Espagnole sauce is a basic brown sauce, is one of Auguste Escoffier's five mother sauces of classic French cooking. Escoffier popularized the recipe, still followed today. Espagnole has a strong taste, is used directly on food; as a mother sauce, it serves as the starting point for many derivatives, such as sauce africaine, sauce bigarade, sauce bourguignonne, sauce aux champignons, sauce charcutière, sauce chasseur, sauce chevreuil, demi-glace. Hundreds of other derivatives are in the classical French repertoire. Escoffier included a recipe for a Lenten espagnole sauce, using fish stock and mushrooms, in Le Guide culinaire, but doubted its necessity; the basic method of making espagnole is to prepare a dark brown roux, to which veal stock or water is added, along with browned bones, pieces of beef, brown sugar and various seasonings. This blend is allowed to reduce while being skimmed; the classic recipe calls for additional veal stock to be added as the liquid reduces, but today, water is used instead.
Tomato paste or pureed tomatoes are added towards the end of the process, the sauce is further reduced. Espagnole is the French word for "Spanish". According to Louis Diat, the creator of vichyssoise and the author of the classic Gourmet's Basic French Cookbook: "There is a story that explains why the most important basic brown sauce in French cuisine is called sauce espagnole, or Spanish sauce. According to the story, the Spanish cooks of Louis XIII's bride, helped to prepare their wedding feast, insisted upon improving the rich brown sauce of France with Spanish tomatoes; this new sauce was an instant success, was gratefully named in honor of its creators." In Kettner's Book of the Table, published in 1877, an different explanation is given: When the Bourbons made their way to the Spanish throne under Louis XV, when Spanish fashions came back to Paris, the French cooks took a hint from the Spanish pot-au-feu—the olla podrida—and produced a variation of their brown sauce which they called "Spanish".
The essential principle of the French pot-au-feu was beef. The Duc de St. Simon sent home marvellous accounts of the hams of Montanches. Great as they are in pig's flesh, they are poor hands at ham, they ran wild after ham... And so, by introducing the flavour of the Estremadura bacon and ham into the old brown sauce of the French, there came into being the Spanish sauce... The hams of Montanches are not too plentiful in this world of sorrow, the cooks came to be satisfied with any ham—even with French ham, little better than salted pork. So the meaning of the prescription was lost; the name "Kettner" in the title refers to Auguste Kettner, former chef to Napoleon III, who emigrated to England and in 1867 opened a restaurant in Soho, Kettner's, one of the oldest restaurants in London. Brown sauce Demi-glace The Cook's Decameron from Project Gutenberg Emeril Lagasse's recipe at emerils.com
Falcon Express Cargo Airlines was a cargo airline based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It was established in 1995 and operates express parcel services throughout the Persian Gulf for FedEx, UPS, TNT and Aramex, it operated scheduled chartered cargo operations for DHL between Bahrain and Jeddah. Its main base was Dubai International Airport. Falcon Express Cargo Airlines operated freight services to the following international scheduled destinations: Dubai, Doha, Riyadh, Salalah. Falcon Express Cargo Airlines ceased operations in September 2012; the Falcon Express Cargo Airlines fleet includes the following aircraft: 2 Fokker F27 Mk500, 5 Raytheon Beech 1900C Airliners
The British Phosphate Commissioners was a board of Australian and New Zealand representatives who managed extraction of phosphate from Christmas Island and Banaba Island from 1920 until 1981. Following its defeat in World War I, Germany was forced to relinquish all of its territorial assets around the world, including the island of Nauru. Nauru came under joint trusteeship of the United Kingdom and New Zealand. In 1919, the three trustees signed the Nauru Island Agreement, which entitled them to the phosphate of Nauru through the British Phosphate Commissioners, they bought back all the assets of the Pacific Phosphate Company for more than 3.5 million pounds on 1 July 1920, started to manage it directly on 1 January 1921, after a six-month transition period of PPC management. Most of PPC's former employees were retained by the BPC. From 1919 the responsibility for the welfare of the people of Nauru and Banaba, the restoring of land and water resources lost by mining operations and compensation for environmental damage to the islands was under the control of the governments of United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia.
