South Pacific (musical)
South Pacific is a musical composed by Richard Rodgers, with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and book by Hammerstein and Joshua Logan. The work was an immediate hit, running for 1,925 performances; the plot is based on James A. Michener's Pulitzer Prize-winning 1947 book Tales of the South Pacific and combines elements of several of those stories. Rodgers and Hammerstein believed they could write a musical based on Michener's work that would be financially successful and, at the same time, send a strong progressive message on racism; the plot centers on an American nurse stationed on a South Pacific island during World War II, who falls in love with a middle-aged expatriate French plantation owner but struggles to accept his mixed-race children. A secondary romance, between a U. S. lieutenant and a young Tonkinese woman, explores his fears of the social consequences should he marry his Asian sweetheart. The issue of racial prejudice is candidly explored throughout the musical, most controversially in the lieutenant's song, "You've Got to Be Carefully Taught".
Supporting characters, including a comic petty officer and the Tonkinese girl's mother, help to tie the stories together. Because he lacked military knowledge, Hammerstein had difficulty writing that part of the script; the original Broadway production enjoyed immense critical and box-office success, became the second-longest running Broadway musical to that point, has remained popular since. After they signed Ezio Pinza and Mary Martin as the leads and Hammerstein wrote several of the songs with the particular talents of their stars in mind; the piece won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1950. In the Southern U. S. its racial theme provoked controversy. Several of its songs, including "Bali Ha'i", "I'm Gonna Wash That Man Right Outa My Hair", "Some Enchanted Evening", "There Is Nothing Like a Dame", "Happy Talk", "Younger Than Springtime", "I'm in Love with a Wonderful Guy", have become popular standards; the production won ten Tony Awards, including Best Musical, Best Score, Best Libretto, it is the only musical production to win Tony Awards in all four acting categories.
Its original cast album was the bestselling record of the 1940s, other recordings of the show have been popular. The show has enjoyed many successful revivals and tours, spawning a 1958 film and television adaptations; the 2008 Broadway revival, a critical success, ran for 996 performances and won seven Tonys, including Best Musical Revival. Although book editor and university instructor James Michener could have avoided military service in World War II as a birthright Quaker, he enlisted in the U. S. Navy in October 1942, he was not sent to the South Pacific theater until April 1944, when he was assigned to write a history of the Navy in the Pacific and was allowed to travel widely. He survived a plane crash in New Caledonia. One journey took him to the Treasury Islands, where he discovered an unpleasant village, called Bali-ha'i, populated by "scrawny residents and only one pig". Struck by the name, Michener wrote it down and soon began to record, on a battered typewriter, his version of the tales.
On a plantation on the island of Espiritu Santo, he met. Punctuated with profanity learned from GIs, she complained endlessly to Michener about the French colonial government, which refused to allow her and other Tonkinese to return to their native Vietnam, lest the plantations be depopulated, she told him of her plans to oppose colonialism in French Indochina. These stories, collected into Tales of the South Pacific, won Michener the 1948 Pulitzer Prize for fiction. Tales of the South Pacific comprises nineteen stories; each stands independently but revolves around the preparation for an American military operation to dislodge the Japanese from a nearby island. This operation, dubbed Alligator, occurs in the penultimate story, "The Landing at Kuralei". Many of the characters die in that battle, the last story is titled "The Cemetery at Huga Point"; the stories are thematically linked in pairs: the first and final stories are reflective, the second and eighteenth involve battle, the third and seventeenth involve preparation for battle, so on.
The tenth story, at the center, however, is not paired with any other. This story, "Fo' Dolla' ", was one of only four of his many works that Michener admitted to holding in high regard, it was the one that attracted Rodgers and Hammerstein's attention for its potential to be converted into a stage work."Fo' Dolla' ", set in part on the island of Bali-ha'i, focuses on the romance between a young Tonkinese woman and one of the Americans, Marine Lieutenant Joe Cable, a Princeton graduate and scion of a wealthy Main Line family. Pressed to marry Liat by her mother, Bloody Mary, Cable reluctantly declines, realizing that the Asian girl would never be accepted by his family or Philadelphia society, he leaves for battle as Bloody Mary proceeds with her backup plan, to affiance Liat to a wealthy French planter on the islands. Cable struggles, during the story, with his own racism: he is able to overcome it sufficiently to love Liat, but not enough to take her home. Another source of the musical is the eighth story, "Our Heroine", thematically paired with the 12th, "A Boar's Tooth", as both involve American encounters with local cultures.
