Zamenhof Day called Esperanto Book Day, is celebrated on 15 December, the birthday of Esperanto creator L. L. Zamenhof, it is the most celebrated day in Esperanto culture. On this day, Esperantists hold information sessions and cultural gatherings to promote literature in Esperanto; the history of celebrating Esperanto on Zamenhof's birthday can be traced back to 17 December 1878, when at a birthday party for his 19th birthday he presented to his friends his Lingwe uniwersala, the first version of his international language. By 1887, this language had evolved into what is now recognized as Esperanto when he published the Unua Libro. 15 December used to be known as Esperanto Day, but, now celebrated on 26 July, the day Unua Libro was published. 15 December 2009 marked 150 years since Zamenhof's birth, there were several events to celebrate. On this date, the authorities in his home town of Białystok, opened a new Zamenhof Center, a symposium honoring Zamenhof was held in New York City, featuring talks by Arika Okrent and Humphrey Tonkin among other professors.
On this date, the search engine Google, in 33 national language versions, bore a special version of their logo emblazoned with the Esperanto flag in honor of the occasion, which generated, on the 30 biggest Wikipedia languages, 1,750,000 page views on the articles "L. L. Zamenhof". Media related to Zamenhofa Tago at Wikimedia Commons
Esperanto is the most spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created in the late 19th century by a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In 1887, he published a book detailing Unua Libro, under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto. Esperanto translates to English as "one who hopes". Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding, to build a community of speakers, as he inferred that one can’t have a language without a community of speakers, his original title for the language was the international language, but early speakers grew fond of the name Esperanto and began to use it as the name for the language in 1889. In 1905, Zamenhof published Fundamento de Esperanto as a definitive guide to the language; that year, he organized the first World Esperanto Congress, an ongoing annual conference, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The first congress ratified the Declaration of Boulogne, which established several foundational premises for the Esperanto movement.
One of its pronouncements is that Fundamento de Esperanto is the only obligatory authority over the language. Another is that the Esperanto movement is a linguistic movement and that no further meaning can be ascribed to it. Zamenhof proposed to the first congress that an independent body of linguistic scholars should steward the future evolution of Esperanto, foreshadowing the founding of the Akademio de Esperanto, in part modeled after the Académie française, established soon thereafter. Since 1905, congresses have been held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years during the World Wars. In 1908, a group of young Esperanto speakers led by Hector Hodler established the Universal Esperanto Association, in order to provide a central organization for the global Esperanto community. Esperanto grew both as a language and as a linguistic community. Despite speakers facing persecution in regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union under Stalin, Esperanto speakers continued to establish organizations and publish periodicals tailored to specific regions and interests.
In 1954, the United Nations granted official support to Esperanto as an international auxiliary language in the Montevideo Resolution. Several writers have contributed to the growing body of Esperanto literature, including William Auld, who received the first nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature for a literary work in Esperanto in 1999, followed by two more in 2004 and 2006. Esperanto-language writers are officially represented in PEN International, the worldwide writers association, through Esperanto PEN Centro. Esperanto has continued to develop in the 21st century; the advent of the Internet has had a significant impact on the language, as learning it has become accessible on platforms such as Duolingo and as speakers have networked on platforms such as Amikumu. With two million speakers, a small portion of whom are native speakers, it is the most spoken constructed language in the world. Although no country has adopted Esperanto Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where it is spoken, the language is employed in world travel, cultural exchange, literature, language instruction and radio broadcasting.
While its advocates continue to hope for the day that Esperanto becomes recognized as the international auxiliary language, an increasing number have stopped focusing on this goal and instead view the Esperanto community as a "stateless diasporic linguistic minority" based on freedom of association, with a culture worthy of preservation based on its own merit. Some have chosen to learn Esperanto due to its purported help in third language acquisition. Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote in Unua Libro: "To render the study of the language so easy as to make its acquisition mere play to the learner." "To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with people of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not. "To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of mankind, disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, en masse, to learn and use the proposed language as a living one, not only in last extremities, with the key at hand."According to the database Ethnologue, up to two million people worldwide, to varying degrees, speak Esperanto, including about 1,000 to 2,000 native speakers who learned Esperanto from birth.
