Titus Livius – rendered as Livy in English – was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own lifetime, he was on familiar terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and in friendship with Augustus, whose young grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, he exhorted to take up the writing of history. Livy was born in Patavium in northern Italy, now modern Padua. There is a debate about the year of his birth- either in 64 BC, or more in 59 BC. At the time of his birth, his home city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula, the largest in the province of Cisalpine Gaul. Cisalpine Gaul was merged in Italia during his lifetime and its inhabitants were given Roman citizenship by Julius Caesar. In his works, Livy expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics.
"He was by nature a recluse, mild in averse to violence. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, Asinius Pollio, tried to sway Patavium into supporting Marcus Antonius, the leader of one of the warring factions; the wealthy citizens of Patavium refused to contribute money and arms to Asinius Pollio, went into hiding. Pollio attempted to bribe the slaves of those wealthy citizens to expose the whereabouts of their masters, it is therefore that the Roman civil wars prevented Livy from pursuing a higher education in Rome or going on a tour of Greece, common for adolescent males of the nobility at the time. Many years Asinius Pollio derisively commented on Livy's "patavinity", saying that Livy's Latin showed certain "provincialisms" frowned on at Rome. Pollio's dig may have been the result of bad feelings he harboured toward the city of Patavium from his experiences there during the civil wars. Livy went to Rome in the 30s BC, it is that he spent a large amount of time in the city after this, although it may not have been his primary home.
During his time in Rome, he held a government position. His writings contain elementary mistakes on military matters, indicating that he never served in the Roman army. However, he was educated in rhetoric, it seems that Livy had the financial resources and means to live an independent life, though the origin of that wealth is unknown. He devoted a large part of his life to his writings, which he was able to do because of his financial freedom. Livy was known to give recitations to small audiences, but he was not heard of to engage in declamation a common pastime, he was familiar with the imperial family. Augustus was considered by Romans to have been the greatest Roman emperor, benefiting Livy's reputation long after his death. Suetonius described how Livy encouraged the future emperor Claudius, born in 10 BC, to write historiographical works during his childhood. Livy's most famous work was his history of Rome. In it he narrates a complete history of the city of Rome, from its foundation to the death of Augustus.
Because he was writing under the reign of Augustus, Livy's history emphasizes the great triumphs of Rome. He wrote his history with embellished accounts of Roman heroism in order to promote the new type of government implemented by Augustus when he became emperor. In Livy's preface to his history, he said that he did not care whether his personal fame remained in darkness, as long as his work helped to "preserve the memory of the deeds of the world’s preeminent nation"; because Livy was writing about events that had occurred hundreds of years earlier, the historical value of his work was questionable, although many Romans came to believe his account to be true. Livy had at least one daughter and one son, he produced other works, including an essay in the form of a letter to his son, numerous dialogues, most modelled on similar works by Cicero. Titus Livius died in his home city of Patavium in either AD 12 or 17. Livy's only surviving work is the "History of Rome", his career from his mid-life 32, until he left Rome for Padua in old age in the reign of Tiberius after the death of Augustus.
When he began this work he was past his youth. Seneca the Younger gives brief mention that he was known as an orator and philosopher and had written some treatises in those fields from a historical point of view. Livy's History of Rome was in high demand from the time it was published and remained so during the early years of the empire. Pliny the Younger reported that Livy's celebrity was so widespread, a man from Cadiz travelled to Rome and back for the sole purpose of meeting him. Livy's work was a source for the works of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural e
Myron of Eleutherae, working c. 480–440 BC, was an Athenian sculptor from the mid-5th century BC. He was born in Eleutherae on the borders of Attica. According to Pliny's Natural History, Ageladas of Argos was his teacher. Myron worked exclusively in bronze and his fame rested principally upon his representations of athletes, in which he made a revolution, according to commentators in Antiquity, by introducing greater boldness of pose and a more perfect rhythm, subordinating the parts to the whole. Pliny's remark that Myron's works were numerosior than those of Polycleitus and "more diligent" seem to suggest that they were considered more harmonious in proportions and at the same time more convincing in realism: diligentia connoted "attentive care to fine points", a quality that, in moderation, was characteristic of the best works of art, according to critics in Antiquity, his most famous works according to Pliny's Natural History were a heifer, a dog, a Perseus, a satyr— Marsyas— admiring the flute and Minerva, a Hercules, taken to the shrine dedicated by Pompey the Great at the Circus Maximus, an Apollo for Ephesus, "which Antony the triumvir took from the Ephesians, but the deified Augustus restored it again after being warned in a dream".
The Early Imperial Roman writers rated Myron among the greatest of Greek sculptors, a sign that his contemporaneous reputation had remained high. The heifer seems to have earned its fame by serving as a peg on which to hang epigrams, which tell nothing about the pose of the animal. Chionis, a 7th-century BC Olympic victor from Sparta, was commemorated in an idealized bronze by Myron. An epigram on Ladas, the fleetest runner of his time, notes that he was commemorated in a sculpture by Myron. A description by Lucian conclusively identifies as Myron's the Discobolus or "Discus-Thrower", of which several copies exist, of which the best is in the Palazzo Massimi alle Terme, Rome. Strabo registers stray comments on Myron a large group at Samos. K. Jenkins in 1926. A marble figure in the Lateran Museum, now restored as a dancing satyr, is certainly a copy of a work of Myron, a Marsyas desirous of picking up the aulos which Athena had thrown away; the full group is copied on coins of Athens, on a vase and in a relief which represent Marsyas as oscillating between curiosity and the fear of the displeasure of Athena.