Under a policy established under the German administration, royalty payments were given to landowners. In 1921, the British Phosphate Commissioners increased royalty payments from one-half pence to one and one-half pence per ton of phosphate extracted. In 1927, a new agreement was reached, giving the Nauruans one-half pence per ton. By 1939, Nauruans were receiving 9% of the phosphate revenues; this amount is still somewhat insignificant because at this time, Nauruan phosphate was selling far below world market prices. Throughout B. P. C. Control, significant profits were made. In 1948, revenues from the island's phosphate reached $745,000. In 1967 the Nauruans purchased the assets of the B. P. C. And, in 1970, the newly independent Republic of Nauru established the Nauru Phosphate Corporation. In 1965, the Banaban islanders, after decades of land disputes, royalty fees, "exploitation," started legal litigation against the British Phosphate Commissioners in British court. After more than a decade, the case came to an end, with the Banabans only being awarded £1 and were still made to pay their own legal fees of more than £300,000.
The Australian government through the B. P. C. offered £780,000 in reparations. The first European to recommend mining of phosphate for commercial exploitation was Sir John Murray, a British naturalist, during the 1872–76 Challenger expedition, his discovery led to annexation of the island by the British Crown on 6 June 1888. In 1900 the Pacific Islands Company Ltd commenced mining on Ocean Island, with 1550 tons shipped from September to December 1901 and 13,350 tons in the following year. John T. Arundel and Lord Stanmore, directors of PIC, were responsible for financing the new opportunities and negotiating with the German company that controlled the licences to mine in Nauru. In 1902 the interests of PIC were merged with Jaluit Gesellschaft of Hamburg, to form the Pacific Phosphate Company Ltd, to engage in phosphate mining in Nauru and Ocean Island. Following the Nauru Agreement of 2 July 1919 the interests of the PPC in the phosphate deposits in Nauru and Ocean Island were acquired by the governments of the United Kingdom and New Zealand, which carried out mining under the direction of the Board of Commissioners, which represented the three governments.
In March 1981, the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas Island, a company established and controlled by the Australian Government, took over mining operations This arrangement lasted until December 1987 when the company was disbanded. The mining operation was taken over by the Union of Christmas Island Workers. Nauru Nauru Phosphate Corporation Nauru Phosphate Royalties Trust Paradise for Sale: A Parable of Nature. McDaniel and Gowdy. "Christmas Island". Fact sheet 157. National Archives of Australia. 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014. Weeramantry C. Nauru: environmental damage under international trusteeship. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Williams M, Macdonald BK; the phosphateers: a history of the British Phosphate Commissioners and the Christmas Island Phosphate Commission. Carlton, Vic: Melbourne University Press. Albert Fuller Ellis 1935. Ocean Island and Nauru – their story. Angus and Robertson Limited
In 1960, the United States FBI, under Director J. Edgar Hoover, continued for an eleventh year to maintain a public list of the people it regarded as the Ten Most Wanted Fugitives; as 1960 began, seven of the ten places on the list remained filled by these elusive long-time fugitives still at large: 1950 #14, Frederick J. Tenuto remained at large 1952 #36, James Eddie Diggs remained at large 1954 #78, David Daniel Keegan remained at large 1956 #97, Eugene Francis Newman remained at large 1958 #107, Angelo Luigi Pero process dismissed December 2, 1960 1959 #112, Edwin Sanford Garrison arrested September 9, 1960 1959 #116, Billy Owens Williams arrested March 4, 1960This would be a successful year for capturing fugitives from the Ten Most Wanted list, clearing space for new fugitives to be added to the list; as a result, the FBI was able to add 22 new fugitives to the list over the course of the year, the highest since the 24 additions in the still record year of 1953. The Ten Most Wanted Fugitives listed by the FBI in 1960 include: January 4, 1960 #124 Two months on the listKenneth Ray Lawson - U.
