Esperanto is the most spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created by Polish ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof in 1887, when he published a book detailing the language, Unua Libro, under the pseudonym "Dr. Esperanto"; the word esperanto translates into English as "one who hopes". Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster world peace and international understanding, to build a community of speakers, as he believed that one could not have a language without such a community, his original title for the language was "the international language", but early speakers grew fond of the name Esperanto and began to use it as the name for the language just two years after its creation. In 1905, Zamenhof published Fundamento de Esperanto as a definitive guide to the language; that year, he organized the first World Esperanto Congress, an ongoing annual conference, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The first congress ratified the Declaration of Boulogne, which established several foundational premises for the Esperanto movement.
Zamenhof proposed to the first congress that an independent body of linguistic scholars should steward the future evolution of Esperanto, foreshadowing the founding of the Akademio de Esperanto, established soon thereafter. Since 1905, the congress has been held in a different country every year, with the exceptions of those years during the World Wars. In 1908, a group of young Esperanto speakers led by the Swiss Hector Hodler established the Universal Esperanto Association in order to provide a central organization for the global Esperanto community. Esperanto grew both as a language and as a linguistic community. Despite speakers facing persecution in regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union under Stalin, Esperanto speakers continued to establish organizations and publish periodicals tailored to specific regions and interests. In 1954, the United Nations granted official support to Esperanto as an international auxiliary language in the Montevideo Resolution. Several writers have contributed to the growing body of Esperanto literature, including William Auld, who received the first nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature for a literary work in Esperanto in 1999, followed by two more, in 2004 and 2006.
Those writing in Esperanto are officially represented in PEN International, the worldwide writers association, through Esperanto PEN Centro. The development of Esperanto has continued unabated into the 21st century; the advent of the Internet has had a significant impact on the language, as learning it has become accessible on platforms such as Duolingo, as speakers have networked on platforms such as Amikumu. With two million speakers, a small portion of whom are native speakers, it is the most spoken constructed language in the world. Although no country has adopted Esperanto Esperantujo is the name given to the collection of places where it is spoken, the language is employed in world travel, cultural exchange, literature, language instruction and radio; some people have chosen to learn Esperanto for its purported help in third language acquisition, like Latin. While many of its advocates continue to hope for the day that Esperanto becomes recognized as the international auxiliary language, an increasing number have stopped focusing on this goal and instead view the Esperanto community as a "stateless diasporic linguistic minority" based on freedom of association, with a culture worthy of preservation, based on its own merit.
Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote in Unua Libro: "To render the study of the language so easy as to make its acquisition mere play to the learner." "To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with people of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not. "To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of mankind, disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, en masse, to learn and use the proposed language as a living one, not only in last extremities, with the key at hand."According to the database Ethnologue, up to two million people worldwide, to varying degrees, speak Esperanto, including about 1,000 to 2,000 native speakers who learned Esperanto from birth. The Universal Esperanto Association has more than 5500 members in 120 countries, its usage is highest in Europe, East Asia, South America. Lernu! is one of the most popular online learning platforms for Esperanto. In 2013, the "lernu.net" site reported 150,000 registered users and had between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors each month.
Lernu has nearly 300,000 registered users, who are able to view the site's interface in their choice of 24 languages – Catalan, Chinese Danish, Esperanto, French, German, Hungarian, Kirundi, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Slovak, Slovenian and Ukrainian.
"Northern Lights" is a song by the English progressive rock band Renaissance, released in 1978 from their album A Song for All Seasons. It was the band's only hit single. "Northern Lights" entered the UK singles charts on 15 July 1978 and remained there for 11 weeks, peaking at No. 10. It was at No. 7 on Melody Maker's Top 30 Singles chart on 19 August 1978. Renaissance performed "Northern Lights" live on The Mike Douglas Show on 4 May 1978 in the U. S; the single was featured on Top of the Pops on 13 July 1978, 10 August 1978. It was awarded a Silver disc on 1 September 1978 by the British Phonographic Industry. There is no actual reference to the Aurora Borealis in the lyrics; the first verse begins with: "Destination outward bound, I turn to see the northern lights behind the wing..." suggesting a different meaning. Songfacts.com quoted lead singer Annie Haslam as commenting: The song is about leaving the Northern Lights of England... and Roy Wood behind, when I was working over in the U. S. Wood is known for having been a founding member of The Move, the Electric Light Orchestra, Wizzard.
