Kevin Smith's Dogma. In 2000 Hayek had an uncredited acting part opposite Benicio del Toro in Traffic. In 2003, she reprised her role from Desperado by appearing in Once Upon a Time in Mexico, the final film of the Mariachi Trilogy. Around 2000, Hayek founded film production company Ventanarosa, through which she produces film and television projects, her first feature as a producer was 1999's El Coronel No Tiene Quien Le Escriba, Mexico's official selection for submission for Best Foreign Film at the Oscars. Frida, co-produced by Hayek, was released in 2002. Starring Hayek as Frida Kahlo, Alfred Molina as her unfaithful husband, Diego Rivera, the film was directed by Julie Taymor and featured an entourage of stars in supporting and minor roles and cameos, she earned a Best Actress Academy Award nomination for her performance.
In the Time of the Butterflies is a 2001 feature film based on the Julia Álvarez book of the same name, covering the lives of the Mirabal sisters. In the movie, Salma Hayek plays one of the sisters and Edward James Olmos plays the Dominican dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo whom the sisters opposed. In 2003, Hayek produced and directed The Maldonado Miracle, a Showtime movie based on the book of the same name, winning her a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing in a Children/Youth/Family Special. In December 2005, she directed a music video for Prince, titled "Te Amo Corazon" that featured Mía Maestro. Hayek was an executive producer of Ugly Betty, a television series that aired around the world from 2006 to 2010. Hayek adapted the series for American television with Ben Silverman, who acquired the rights and scripts from the Colombian telenovela Yo Soy Betty La Fea in 2001. Intended as a half-hour sitcom for NBC in 2004, the project would be picked up by ABC for the 2006–2007 season with Silvio Horta producing.
Hayek guest-starred on Ugly Betty as a magazine editor. She had a cameo playing an actress in the telenovela within the show; the show won a Golden Globe Award for Best Comedy Series in 2007. Hayek's performance as Sofia resulted in a nomination for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Se
The Romani, colloquially known as Gypsies or Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally itinerant, living in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan and Punjab regions of modern-day India. Genetic findings appear to confirm that the Romani "came from a single group that left northwestern India about 1,500 years ago." Genetic research published in the European Journal of Human Genetics "revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that appears unique to the Roma." They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe Central and Southern Europe. The Romani originated in northern India and arrived in Mid-West Asia and Europe around 1,000 years ago, they have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people: the two groups have been said to have separated from each other or, at least, to share a similar history. The ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India sometime between the 6th and 11th century.
The Romani are known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies, which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. Since the 19th century, some Romani have migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States. Brazil includes a notable Romani community descended from people deported by the Portuguese Empire during the Portuguese Inquisition. In migrations since the late 19th century, Romani have moved to other countries in South America and to Canada. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India; the conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora. The Romani language is divided into several dialects which together have an estimated number of speakers of more than two million; the total number of Romani people is at least twice as high.
Many Romani are native speakers of the dominant language in their country of residence or of mixed languages combining the dominant language with a dialect of Romani. French bohème, bohémien, from the Kingdom of Bohemia, where they were incorrectly believed to have come from, carrying writs of protection from King Sigismund of Bohemia. French gitan, English gypsy, Spanish gitano, Catalan gitano, Italian gitano, Portuguese cigano, Turkish kipti, all from Greek Αἰγύπτιος Aigýptios "Egyptian", Hungarian fáreónépe from Greek φαραώ pharaó "pharaoh" – referring to their Egyptian provenance. Usage of "gypsy" and derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a racial slur. English tzigane, Spanish zíngaro, cíngaro, French tzigane, Old High German zigeuner, German Zigeuner, Dutch zigeuner, Danish sigøjner, Swedish zigenare, Norwegian sigøynere Old Church Slavic ациганинъ atsyganin, Italian zingaro, Romanian țigan, Hungarian cigány, Serbo-Croatian cigan, Albanian cigan, Polish cygan, Czech cikán, Portuguese cigano, Turkish çigan, Azerbaijani çıqan, Slovak cigán or cigáň, Venetian singano, Russian цыгане tsygane, Ukrainian цигани tsyhany, Lithuanian čigonai, Latvian čigāni, Georgian ციგანი.
Due to the negative connotations of referring to an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples. Albanian Jevg, gabel, Magjup Azerbaijani qaraçı Arabic Nawar and Zott. Egyptian Arabic ghager Rom means husband in the Romani language, it has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit words dam-pati, lom, loman, romaça. Another possible origin is from Sanskrit डोम doma. In the Romani language, Rom is a masculine noun, meaning'man of the Roma ethnic group' or'man, husband', with the plural Roma; the feminine of Rom in the Romani language is Romni. However, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of both genders. Romani is the feminine adjective; some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group. Sometimes and romani are spelled with a double r, i.e. rrom and rromani. In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/, which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r.