S. prisoner arrested March 17, 1960, in Laredo, Texas January 25, 1960 #125 Two months on the listTed Jacob Rinehart - U. S. prisoner arrested March 6, 1960, in Granada Hills, after a citizen recognized him from a wanted flyer. Rinehart told Agents he learned of his addition to the "Top Ten" list while watching a local television show. March 18, 1960 #126 Two months on the listCharles Clyatt Rogers - U. S. prisoner arrested May 11, 1960, in Minneapolis, while standing in a soup line at a Salvation Army center. He was recognized by a police officer. March 30, 1960 #127 Seven months on the listJoseph Corbett, Jr. - paroled in 1987. S. and Canadian prisoner arrested October 29, 1960, in Vancouver, British Columbia, by Canadian police after two Canadian citizens recognized him from a November 1960 Reader's Digest article. S. prisoner arrested April 27, 1960, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin May 10, 1960 #129 Three weeks on the listEdward Reiley - U. S. prisoner arrested May 24, 1960, in Rockford, Illinois, by the local sheriff after an auto salesman recognized Reiley from a wanted flyer.
Upon arrest he pleaded, "Don't shoot! I'm the guy you want." May 25, 1960 #130 Four months on the listHarold Eugene Fields - U. S. prisoner arrested September 1960, in Schererville, Indiana. Fields told arresting FBI Agents his place on the "Top Ten" list convinced him his days of freedom were numbered and his apprehension came as no surprise. June 23, 1960 #131 Two days on the listRichard Peter Wagner - U. S. prisoner arrested June 25, 1960, in Ray, after a citizen recognized him from a newspaper article. An expert woodsman, Wagner had been serving as a guide at a hunting and fishing lodge where he was captured. July 19, 1960 #132 Three days on the listJames John Warjac - U. S. prisoner arrested July 22, 1960, in Los Angeles, California August 16, 1960 #133 One month on the list, was earlier Fugitive #23 in 1951Ernest Tait - U. S. prisoner arrested September 1960, in Denver, Colorado. S. prisoner surrendered August 28, 1960, to local authorities at his parents’ home in Heiskell, Tennessee September 12, 1960 #135 Three weeks on the listNathaniel Beans - U.
S. prisoner arrested September 30, 1960, in Buffalo, New York, by a police officer who recognized Beans from a magazine photograph September 20, 1960 #136 Two days on the listStanley William Fitzgerald - U. S. prisoner arrested September 22, 1960, in Portland, Oregon, by the FBI after a citizen recognized him from a photograph in a newspaper October 6, 1960 #137 Five years on the listDonald Leroy Payne - PROCESS DISMISSED November 26, 1965, in Houston, Texas, by local authorities October 10, 1960 #138 One week on the listCharles Francis Higgins - U. S. prisoner arrested October 17, 1960, in Kirkwood, Missouri, by local police after an officer recognized him from a newspaper photograph October 12, 1960 #139 One month on the listRobert William Schultz, Jr. - U. S. prisoner arrested November 4, 1960, in Orlando, Florida October 17, 1960 #140 Three months on the listMerle Lyle Gall - U. S. prisoner arrested January 18, 1961, in Scottsdale, Arizona October 31, 1960 #141 Five months on the listJames George Economou - U.
S. prisoner arrested March 22, 1961, in Los Angeles, after a tip from an informant November 18, 1960 #142 One week on the listRay Delano Tate - U. S. prisoner surrendered November 25, 1960, to the New York city editor of the New York Daily Mirror newspaper. He was taken into custody by FBI Agents. November 22, 1960 #143 three years on the listJohn B. Everhart - U. S. prisoner arrested November 6, 1963, in San Francisco, while painting a house December 19, 1960 #144 One week on the listHerbert Hoover Huffman - U. S. prisoner apprehended December 29, 1960, in Cleveland, after a fellow worker recognized him from a wanted poster December 23, 1960 #145 Four months on the listKenneth Eugene Cindle - U. S. prisoner apprehended April 1, 1961, in Cochran County, after a local farmer saw his photograph on television, recognized him as a hitchhiker he had picked up earlier that day.