Haslam and Wood had a four-year relationship. Lyricist Betty Thatcher-Newsinger wrote about the feelings of loneliness and separation Haslam was experiencing whilst she was on tour, based on the personal conversations between the two. Hence, the lines "though it's hard away from you" and "I'm missing you near me" accentuate the theme. Earlier songs such as "Ocean Gypsy" and "Trip to the Fair" were founded in Haslam's life experiences and friendships, the latter involving Wood. Annie Haslam — lead and backing vocals Jon Camp — bass, backing vocals Michael Dunford — acoustic guitar, electric guitar John Tout — keyboards Terry Sullivan — drums, percussion Royal Philharmonic Orchestra Harry Rabinowitz — conductor Barry Griffiths — leader of the orchestra
Hello, My Name Is Doris is a 2015 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Michael Showalter from a screenplay by Showalter and Laura Terruso, about a woman in her 60s who tries to act on her attraction to a younger co-worker. It stars Sally Field in the title role, alongside Max Greenfield, Beth Behrs, Wendi McLendon-Covey, Stephen Root, Elizabeth Reaser, Natasha Lyonne and Tyne Daly; the film had its world premiere at the SXSW Film Festival on March 14, 2015, was theatrically released on March 11, 2016, by Roadside Attractions and Stage 6 Films. Doris Miller is a shy, eccentric 60-something woman, living alone following the death of her mother, with whom she has lived for her whole life. At the funeral, her brother Todd and his wife Cynthia try to persuade her to sell the house the possessions, as she is a hoarder, her only close friend is the fiery Roz, though she gets along with Roz's granddaughter Vivian. On her way to work, where she has been doing data entry for decades, she meets new young co-worker John, with whom she is infatuated.
Empowered by self-improvement tapes, Doris decides to pursue a romantic relationship with him. Doris finds ways to get John's attention. With Vivian's help, Doris creates a fake social media profile in order to find information about John, discovers that he loves an electropop band, planning an upcoming concert in the area. Doris buys one of the band's CDs, which gets John's attention, attends the concert, where she meets him and they spend time together; the band is intrigued by Doris and invite her backstage, where they spend a fun evening meeting young artists in the area. John tells Doris that he and his girlfriend broke up over text, asks her about her love life, she had to end it in order to take care of her mother. John gives her a friendly kiss goodnight, Doris is in love. John is distracted for the next week, Doris discovers that he has a girlfriend, Brooklyn. Though Brooklyn is friendly and welcoming to her, Doris is devastated, she spends the night drinking wine, in a drunken fit of anguish, she posts a comment on John's social media wall while using her fake profile, posing as a scorned young woman with whom he had a torrid love affair.
The next morning, Todd arrives with Doris' therapist, planning on decluttering her house, but when Cynthia tries to throw out a pencil Doris stole from John, Doris angrily throws them out of her house. At work, Brooklyn has a fight with John before breaking up with him. Brooklyn tells Doris that she had seen the comment on his wall and accused him of cheating on her, she admits that she was cheated on in the past. After work, John invites her to his Thanksgiving for friends, she agrees, when he asks her if she would be interested in dating a younger man, she is elated at this indication he is interested in her. She dresses up and goes to the Thanksgiving party where she meets John's uncle, interested in her. During the party, she asks to talk to John in his bedroom. While trying to come onto him, Doris reveals that she has always liked him and that she posted the comment that caused Brooklyn to break up with him. Furious, John rebuffs her; when a flustered Doris asks him what he meant by asking her if she was interested in younger men, John clarifies that he trying to set her up with his uncle, a decade younger than Doris.
Doris leaves hurt, invites Roz over for comfort. Doris invites her therapist over again to declutter her house, she succeeds getting it cleaned up, she quits her job, says good-bye to John before she leaves. She has another fantasy where John proposes that they should be together. After hesitating, John runs toward the elevator. Doris smiles as the doors close. On April 18, 2014, Max Greenfield was cast in the male lead role. On May 28, 2014, it was announced that Sally Field would play the title character, on the same day Beth Behrs was cast. On June 27, 2014, Natasha Lyonne, Wendi McLendon-Covey, Kyle Mooney, Kumail Nanjiani were announced as part of the cast. On July 11, 2014, YouTube star Anna Akana was cast as a web blogger whose attention is piqued by Field’s character; the film had its world premiere on March 2015, at South by Southwest. Shortly after it was announced Roadside Attractions had acquired distribution rights to the film, it was revealed that Stage 6 Films would co-partner on the domestic release, release the film internationally.