"Our Heroine" tells of the romance betwee
The Garde mobile was intended to be the body which would in effect conscript all, able to avoid military service. The Garde would take in all conscripts on completion of their army service. Napoleon III took up the idea and announced on 12 December 1866 that the Garde Mobile would attain a strength of 400,000 troops, its members were colloquially known as "Moblots". It origins lay in the crises that led up to the Franco-Prussian War, when Adolphe Niel, Minister of War for France under Emperor Napoleon III, attempted to bolster French military power creating a service which would provide reserves to be added to the regular French army. Although there was conscription into the army, not only was it not universal but middle-class people could purchase exemptions for their sons in a system known as Remplacement. Both the left and the right in the Corps Legislatif took issue with the proposal; the right wanted an all-professional army. Hence not much money was spent for the training of the Garde Mobile.
Its authority to conscript was diminished. Servicemen were trained fourteen days per year, each one not followed by another, so they could return home to sleep; this service was not permitted to deploy beyond the local areas of which the units were formed. The Garde Mobile had different uniforms from those of either the regular infantry, the National Guard, or the infantry of the French Marines, they did not get the excellent French Chassepot rifle. When the Franco-Prussian War broke out, troops were called up into the Garde Mobile, they received a mixture of inferior equipment bought from foreign countries, the transport of, secured by the French Navy
Tangoa is an island in Vanuatu, located off the southern coast of Vanuatu's largest island Espiritu Santo in Sanma Province. The local inhabitants speak the Tangoa language; the Teachers' Training Institute operated on the island from 1895 to 1970, when the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu established a Presbyterian Bible College there. This operated from 1971 to 1986, when it merged with the Aulua Theological Training Centre to form the Talua Ministry Training Centre
SS President Coolidge
SS President Coolidge was an American luxury ocean liner, completed in 1931. She was operated by Dollar Steamship Lines until 1938, by American President Lines until 1941, she served as a troopship from December 1941 until October 1942, when she was sunk by mines in Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides, part of current-day Vanuatu. President Coolidge had a sister ship, SS President Hoover, completed in 1930 and lost when she ran aground in a typhoon in 1937. Dollar Lines ordered both ships on 26 October 1929; the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company of Newport News, Virginia built the two ships, completing President Hoover in 1930. The keel for President Coolidge was laid 22 April 1930 and the ship was delivered 1 October 1931, they were the largest merchant ships built in the United States up to that time. Each ship had turbo-electric transmission, with a pair of steam turbo generators generating current that powered propulsion motors on the propeller shafts. Westinghouse built the turbo generators and propulsion motors for President Coolidge but General Electric built the turbo generators and propulsion motors for President Hoover.
In the President Coolidge twelve Babcock & Wilcox superheater type water tube boilers provided steam for main and auxiliary power. Main power was generated by two Westinghouse 10,200 kilowatt turbine generator sets that each drove two 400 volt Westinghouse 13,200 horsepower synchronous motors directly connected to the two screws. If necessary the linkages were present so both motors and screws could be driven by either one of the two generator sets. Only the boiler feed and main lubricating pumps, driven directly from the steam turbines, were not electrical; those included everything from cargo winches and other ship's auxiliary machinery to 365 Westinghouse stateroom fans. The 180 ship's auxiliary motors ranged from a tenth horsepower to the 13,250 horsepower main motors; the ship had 67,000 cubic feet refrigerated cargo space. President Coolidge was designed for 350 first class, 150 "special" or intermediate class passengers with space for 1,260 passengers of all classes and a crew of 300; the ship was launched on 21 February 1931 after Mrs. Calvin C. Coolidge broke a bottle of water that came from a brook on the Coolidge farm in Vermont on the bow.
President Hoover and President Coolidge ran between San Francisco and Manila via Kobe and Shanghai, some round the World voyages that continued from Manila via Singapore, the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean Sea, New York City, the Panama Canal and thence back to San Francisco. President Hoover and President Coolidge were aimed at holiday makers seeking sun in the Pacific and Far East. Passenger luxuries included spacious staterooms and lounges, private telephones, two saltwater swimming pools, a barbers' shop, beauty salon and soda fountain. President Coolidge broke several speed records on her crossings between San Francisco. In December 1937 President Hoover was declared a total loss. Dollar Steamship Lines was in debt, in June 1938 President Coolidge was arrested for an unpaid debt of $35,000, she was released in bond for a final trans-Pacific voyage, Dollar Lines was suspended from operation. In August 1938 the United States Maritime Commission reorganised the company as American President Lines, which ran the former Dollar Lines fleet until the Second World War.
In March 1939 President Coolidge was the last ship to sight the custom-built Chinese junk Sea Dragon and sailed by American explorer Richard Halliburton, before she disappeared in a typhoon some 1,200 miles west of the Midway Islands. As relations between Japan and Britain deteriorated in 1940, President Coolidge helped to evacuate US citizens from Hong Kong; as Japanese aggression expanded, President Coolidge took part in evacuations from other parts of east Asia. In 1941 the threat of war increased and the US War Department began to use President Coolidge for occasional voyages to Honolulu and Manila. In June 1941 President Coolidge became a troopship. On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and on December 19 President Coolidge evacuated 125 critically injured naval patients from Hawaii, cared for by three hastily assigned Navy nurses and two Navy doctors from the Philippines that were among passengers being evacuated from the war zone that had now reached Hawaii; the ship reached San Francisco on 25 December.