The rr spelling is common in certain institutions, or used in certain countries, e.g. Romania, to distinguish from the endonym/homonym for Romanians. In the English language, Rom is a noun and an adje
Lesley-Anne Down is an English actress, former model, singer. She achieved fame as Georgina Worsley in the ITV drama series Upstairs, Downstairs, she received further recognition for her performances in the films The Pink Panther Strikes Again, A Little Night Music, The First Great Train Robbery, Hanover Street, Rough Cut and Nomads. She is known as Madeline Fabray in the miniseries North and South, for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award in 1986. In 1990, Down played the role Stephanie Rogers in the CBS drama series Dallas. During 1997–99, she played Olivia Richards in the NBC series Sunset Beach. From April 2003 to February 2012, she portrayed Jackie Marone in the CBS soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful. Down was raised in Wandsworth, South West London, England, she began acting and modelling, in her teenaged years won several beauty pageants. She was voted Britain's most beautiful teenager at the age of 15, she made her feature film debut in 1969 in a supporting role in the British drama The Smashing Bird I Used to Know.
She had roles in several other British films, such as All the Right Noises and Countess Dracula, guest-starred in the television series Six Dates with Barker, Out of the Unknown, Public Eye. In 1973, Down was cast as Georgina Worsley, Marchioness of Stockbridge, on the Emmy Award-winning British drama series, Downstairs; this role was her career breakthrough, after the show ended in 1975, she moved to Hollywood and began her film career. She starred in the 1976 movie The Pink Panther Strikes Again, was cast opposite Elizabeth Taylor on the film adaptation of A Little Night Music. Down worked as leading lady in film, starred opposite Kirk Douglas, Laurence Olivier, Sean Connery, Anthony Hopkins, Donald Sutherland in various films, her major roles were in The Betsy, The First Great Train Robbery, Hanover Street, Rough Cut, her box-office bomb Sphinx. Down has appeared on a musical version of Great Expectations. Down has played number of leading roles in made-for-television miniseries, she starred in 1978 British drama The One and Only Phyllis Dixey as Phyllis Dixey.
She played the role of Esméralda in a British-American TV movie The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1982 opposite Anthony Hopkins, starred in Murder Is Easy and Ladykillers. In 1985, she starred in Arch of Triumph with Donald Pleasence, she starred in the ABC miniseries The Last Days of Pompeii in 1984, in North and South in 1985. For her role as Madeline Fabray LaMotte in North and South, she was nominated for Golden Globe Award in 1986, she starred in North and South, Book II, Heaven & Hell: North & South, Book III. She turned down the roles on The Thorn Birds. In 1990, Down was cast as series regular for a limited run in the CBS primetime soap opera Dallas as Stephanie Rogers, she earned a quarter of a million dollars' salary for a 10-week shoot. In the 1990s, Down starred in several small feature and television films, played guest roles on television series such as The Nanny and Diagnosis: Murder, she starred in the 1994 film Death Wish V: The Face of Death, opposite Charles Bronson, appeared with him in the 1995 TV movie Family of Cops.
In 1996, Aaron Spelling cast her as Olivia Blake on the NBC soap opera Sunset Beach. The series aired from January 1997 to December 1999. After the soap was cancelled, Down starred in Lifetime movies You Belong to Me. In 2003, Down was cast in another soap as Jackie Marone on CBS's the Beautiful. In January 2012, Down confirmed. Down appeared in the films The King's Guard with Eric Roberts and Ron Perlman, The Meeksville Ghost, 13th Child, Today You Die, Seven Days of Grace, on which she was a writer. In 2011, Down appeared in Victor Salva's thriller film Rosewood Lane with Rose McGowan, Ray Wise, Lauren Vélez, she starred alongside Kirsten Vangsness in the comedy film Kill Me, played mother of leads in Dark House, I Am Watching You and Justice. After ending a 10-year relationship with actor-writer Bruce Robinson, Down married Enrique Gabriel in 1980, but ended their marriage after a year and a half. Down's second marriage was to film director William Friedkin from 1982 to 1985, with whom she had one son, Jack.