The Universal Esperanto Association has more than 5500 members in 120 countries. Its usage is highest in Europe, East Asia, South America. Lernu! is one of the most popular on-line learning platforms for Esperanto. In 2013, the "lernu.net" site reported 150,000 registered users and had between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors each month. Lernu has 274,800 registered users, who are able to view the site's interface in their choice of 21 languages — Catalan, Chinese Danish, Esperanto, French, German, Hungarian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Serbian, Slovak and Ukrainian.
Universal Esperanto Association
The Universal Esperanto Association known as the World Esperanto Association, is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with 5501 individual members in 121 countries and 9215 through national associations and in official relations with the United Nations. In addition to individual members, 70 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated with UEA, its current president is the Canadian professor Mark Fettes. The magazine Esperanto is the main organ used by UEA to inform its members about everything happening in the Esperanto community; the UEA was founded in 1908 by the Swiss journalist Hector Hodler and others and is now headquartered in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The organization has an office at the United Nations building in New York City. According to its 1980 statutes, the Universal Esperanto Association has two kinds of members: individual members join the association directly, paying a fee to the Rotterdam headquarters or to the chief delegate in their country; these members receive the UEA services.
Asociaj membroj, those members of the organizations that joined UEA. These members are administered by their respective organizations, it can be a specialist organization. This kind of membership is for the person in question a mere symbolical membership; the highest organ of UEA, the Komitato, has members elected in three different ways: An organization sends at least one komitatano, plus one more for every 1,000 national members, to the Komitato. Most national organizations have only one komitatano. Per 1,000 individual members, the individual members can choose one member to the Komitato. Both previous groups by-elect more komitatanoj, up to one third of their numbers; the Komitato elects the Estraro. The Estraro sometimes additionally a director; the general director and his staff work at Oficejo de UEA, in Rotterdam. An individual member can become a delegito, a'delegate'; this means that he serves as a local contact person for UEA members in his town. A ĉefdelegito is someone installed by the UEA headquarters, but with the task to collect the member fees in a given country.
TEJO, the World Esperanto Youth Organization, is the youth section of the UEA. Similar to the World Congress, TEJO organizes an International Youth Congress of Esperanto each year in a different location; the IJK is a week-long event of concerts, excursions attended by hundreds of young people from all over the world. The youth section has a Komitato and national and specialist affiliated organizations, just as UEA itself. A TEJO volunteer works at the Rotterdam headquarters; the first national Esperanto organization was founded in 1898 in France as a potential international association. In 1903 the second one followed, in Switzerland. Within a couple of years, many of the now still existing national organizations came into existence. Since 1933/1934 they send representatives into the UEA Komitato, making it a federation of national organizations; the term in Esperanto was mostly Naciaj Societoj, since 1933 Landaj Asocioj. When UEA accepted national organizations in 1933/1934 for the first time, it required them to have at least 100 national members, be'organized in an orderly manner', be neutral, meaning having no political or religious aims, being open to all citizens of the country.
The last prerequisite caused serious problems, e.g. to the German national association coming in those months under national socialist rule. For example, the Cuban association was refused because its statutes claimed to respect the leading role of the communist party in Cuba. In 1980, the UEA statutes were altered. Since a national organization need not be neutral itself, but must respect the neutrality of UEA. Specialist organizations are similar to the national organizations, they are divided into two groups: neutral organizations, that can join UEA in the same way as a national organizations. In Esperanto they are called aliĝintaj fakaj asocioj. Examples are the Esperanto teachers. Other organizations in collaboration with UEA, they do not send representatives to the Komitato but are mentioned in the Yearbook and can have a room at the World Congress. Some of them refuse to be affiliated because of financial reasons, others because they are non-neutral and cannot join UEA. Examples are the Esperanto Catholics and the Esperanto communists.
The youth section TEJO has two affiliated specialist groups, the cyclists and the lovers of rock music. UEA is the publisher of the most important Esperanto periodical, it was started in 1905 by Paul Berthelot. UEA founder Hector Hodler took it over in 1907 and made it the official UEA magazine in 1908. In 1920 he left the magazine to the association. Since the 1950s it has a paid editor-in-chief. Next to Esperanto, the Yearbook is the oldest continuous publication of the association. UEA has the largest mail-order Esperanto bookstore in the world, it maintains an information center and an important Esperanto library, called the Hector Hodler Library. The organisation has a network of local representatives from around the world, the Delegita Reto, who are available to provide information about their geographical area or professional field; the yearly World Esperanto Congress, which attracts 1500–3000 people to a
Dr. Esperanto's International Language referred to as Unua Libro, is an 1887 book by L. L. Zamenhof, in which the author first introduced and described the constructed language Esperanto. First published in Russian on July 26 1887, the publication of Unua Libro marks the formal beginning of the Esperanto movement. Writing under the pseudonym "Dr. Esperanto", Zamenhof referred to the language as the international language. Zamenhof reproduced a significant portion of the content of Unua Libro in the 1905 Fundamento de Esperanto, which he established as the sole obligatory authority over Esperanto in the Declaration of Boulogne, ratified by the first World Esperanto Congress that year. After many years of developing the language, Zamenhof completed Unua Libro by the spring of 1885 and spent the next two years looking for a publisher. In 1887, shortly after he married his wife Klara, his new father-in-law Aleksandr Silbernik advised him to use money from Klara's dowry to find a publisher. Following his advice, Zamenhof found a publisher in Chaim Kelter.
On July 26 1887, Kelter published the book in Russian as International Language. Before the end of the year, Kelter published the Polish and German editions of the book, as well. In 1888, Zamenhof had Julian Steinhaus translate the book into English, the translation was published under the title Dr. Esperanto's International Tongue. However, when Richard Geoghegan pointed out that Steinhaus's translation was poor, Zamenhof destroyed his remaining copies and requested that Geoghegan produce a fresh translation. Geoghegan's translation of the book, titled Dr. Esperanto's International Language, was published on January 17 1889 and became the standard English translation. Henry Phillips, Jr. a secretary of the American Philosophical Society and early supporter of Esperanto produced a translation in 1889, titled An Attempt towards an International Language, but Geoghegan's translation remains the preferred standard. Unua Libro was translated into Hebrew, Yiddish and Lithuanian in 1889 and into Danish, Italian and Czech in 1890.
The name Unua Libro was applied retroactively to the book in relation to the title of Zamenhof's 1888 book Dua Libro. In 1905, Zamenhof reproduced much of the content of Unua Libro in Fundamento de Esperanto, which he established as the only obligatory authority over Esperanto in the Declaration of Boulogne at the first World Esperanto Congress that year. However, in his 1888 Aldono al la Dua Libro, he altered the spelling of the suffixes of the temporal correlatives from -ian to -iam, which rendered the Esperanto of Unua Libro outdated; the book consists of three parts, an introduction, a grammar section, a dictionary. Zamenhof begins by renouncing all rights to the language. In the introduction, Zamenhof lays out his case for the need for an international auxiliary language, he states that previous attempts, such as Volapük, have failed because they have not overcome the three main difficulties an IAL must overcome in order to succeed. Those difficulties are: 1. To render the study of the language so easy as to make its acquisition mere play to the learner.2.
To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not. 3. To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of mankind, disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, en masse, to learn and use the proposed language as a living one, not only in last extremities, with the key at hand. In the next three parts, he addresses each difficulty and explains why he believes Esperanto is fit to overcome them. In part I, he explains the simplicity and flexibility of Esperanto grammar due to its regularity and use of affixes. In part II, he demonstrates the ease of using Esperanto for international communication due to a simple and clear vocabulary. To demonstrate this, he translates the Our Father and Genesis 1:1–9 and presents a fictional letter and a few poems in Esperanto—"El Heine'", a translation, "Mia penso" and "Ho, mia kor'", both original. In part III, he presents an idea called the "universal vote", a campaign to allot 10 million signatures of people making the following pledge: "I, the undersigned, promise to learn the international language, proposed by Dr. Esperanto, if it shall be shown that ten million similar promises have been publicly given."
He argues that this will prevent anyone from wasting time on learning the language since, once 10 million signatures have been gathered, there will be a significant population obliged to learn the language, rendering the language useful. He welcomes critical feedback for the next year and promises to consider criticism before publishing a special booklet that will give definitive form to the language the following year. Additionally, he lays out guidelines for a language academy to guide the evolution of the language in the future. In the grammar section, he explains sixteen grammar rules. In the dictionary section, he presents a dictionary with 917 roots of vocabulary. Zamenhof received a wide range of reactions to Unua Libro, from mocking criticism to a
Fundamento de Esperanto
Fundamento de Esperanto is a 1905 book by L. L. Zamenhof, in which the author explains the basic grammar rules and vocabulary that constitute the basis of the constructed language Esperanto. On August 9, 1905, it was made the only obligatory authority over the language by the Declaration of Boulogne at the first World Esperanto Congress. Much of the content of the book is a reproduction of content from Zamenhof's earlier works Unua Libro. Fundamento de Esperanto consists of four parts: a foreword, a grammar section, a collection of exercises, a dictionary. With the exception of the foreword everything in the Fundamento comes directly from Zamenhof's earlier works Unua Libro. Esperanto, underwent a minor change in 1888 in Aldono al la Dua Libro, in which Zamenhof changed the ending of the temporal correlatives from -ian to -iam, so the Esperanto of the Fundamento is different than that of Unua Libro; the grammar and dictionary sections of the Fundamento are in five national languages: French, German and Polish.