The film screened at the Montclair Film Festival on May 1, 2015. The film was theatrically released on March 11, 2016, in a limited release, before opening in a wide release on April 1, 2016. Hello, My Name Is Doris received positive reviews from film critics, it holds an 84% approval rating on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 100 reviews, with an average rating of 6.8/10. The critical consensus reads: "Hello, My Name Is Doris is immeasurably elevated by Sally Field's remarkable performance in the title role, which overpowers a surfeit of stereotypical indie quirk." On Metacritic, the film holds a rating of 63 out of 100, based on 25 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Joe Leydon of Variety gave the film a positive review, writing "Sally Field keeps the movie on an keel, for the most part, with an adroit and disciplined lead performance that generates both laughter and sympathy, with few yanks on the heartstrings. Audiences of a certain age might respond warmly, provided they are stoked by savvy marketing and favorable word of
The men's individual normal hill/10 km Nordic combined competition for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, was held at Whistler Olympic Park in Whistler, British Columbia, on 14 February. Germany's Georg Hettich was the defending Olympic champion when the event was known as the 15 km Individual Gundersen, but did not compete in this event. Todd Lodwick of the United States was the defending world champion in this event and would finish fourth in the Olympic event; the last World Cup event prior to the 2010 Games in this format took place on 31 January 2010 in Seefeld and was won by Austria's Mario Stecher who would finish seventh. Seefeld was where the Nordic Combined events took place for both the 1964 and the 1976 Winter Olympics, held in neighboring Innsbruck, took place; the ski jumping took place with a trial round at 09:00 PST and the competition round at 10:00 PST. One jump in competition was scored similar to that of ski jumping. Finland's Ryynänen had the longest jump to grab the lead after the jump.
The start for the 10 kilometre race was staggered, with a one-point deficit in the ski jump portion resulting in a four-second deficit in starting the cross-country course. This stagger meant that the first athlete across the finish line would be the overall winner of the event. Cross-country skiing's part of the competition took place at 13:45 PST that same day. Ryynänen would lead until close to the end of the last part of the first lap before taking a spill where he never recovered; the Finn would finish 26th. A group of eight skiers developed during the middle part of the race which had Bill Demong move from 24th to the final lead group by the 7.5 km mark. Japan's Norihito Kobayashi grabbed the lead with 800 m left only to be passed by Johnny Spillane of the US, France's Jason Lamy-Chappuis, Italy's Alessandro Pittin, Spillane's teammate Lodwick. Lamy-Chappuis passed Spillane right before the final sprint though Spillane mounted a final charge that fell 0.4 seconds short. Norway's Magnus Moan had the fastest time in the cross-country skiing portion of the event to move from 40th to ninth.
It was the first individual medal for all three competitors, along with being the first medals for both the US and Italy in Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics. Italy's best finish prior to this event in Nordic combined was fifth by Ezio Damolin at the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble
The Tapley Building was a historic Romanesque building at 206 Broad Street in Lynn, Massachusetts. The five story brick factory building was built in 1890 to replace an earlier factory, destroyed in Lynn's 1889 fire, it was built for the firm founded by Philip P. Tapley, one of Lynn's leading shoe manufacturers, it included firesafe construction methods including fireproof stairwells, two elevators. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. A total of five Holman K. Wheeler structures in Lynn are listed on the National Register; the building was destroyed by fire in 1999. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lynn, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts
Charles Laban Abernethy was a Democratic U. S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1922 and 1935. Born in Rutherford College, North Carolina, Abernethy attended local public schools in Rutherford College before moving to Beaufort, North Carolina in 1893. There, he founded the Beaufort Herald newspaper. Abernethy studied law at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and was admitted to the bar in 1895. Practicing law in Beaufort, he was solicitor of the third judicial circuit for twelve years, a member of the executive committee of the North Carolina Democratic Party between 1898 and 1900. Abernethy moved to New Bern, North Carolina in 1913, continued to practice law there. In 1922, he was chosen, in a special election, to fill the seat vacated by the death of Rep. Samuel M. Brinson. After leaving Congress, he resumed his law practice, retiring in 1938. Abernethy is buried in Cedar Grove Cemetery, he was a cousin to North Carolina's first Poet Laureate Arthur Talmage Abernethy. United States Congress.
"Charles Laban Abernethy". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Media related to Charles Laban Abernethy at Wikimedia Commons