On 12 January 1942 the first large convoy, including the large former ocean liners President Coolidge and SS Mariposa, to Australia after Pearl Harbor departed the United States carrying troops, supplies and weapons, including P-40 fighters intended for the Philippines and Java with fifty of the planes carried by President Coolidge and Mariposa. Arriving Melbourne on 1 February in President Coolidge, along with supplies and munitions not intended for transshipment beyond Australia, were the officers, known as the "Remember Pearl Harbor" Group, selected to form the staff of the US Army Forces in Australia as the command structure for what was to be the Southwest Pacific Area was evolving. President Coolidge performed these military duties in her pre-war civilian condition. Only in 1942 was she properly converted into a troopship. Many of her civilian fittings were either removed for safe keeping or boarded over for their protection, her accommodation was reorganised to provide capacity for 5,000 troops.
Guns were mounted on her, she was painted haze gray and the War Shipping Administration assigned her to the US Navy. After her conversion, President Coolidge resumed service in the South West Pacific theatre. In the spring of 1942, escorted by the cruiser USS St. Louis, she took Manuel Quezon, Presiden
Terra Australis was a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries. The existence of Terra Australis was not based on any survey or direct observation, but rather on the idea that continental land in the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the Southern Hemisphere; this theory of balancing land has been documented as early as the 5th century on maps by Macrobius, who uses the term Australis on his maps. Other names for the hypothetical continent have included Terra Australis Ignota, Terra Australis Incognita or Terra Australis Nondum Cognita. Other names were Brasiliae Australis, Magellanica. During the eighteenth century, today's Australia was not conflated with Terra Australis, as it sometimes was in the twentieth century. Captain Cook and his contemporaries knew that the fifth continent, which they called New Holland, was separate from the imagined sixth continent. In the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney re-allocated the name Australia to New Holland and its centuries-old Dutch name disappeared.
Meanwhile, having lost its name of Australia, the south polar continent was nameless for decades until Antarctica was coined in the 1890s. In the early 1800s, British explorer Matthew Flinders popularized the naming of Australia after Terra Australis, giving his rationale that there was "no probability" of finding any significant land mass anywhere more south than Australia; the continent that would come to be named Antarctica would be explored decades after Flinders' 1814 book on Australia, which he had titled A Voyage to Terra Australis, after his naming switch had gained popularity. Aristotle speculated, "Now since there must be a region bearing the same relation to the southern pole as the place we live in bears to our pole...". His ideas were expanded by Ptolemy, who believed that the Indian Ocean was enclosed on the south by land, that the lands of the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the south. Marcus Tullius Cicero used the term cingulus australis in referring to the Antipodes in Somnium Scipionis.
The land in this zone was the Terra Australis. Legends of Terra Australis Incognita—an "unknown land of the South"—date back to Roman times and before, were commonplace in medieval geography, although not based on any documented knowledge of the continent. Ptolemy's maps, which became well known in Europe during the Renaissance, did not depict such a continent, but they did show an Africa which had no southern oceanic boundary, raised the possibility that the Indian Ocean was enclosed by land. Christian thinkers did not discount the idea that there might be land beyond the southern seas, but the issue of whether it could be inhabited was controversial; the first depiction of Terra Australis on a globe was on Johannes Schöner's lost 1523 globe on which Oronce Fine is thought to have based his 1531 double cordiform map of the world. On this landmass he wrote "recently discovered but not yet explored"; the body of water beyond the tip of South America is called the “Mare Magellanicum,” one of the first uses of navigator Ferdinand Magellan's name in such a context.
Schöner called the continent Brasiliae Australis in Opusculum geographicum. In it, he explained: Brasilia Australis is an immense region toward Antarcticum, newly discovered but not yet surveyed, which extends as far as Melacha and somewhat beyond; the inhabitants of this region lead good, honest lives and are not Anthropophagi like other barbarian nations. Explorers of the Age of Discovery, from the late 15th century on, proved that Africa was entirely surrounded by sea, that the Indian Ocean was accessible from both west and east; these discoveries reduced the area. Scientists, such as Gerardus Mercator and Alexander Dalrymple as late as 1767 argued for its existence, with such arguments as that there should be a large landmass in the south as a counterweight to the known landmasses in the Northern Hemisphere; as new lands were discovered, they were assumed to be parts of the hypothetical continent. The German cosmographer and mathematician Johannes Schöner constructed a terrestrial globe in 1515, based on the world map and globe made by Martin Waldseemüller and his colleagues at St. Dié in Lorraine in 1507.