Fundamento de Esperanto was made the official source of Esperanto in the fourth article of the Declaration of Boulogne at the first World Esperanto Congress in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France: Equal to the Fundamento are the Oficialaj Aldonoj. To date, there have been nine Official Additions; the foreword of the Fundamento states: Some time from now, when many of the new words have stabilized, some authoritative institution shall put them into an official dictionary, as'Additions to the Fundamento'. That authoritative institution is the Akademio de Esperanto. English version of the Fundamento grammar Multilingual Fundamento dictionary Detailed commentary on the Fundamento, 2 vol. 2014, 650 pp
World Esperanto Youth Organization
The World Esperanto Youth Organization is an organization dedicated to supporting young Esperanto speakers around the world and promote the use of Esperanto. TEJO was founded in 1938 as the Tutmonda Junular-Organizo and took its current name in 1952. In 1956, TEJO became the youth section of the Universal Esperanto Association. In 1971, the finances and administration of TEJO were integrated into those of UEA. TEJO is an organization for young Esperanto speakers. TEJO has individual members as well as member organizations. There are 42 member organizations, as well as 13 national organizations that TEJO has contact with but that are not members. TEJO organizes an International Youth Congress each year in a different location around the world. During the IJK there are concerts, presentations and recreation one week long and attended by a few hundred young people from several different countries. TEJO publishes the Pasporta Servo, an international hospitality network of Esperanto speakers that accept Esperanto-speaking guests.
TEJO publishes a magazine aimed at beginners and youth. TEJO organizes several youth seminars each year; these seminars bring together an international group of young people to discuss a current issue. Past seminars have focused on human rights, language problems on minority languages, intercomprehension and the Internet; the seminars last for one week. 1920: World Esperantist Youth Association was established 1938: During the first International Youth Congress in Groet, according to a decision of more than 200 participants from 10 countries the World Youth Organization was born. 1939: The second IJK took place in Tervuren, Belgium 1947: TJO became a special section of the Universal Esperanto Association 1948: The organization "Native Esperanto speakers" became part of TJO. The third IJK took place in Ipswich, the United Kingdom and it's taken place every year since then. 1952: During the 8th IJK in Ry, Denmark, TJO became TEJO. In that period TEJO was going through a structural crisis. 1956: During the 12th IJK in Büsum, the committee of TEJO proposed that TEJO become the youth section and an integral part of UEA.
A period of internal reorganization started. 1960: The reorganization process was concluded during the 16th IJK in Rotterdam, Netherlands. TEJO opened itself to the outside world by starting cooperation with several non-Esperanto YNOs. 1963: Kontakto, an international magazine of TEJO, was born. It continues to be published six times a year and is a magazine in Esperanto, but not about Esperanto. 1964: PR became the focus of attention. Several brochures and flyers were published in national languages and special group for contacts with other youth organizations was established. 1965: First in a serial of seminars was organized in Ljubljana, ex-Yugoslavia, with the goal to discuss the language problem and exchange experience with different YNOs. Seminars soon got more practical topics, such as exchange of experiences between generations and other issues of youth work. 1966: At the same time as the most successful IJK took place, TEJO went through a serious financial crisis. TEJO became a correspondent member of the UNESCO's Coordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service.