She met her third husband, cinematographer Don E. Fauntleroy, during filming of the television miniseries North and South in 1985, they began a relationship, which ended Down's marriage to Friedkin and Fauntleroy's marriage to Susan Ducat. The resulting legal and custody proceedings interrupted the careers of both Down and Fauntleroy for two years and cost Down and Friedkin US$1 million each. Down and Fauntleroy have a son, George-Edward. Down has spoken on several occasions about dealing with sexual predators in the film industry. In 2002, she spoke of finding fame in the late 1960s: "The casting couch was in full swing, people expected it... My teenage years were pretty intense, a lot of pressure and a lot of horrible old men out there". In a 1977 interview, she had said: "I was promised lots of lovely big film parts by American producers if I went to bed with them. Believe me, the casting couch is no myth". In 2015, Down discussed her experiences of sexual harassment in the 1970s by an unnamed legendary Hollywood actor and by producer Sam Spiegel, saying that she "never enjoyed" her acting career: "Partly, because of all the lecherous men, studio executives and direct
Maureen O'Hara was an Irish-American actress and singer. O'Hara was a famous redhead, known for playing fiercely passionate but sensible heroines in westerns and adventure films. On numerous occasions, she worked with director John Ford and longtime friend John Wayne. O'Hara was one of the last surviving stars from the Golden Age of Hollywood. O'Hara grew up in Dublin in a Catholic family and aspired to become an actress from a young age, she trained with the Rathmines Theatre Company from the age of 10 and at the Abbey Theatre from the age of 14. She was given a screen test, deemed unsatisfactory, but Charles Laughton saw potential and arranged for her to co-star with him in Alfred Hitchcock's Jamaica Inn in 1939, she moved to Hollywood the same year to appear with him in the production of The Hunchback of Notre Dame, was given a contract by RKO Pictures. From there, she went on to enjoy a long and successful career, acquired the nickname "The Queen of Technicolor", she appeared in films such as How Green Was My Valley, The Black Swan with Tyrone Power, The Spanish Main, Sinbad the Sailor, the Christmas classic Miracle on 34th Street with John Payne and Natalie Wood, Comanche Territory.
O'Hara made her first film with Wayne, the actor with whom she is most associated, with Rio Grande. This was followed by The Quiet Man, her best-known film, The Wings of Eagles, by which time her relationship with Ford had deteriorated; such was her strong chemistry with Wayne or in a relationship. In the 1960s O'Hara turned to more motherly roles as she aged, appearing in films such as The Deadly Companions, The Parent Trap and The Rare Breed, she retired from the industry in 1971 after starring with Wayne one final time in Big Jake, but returned 20 years to appear with John Candy in Only the Lonely. In the late 1970s, O'Hara helped run her third husband Charles F. Blair, Jr.'s flying business in St Croix in the American Virgin Islands, edited a magazine, but sold them to spend more time in Glengariff in Ireland. She was married three times, had one daughter, Bronwyn with her second husband, her autobiography,'T is Herself, became a New York Times Bestseller. In November 2014, she was presented with an Honorary Academy Award with the inscription "To Maureen O'Hara, one of Hollywood's brightest stars, whose inspiring performances glowed with passion and strength".
Born on 17 August 1920, O'Hara began life as Maureen FitzSimons on Beechwood Avenue in the Dublin suburb of Ranelagh. She stated that she was "born into the most remarkable and eccentric family I could have hoped for". O'Hara was the second oldest of six children of Charles and Marguerite FitzSimons, the only red-headed child in the family, her father was in the clothing business and bought into Shamrock Rovers Football Club, a team O'Hara supported from childhood. She inherited her singing voice from her mother, a former operatic contralto and successful women's clothier who in her younger years was considered to have been one of Ireland's most beautiful women. O'Hara noted that whenever her mother left the house, men would leave their houses just so they could catch a glimpse of her in the street. O'Hara's siblings were Peggy, the oldest, younger Charles, Florrie and Jimmy. Peggy dedicated her life to a religious order. O'Hara earned the nickname "Baby Elephant" for being a pudgy infant. A tomboy, she enjoyed fishing in the River Dodder, riding horses and soccer, would play boys' games and climb trees.
O'Hara was so keen on soccer that at one point she pressed her father to found a women's team, professed that Glenmalure Park, the home ground of Shamrock Rovers, became "like a second home". She enjoyed fighting, trained in judo as a teenager, she admitted that she displayed a jealousy towards boys in her youth and the freedom they had, that they could steal apples from orchards and not get into trouble. O'Hara first attended the John Street West Girls' School near Thomas Street in Dublin's Liberties Area, she began dancing at the age of 5, when a gypsy predicted that she would become rich and famous, she would boast to friends as they sat in her back garden that she would "become the most famous actress in the world". Her enthusiastic family supported the idea; when she recited a poem on stage in school at the age of six, O'Hara felt an attraction to performing in front of an audience. From that age she trained in drama and dance along with her siblings at the Ena Mary Burke School of Drama and Elocution in Dublin.
Their affinity to the arts left O'Hara referring to the family as the "Irish Von Trapp family". At the age of 10, O'Hara joined the Rathmines Theatre Company and began working in amateur theatre in the evenings after her lessons. One of her earliest roles was Robin Hood in a Christmas pantomime. O'Hara's dream at this time was to be a stage actress. By the age of 12, O'Hara had reached the height of 5 feet 6 inches, it worried her mother for a while that she would become "the tallest girl" in Ireland as Maureen's father was 6 feet 4 inches, she expressed relief. At the age of 14, O'Hara joined the Abbey Theatre. Though she was mentored by playwright Lennox Robinson, she found her time at the theatre disappointing. In 1934, at the age of 15, she won the first Dramatic Prize of the national competition of the performing arts, the Dublin Feis Award, for her performance as Portia in The Merch
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi