The esophagus or oesophagus known as the food pipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus is a fibromuscular tube, about 25 centimeters long in adults, which travels behind the trachea and heart, passes through the diaphragm and empties into the uppermost region of the stomach. During swallowing, the epiglottis tilts backwards to prevent food from going down the larynx and lungs; the word oesophagus is the Greek word οἰσοφάγος oisophagos, meaning "gullet". The wall of the esophagus from the lumen outwards consists of mucosa, layers of muscle fibers between layers of fibrous tissue, an outer layer of connective tissue; the mucosa is a stratified squamous epithelium of around three layers of squamous cells, which contrasts to the single layer of columnar cells of the stomach. The transition between these two types of epithelium is visible as a zig-zag line. Most of the muscle is smooth muscle.

It has one at the top and one at the bottom. The lower sphincter helps to prevent reflux of acidic stomach content; the esophagus has a rich blood supply and venous drainage. Its smooth muscle is innervated by involuntary nerves and in addition voluntary nerves which are carried in the vagus nerve to innervate its striated muscle; the esophagus may be affected by gastric reflux, prominent dilated blood vessels called varices that can bleed tears and disorders of motility. Diseases may cause difficulty swallowing, painful swallowing, chest pain, or cause no symptoms at all. Clinical investigations include X-rays when swallowing barium, CT scans. Surgically, the esophagus is difficult to access; the esophagus is one of the upper parts of the digestive system. There are taste buds on its upper part, it begins at the back of the mouth, passing downwards through the rear part of the mediastinum, through the diaphragm, into the stomach. In humans, the esophagus starts around the level of the sixth cervical vertebra behind the cricoid cartilage of the trachea, enters the diaphragm at about the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra, ends at the cardia of the stomach, at the level of the eleventh thoracic vertebra.

The esophagus is about 25 cm in length. Many blood vessels serve the esophagus, with blood supply varying along its course; the upper parts of the esophagus and the upper esophageal sphincter receive blood from the inferior thyroid artery, the parts of the esophagus in the thorax from the bronchial arteries and branches directly from the thoracic aorta, the lower parts of the esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter receive blood from the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery. The venous drainage differs along the course of the esophagus; the upper and middle parts of the esophagus drain into the azygos and hemiazygos veins, blood from the lower part drains into the left gastric vein. All these veins drain into the superior vena cava, with the exception of the left gastric vein, a branch of the portal vein. Lymphatically, the upper third of the esophagus drains into the deep cervical lymph nodes, the middle into the superior and posterior mediastinal lymph nodes, the lower esophagus into the gastric and celiac lymph nodes.

This is similar to the lymphatic drainage of the abdominal structures that arise from the foregut, which all drain into the celiac nodes. Position The upper esophagus lies at the back of the mediastinum behind the trachea, adjoining along the tracheoesophageal stripe, in front of the erector spinae muscles and the vertebral column; the lower esophagus lies behind curves in front of the thoracic aorta. From the bifurcation of the trachea downwards, the esophagus passes behind the right pulmonary artery, left main bronchus, left atrium. At this point it passes through the diaphragm; the thoracic duct, which drains the majority of the body's lymph, passes behind the esophagus, curving from lying behind the esophagus on the right in the lower part of the esophagus, to lying behind the esophagus on the left in the upper esophagus. The esophagus lies in front of parts of the hemiazygos veins and the intercostal veins on the right side; the vagus nerve covers the esophagus in a plexus. Constrictions The esophagus has four points of constriction.

When a corrosive substance, or a solid object is swallowed, it is most to lodge and damage one of these four points. These constrictions arise from particular structures; these constrictions are: At the start of the esophagus, where the laryngopharynx joins the esophagus, behind the cricoid cartilage Where it is crossed on the front by the aortic arch in the superior mediastinum Where the esophagus is compressed by the left main bronchus in the posterior mediastinum The esophageal hiatus where it passes through the diaphragm in the posterior mediastinum The esophagus is surrounded at the top and bottom by two muscular rings, known as the upper esophageal sphincter and the lower esophageal sphincter. These sphincters act to close the esophagus; the esophageal sphincters are functional but not anatomical, meaning that they act as sphincters but do not have distinct thickenings like other sphincters. The upper esophageal sphincter surrounds the upper part of the esophagus, it is not under voluntary control.

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Stephen Yafa

Stephen Yafa is an American screenwriter and speaker. He was noted for his 1968 screenplay, Paxton Quigley's Had the Course, a Writers Guild of America award winning novel; the film was renamed "Three in the Attic." Reviews were not good, Variety noted that Yafa disowned the picture. Yafa co-wrote the screenplay for the 1971 film, with Edward Hume, based on the successful Ron Cowen play. Yafa is known for his first non-fiction book, Big Cotton, published by Viking in 2005, republished as Cotton: The Biography of a Revolutionary Fiber by Penguin in 2006, he was interviewed about the book on Illinois Public Radio. His most recent book is Grain of Truth:. Yafa is a graduate of Dartmouth College, with an MFA from Carnegie-Mellon. Other writing by Yafa include articles on wine, a book chapter on wine's origin, an article on child trafficking. Yafa's Big Cotton was named a San Francisco Chronicle Best Book of the Year in 2005, saying "Yafa chronicles everything from the domestication of cotton 5,550 years ago in Asia and South America to the rise of denim, the most American of fabrics, today's controversial bioengineering."In 2005, calling his label “Segue” to reflect a transition from wine lover and writer to commercial winemaker, Yafa began making Pinot Noir wine professionally on a small scale.

He produced 50 cases in 2005. In 2007 he produced 150 cases, which were rated "Decent" by Prince of Pinot in 2009. In 2007, Wines & Vines magazine published a 3-part series Yafa wrote about his experiences, called "Going Pro."In From No-knead to Sourdough Victoria Miller called Grain of Truth one of the best books on Gluten. Yafa is married to Bonnie Dahan, with three grown children, lives in Marin County, CA. Yafa was motivated to investigate and write about wheat and gluten after his wife was diagnosed with a "gluten neck," and he now promotes slow-fermented or homemade bread. Three in the Attic Based on novel "Paxton Quigley's Had the Course" by Stephen YafaSummertree Screenplay by Edward Hume and Stephen YafaMax Frost and the Troopers single, "Sittin' in Circles," was performed in the film Three in the Attic by Davie Allan and the Arrows; the B-side of that single, "Paxton Quigley's Had The Course," was a Jeremy composition. Once Upon a Time in Hollywood - Track_listing Track 6 - "Paxton Quigley's Had the Course" – Chad & JeremyCottonCotton production in the United StatesFounding Fathers of the United StatesHistory of agriculture in the United States Stephen Yafa on IMDb Stephen Yafa at Rotten Tomatoes list of writings authored by Stephen Yafa Stephen Yafa web site Yafa discussing Big Cotton, on Illinois Public Radio

Carolina Caycedo

Carolina Caycedo is an multimedia artist based in Los Angeles. Born to Colombian parents, Caycedo’s art practice is based on environmental research focusing on the future of shared resources, environmental justice, energy transition and cultural biodiversity. Through contributing to community-based construction of environmental and historical memory, Caycedo seeks the ways of preventing violence against humans and nature, her works have been shown in museums around the world, including in a number of international biennales, such as the 2019 Chicago Architecture Biennial, 2018 “Made in L. A.” biennial, 2016 São Paulo Art Biennial, 2010 Pontevedra Biennial, 2009 Havana Biennial, 2009 San Juan Poligraphic Triennial, 2006 Whitney Biennial, 2003 Venice Biennale. Caycedo received a Master of Fine Arts from the University of Southern California in 2012, a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the University of Los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia in 1999. Caycedo was awarded the “Fine Initiative” from the Vincent Price Museum, in Monterey Park and The Huntington Library, in San Marino, United States.

This award focuses on the expansion of Huntington Library’s art collections, with the aim that awarded artists create new works around the theme of identity. Caycedo won the 2015 Creative Capital Visual Arts Award. Caycedo's work is included in several collections at major art museums, including Whitney Museum of American Art and Los Angeles County Museum of Art. To Drive Away Whiteness/Para alejar la blancura was a multi-media sculpture shown at Hammer Museum, Los Angeles as a part of 2018 “Made in L. A.” biennial. Caycedo's project Be Dammed is a body of video, artist book, installation works that focus on Colombian communities residing around the Magdalena River in Colombia that are being affected by extractivist industries such as the construction of dams and the privatization of the river. By 2014, 200,000 Colombian residents had been displaced under of the resource extraction projects along with the river, privatization of the land, Caycedo has been researched on the aftermath of the relocation to create this artwork.

In 2019, she showed a performance piece, Beyond Control at the Museo de Arte Moderno de Medellín, Colombia. The performance, choreographed in collaboration with Rebeca Hernandez, sought to visualize the relations between dams and how humans manage bodies of water. How to obtain a British passport is a video work based on the both real and fiction-based acting of Caycedo and her Colombian friend, performing a civil marriage ceremony. Daytoday was Caycedo’s individual project, in which she stayed metropolitan cities such as New York and Vienna without having any money or no essential goods, she lived day-to-day by offering people basic skills, such as haircuts or Spanish lessons, as an exchange for food or a place to stay for a night. Her work has been exhibited at the Institute of Contemporary Art in Massachusetts. Caycedo has participated in group exhibitions at the Chicago Architecture Biennial in Chicago, Illinois.