In Argentina the "Programme Passport" was launched, which turned into "Pasporta Servo" several years 1979: TEJO was accepted by the Geneva Informal Meeting, GIM. 1980: TEJO organized its first seminar at the European Youth Centre in Strasbourg. 1983: TEJO Tutmonde, another one of TEJO's magazines, related to the organization itself, was launched. 2017: The first international youth congress took place in Africa, in Togo. Official website
Volapük is a constructed language, created in 1879 and 1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. Schleyer felt. Volapük conventions took place in 1884, 1887 and 1889; the first two conventions used German, the last conference used only Volapük. In 1889, there were an estimated 283 clubs, 25 periodicals in or about Volapük, 316 textbooks in 25 languages. Volapük was displaced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Esperanto. Schleyer first published a sketch of Volapük in May 1879 in Sionsharfe, a Catholic poetry magazine of which he was editor; this was followed in 1880 by a full-length book in German. Schleyer himself did not write books on Volapük in other languages. André Cherpillod writes of the third Volapük convention, In August 1889 the third convention was held in Paris. About two hundred people from many countries attended. And, unlike in the first two conventions, people spoke only Volapük. For the first time in the history of mankind, sixteen years before the Boulogne convention, an international convention spoke an international language.
The Dutch cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs was for a number of years Director of the Academy of Volapük, introduced the movement to several countries. The French Association for the Propagation of Volapük was authorized on 8 April 1886, with A. Lourdelet as President and a central committee that included the deputy Edgar Raoul-Duval. However, tensions arose between Kerckhoffs and others in the Academy, who wanted reforms made to the language, Schleyer, who insisted on retaining his proprietary rights; this led to schism, with much of the Academy abandoning Schleyer's Volapük in favor of Idiom Neutral and other new constructed language projects. Another reason for the decline of Volapük may have been the rise of Esperanto. In 1887 the first Esperanto book was published. Many Volapük clubs became Esperanto clubs. By 1890 the movement was with violent arguments among the members. Schleyer created a rival academy. Derived languages such as Nal Bino, Bopal, Spelin and Orba were invented and forgotten.
By 1900 there were only 159 members of Volapük clubs recognized by Schleyer. The umlauts, which may have been one of the reasons for the language's eventual decline into obscurity, were the subject of ridicule. For example, the Milwaukee Sentinel published the limerick: In the 1920s, Arie de Jong, with the consent of the leaders of the small remnant of Volapük speakers, made a revision of Volapük, published in 1931; this revision was accepted by the few speakers of the language. De Jong simplified the grammar, eliminating some used verb forms, eliminated some gendered pronouns and gendered verb endings, he rehabilitated the phoneme /r/ and used it to make some morphemes more recognizable. For instance, lömib "rain" became rein. Volapük enjoyed a brief renewal of popularity in the Netherlands and Germany under de Jong's leadership, but was suppressed in countries under Nazi rule and never recovered. Regarding the success of this artificial language, the Spanish scientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal wrote in the first edition of his Tonics of Willingness, in 1898: Nowadays, many scientific papers are published in more than six languages.
To the attempt of restoring Latin or using Esperanto as the universal language of science, wise men have responded by multiplying the number of languages in which scientific works are published. We have to acknowledge that Volapük or Esperanto are one more language to be learnt; this result was predictable because neither the popularized and democratic tendencies of modern knowledge, nor the economic views of authors and editors consent in a different way. However, some years in the third edition of the same book, he added the following footnote to the former assertion: "As it was presumable, nowadays -1920-, the brand new Volapük has been forgotten definitively. We forecast the same for Esperanto." Large Volapük collections are held by the International Esperanto Museum in Austria. In 2000 there were an estimated 20 Volapük speakers in the world. In December 2007 it was reported that the Volapük version of Wikipedia had jumped to 15th place among language editions, with more than 112,000 articles.
A few months earlier there had been only 797 articles. The massive increase in the size of "Vükiped", bringing it ahead of the Esperanto Wikipedia, was due to an enthusiast who had used a computer program to automatically create geographical articles, many on small villages; the motive was to gain visibility for the language. By March 2013 the Esperanto Wikipedia, with a active user community, had risen to 176,792 articles, while the Volapük Wikipedia had at that point 119,091 articles. There has been a continuous Volapük speaker community since Schleyer's time, with an unbroken succession of Cifals; these were: Johann Martin Schleyer 1879–1912 Albert Sleumer 1912–1948 Arie de Jong 1947–1948, 1951–1957 Jakob Sprenger 1948–1950 Johann Schmidt 1950–1977 Johann Krüger 1977–1983 Brian Bishop 1984–2014 Hermann Philipps 2014–present The alphabet is as follows: That is, the vowel letters ä, ö, ü have the pronunciations they