Where Schöner departs most conspicuously from Waldseemüller is in his globe's depiction of an Antarctic continent, called by him Brasilie Regio. His continent is based, however tenuously, on the report of an actual voyage: that of the Portuguese merchants Nuno Manuel and Cristóvão de Haro to the River Plate, related in the Newe Zeytung auss Presillg Landt published in Augsburg in 1514; the Zeytung described the Portuguese voyagers passing through a strait between the southernmost point of America, or Brazil, a land to the south west, referred to as vndtere Presill. This supposed. By “vndtere Presill”, th
James A. Michener
James Albert Michener was an American author of more than 40 books, most of which were fictional, lengthy family sagas covering the lives of many generations in particular geographic locales and incorporating solid history. Michener had numerous bestsellers and works selected for Book of the Month Club, was known for his meticulous research behind the books. Michener's novels include Tales of the South Pacific for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948, The Drifters, The Source, The Fires of Spring, Caribbean, Alaska, Texas and Poland, his non-fiction works include Iberia, about his travels in Portugal. Return to Paradise combines fictional short stories with Michener's factual descriptions of the Pacific areas where they take place, his first book was adapted as the popular Broadway musical South Pacific by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, as eponymous feature films in 1958 and 2001, adding to his financial success. He wrote an analysis of the United States' Electoral College system in a book which condemned it, entitled Presidential Lottery: The Reckless Gamble in Our Electoral System.
It was published in 1969, republished in 2014 and 2016. Michener wrote that he did not know who his biological parents were, or when or where he was born, he said he was raised a Quaker by an adoptive mother, Mabel Michener, in Doylestown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Michener graduated from Doylestown High School in 1925, he attended Swarthmore College, in Swarthmore, where he played basketball and was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity. After graduating summa cum laude in 1929, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and History, he traveled and studied in Scotland at the University of St Andrews in the medieval town of St. Andrews, Fife on the coast of the North Sea for two years. Michener took a job as a high school English teacher at The Hill School in Pennsylvania. From 1933 to 1936, he taught English at George School in Pennsylvania, he attended Colorado State College of Education in Greeley, where he earned a Master of Arts degree in Education. After graduation, he taught at College High School for several years.
The library at the University of Northern Colorado was named after him in October 1972. In 1935, Michener married Patti Koon, he accepted a Guest Lecturer position at Harvard, from 1939 to 1940, but left to join Macmillan Publishers as their social studies education editor. Michener was called to active duty during World War II in the United States Navy, he traveled throughout the South Pacific Ocean on various assignments which he gained because his base commanders mistakenly thought his father was Admiral Marc Mitscher. His experiences during these travels inspired the stories published in his breakout work Tales of the South Pacific. In 1960, Michener was chairman of the Bucks County committee to elect Democrat John F. Kennedy as the 35th President. In 1962, he unsuccessfully ran as a Democratic Party candidate for a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania, a decision he considered a misstep. "My mistake was to run in 1962 as a Democratic candidate for Congress. Kept saying,'Don't do it, don't do it.'
I lost and went back to writing books."In 1968, Michener served as the campaign manager for the third-term run of the twice-elected U. S. Senator Joseph S. Clark of Pennsylvania. Michener served as Secretary for the 1967–1968 Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention; that year, Michener was a member of the Electoral College, serving as a Pennsylvania Democrat. He wrote about that experience in a political science text Presidential Lottery: The Reckless Gamble in Our Electoral System, published the following year. In it, he suggested alternate systems, including using a direct popular vote by majority for the office of President of the United States. Michener began his writing career during World War II, when as a lieutenant in the U. S. Navy he was assigned to the South Pacific as a naval historian, he turned his notes and impressions into Tales of the South Pacific, his first book, published when he was age 40. It won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1948, Rodgers and Hammerstein adapted it as the hit Broadway musical South Pacific, which premiered on Broadway in New York City in 1949.
The musical was adapted as eponymous feature films in 1958 and 2001. In the late 1950s, Michener began working as a roving editor for the Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, he gave up that work in 1970. Michener was unsuccessful. American television producer Bob Mann wanted Michener to co-create a weekly anthology series from Tales of the South Pacific and serve as narrator. Rodgers and Hammerstein, had bought all dramatic rights to the novel and did not relinquish their ownership. Michener did lend his name to a different television series, Adventures in Paradise, in 1959, starring Gardner McKay as Captain Adam Troy in the sailing ship Tiki III. Michener was a popular writer during his lifetime, his novel Hawaii, well-timed on its publication when Hawaii became the 50th state, was based on extensive research. He used this approach for nearly all of his subsequent novels, which were based on detailed historical and geological research. Centennial, which documented several generations of families in the Rocky Mountains of the American West, was adapted as a popular 12-part television miniseries of the same name and aired on the N
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
The Japanese wer