George F. Argetsinger was an American politician from New York, he removed to Rochester in 1892. Argetsinger was a member of the New York State Senate from 1911 to 1918, sitting in the 134th, 135th, 136th, 137th, 138th, 139th, 140th and 141st New York State Legislatures, he did not seek renomination in 1918, volunteered for Red Cross service in World War I instead. He was City Comptroller of Rochester from January 1932 to February 1933, he was active in Masonic organizations, in 1934 was Grand Commander of the Knights Templar in the State of New York. He died on February 1951, at his home in Rochester, New York, of a heart attack, his younger sister Minnie M. Argetsinger was an American Baptist missionary in China from 1919 to 1949. Official New York from Cleveland to Hughes by Charles Elliott Fitch MANY CHANGES DUE IN STATE SENATE in NYT on August 5, 1918 QUITS ROCHESTER POST.
Reginald Francis Joseph Fairlie LLD was a Scottish architect. He served on the Ancient Monuments Board for Scotland. Born at Kincaple, Fife, he was the son of J. Ogilvy Fairlie of Jane Mary Fairlie, he was educated at the Oratory School in Birmingham. He was apprenticed to Robert Lorimer in 1901, much of his style echoes that of Lorimer. Ian Gordon Lindsay trained under him. A faithful Roman Catholic, Fairlie designed many war memorials and restorations of castles. From a long list of commissions, only a handful fall outside the borders of Scotland, he set up office at 14 Randolph Place in 1908. He served in Royal Engineers in World War I, his older brother John Ogilvy Fairlie was killed in action on 25 September 1915. With the death of his father on 28 September 1916, Reginald fell heir to the family estate of Myres. In the early 1920s he designed a series of war memorials working with the sculptor Alexander Carrick. After the war he joined forces with the architects Reid and Forbes and worked on some award winning housing schemes including Northfield in Edinburgh.
He set up his own office at 7 Ainslie Place in 1925 but remained linked with Reid and Forbes until 1926. Curiously, James Smith Forbes of Reid and Forbes lodged with Fairlie after the end of their business partnership, his neighbour at 7 Ainslie Place was Francis Cadell the artist, they became friends and remained so after Cadell moved house. He was close friends with the sculptor Hew Lorimer, whom he met during his connection with Robert Lorimer as Hew was his second son, he pulled Hew into some of his projects, including the prestigious National Library project, where Hew provided the figurative sculpture on the frontage. He generously passed the commission for the restoration of Iona Abbey to his friend and employee Ian Gordon Lindsay in 1938. Fairlie lived the life of a bachelor, with a personal servant, serving him faithfully until death in 1938, he leased Inchrye Abbey from 1931 to 1939 for shooting parties and falconry. Work ceased on most projects during World War II, including his major commission for the National Library.
The work on the library did not resume until 1950. In 1946 Fairlie was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were Sir David Russell, Sir James C Irvine, Sir Ernest Wedderburn, Robert James Douglas Graham. Fairlie died in St. Raphael’s Nursing Home in the Grange, but was buried with his parents in the Eastern Cemetery in St Andrews, his grave stone was carved by his friend Hew Lorimer. It lies towards the south-east corner. Fairlie rose to the position of chairman of the Directorate of Ancient Monuments. In 1933 he became elected a full member of the Royal Scottish Academy. In 1937 he received a doctorate from the University of St Andrews for his work on St Salvator’s Chapel there, he was a member of the Royal Fine Art Commission and the Forestry Commission. His works include: Our Lady of the Assumption and St Meddan, listed as Category A. 1909-1911. St James Church, St Andrews, 1910 Sousing scheme in Moffat, 1921 Housing scheme in Northfield, Edinburgh, 1921 Restoration of Hutton Castle, 1926 Side chapels of St Mary, Our Lady of Victories Church, Dundee, 1926 Cloister at Kelso Abbey, 1933 Scottish Classroom, one of the Nationality Rooms at the Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, 1938 National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1938–56 Memorials he designed include: Kinclaven War Memorial, 1919 Moffat War Memorial, 1919 Peebles War Memorial, 1919 Auchtermuchty War Memorial, 1920 Blairgowrie War Memorial, 1920 Monzievaird and Strachan War Memorial, 1920 Tomb of Canon Lyle, St Joseph's RC Church, Peebles, 1920 Patrick Nuttgens, "Reginald Fairlie, 1883–1952: a Scottish architect", Oliver and Boyd, 1959 online biography at scottisharchitects.org