The ancient critics say of Myron that while he succeeded admirably in giving life and motion to his figures, he did not succeed in rendering the emotions of the mind. This agrees in a certain degree, though not perfectly; the bodies of his men are of far greater excellence than the heads. The face of the Marsyas is a mask; the face of the discus-thrower is unruffled. A considerable number of other extant works were ascribed to the school or the influence of Myron by Adolf Furtwängler; these attributions have not stood up to the test of time. A papyrus from Oxyrhyncus gives dates of victors at Olympia of whom Myron made statues of the athlete Timanthes, victorious at Olympia in 456 BC, of Lycinus, victorious in 448 BC and 444 BC; this helps us to fix his date. He was a contemporary, but a somewhat older contemporary, of Polykleitos. References Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Myron". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press.
Temple of Minerva Medica (nymphaeum)
For the non-extant temple on the Esquiline mentioned in ancient Roman sources, see Temple of Minerva Medica. The erroneously named Temple of Minerva Medica is, in fact, a ruined nymphaeum of Imperial Rome, lying between the via Labicana and Aurelian Walls and just inside the line of the Anio Vetus. Once part of the Horti Liciniani on the Esquiline Hill, it now faces the modern Via Giolitti. At one time, it was thought to be the temple to Minerva Medica mentioned by Cicero and other sources. In fact it is a nymphaeum, a building devoted to the nymphs and connected to the water supply, that dates to the 4th century; the decagonal structure in opus latericium is well preserved, the full dome having collapsed only in 1828. It is surrounded on three sides with other chambers added at a date. There is no mention of it in ancient literature or inscriptions; the structure represents a transition in Roman secular architecture between the octagonal dining room of the Domus Aurea and the dome of the Pantheon, in particular, the architecture of nearby Byzantine churches.
The diameter of the hall is about 24 metres, the height was 33 — important from the structural point of view for the ribs in the dome. In the interior are nine niches, besides the entrance. Both the interior and exterior walls were once covered with marble. In Flavio Biondo's 15th-century Roma Instaurata, these ruins are called Le Galluzze, a name of uncertain meaning, applied earlier to some ruins near the basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, its misidentification as the Republican-era temple dates to the 17th century, based on the erroneous impression that the Athena Giustiniani had been found there. List of Roman domes History of Roman and Byzantine domes Nymphaeum Description in the site of the "Soprintendenza Speciale per il Colosseo, il MNR e l'Area Archeologica di Roma
Ab Urbe Condita Libri
The book History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin between 27 and 9 BC by the historian Titus Livius, or "Livy", as he is known in English. The work covers the period from the legends concerning the arrival of Aeneas and the refugees from the fall of Troy, to the city's founding in 753, the expulsion of the Kings in 509, down to Livy's own time, during the reign of the emperor Augustus; the last event covered by Livy is the death of Drusus in 9 BC. About 25% of the work survives; the History of Rome comprised 142 "books", thirty-five of which—Books 1–10 with the Preface and Books 21–45—still exist in reasonably complete form. Damage to a manuscript of the 5th century resulted in large gaps in Books 41 and 43–45. A fragmentary palimpsest of the 91st book was discovered in the Vatican Library in 1772, containing about a thousand words, several papyrus fragments of unknown material, much smaller, have been found in Egypt since 1900, most about 40 words from Book 11, unearthed in 1986.
Some passages are known thanks to quotes from ancient authors, the most famous being on the death of Cicero, quoted by Seneca the Elder. Livy was abridged, in antiquity, to an epitome, which survives for Book 1, but was itself abridged in the fourth century into the so-called Periochae, a list of contents; the Periochae survive for the entire work, except for books 136 and 137. In Oxyrhynchus, a similar summary of books 37–40 and 48–55 was found on a roll of papyrus, now in the British Museum classified as P. Oxy. IV 0668. There is another fragment, named P. Oxy. XI 1379, which represents a passage from the first book and that shows a high level of correctness; however the Oxyrhynchus Epitome is incomplete. The entire work covers the following periods:Books 1–5 – The legendary founding of Rome, the period of the kings, the early republic down to its conquest by the Gauls in 390 BC. Books 6–10 – Wars with the Aequi, Volsci and Samnites, down to 292 BC. Books 11–20 – The period from 292 to 218, including the First Punic War.
Books 21–30 – The Second Punic War, from 218 to 202. Books 31–45 – The Macedonian and other eastern wars from 201 to 167. Books 46 to 142 are all lost: Books 46–70 – The period from 167 to the outbreak of the Social War in 91. Books 71–90 – The civil wars between Marius and Sulla, to the death of Sulla in 78. Books 91–108 – From 78 BC through the end of the Gallic War, in 50. Books 109–116 – From the Civil War to the death of Caesar. Books 117-133 – The wars of the triumvirs down to the death of Antonius. Books 134-142 – The rule of Augustus down to the death of Drusus; the first book has been one of the most significant sources of the various accounts of the traditional legend of Romulus and Remus. His version of the legend is told in chapters 3-7 of the first book. Livy states. Procas, her grandfather had willed the throne to his son Numitor but he was deposed by her uncle, Amulius, she was forced to take the Vestal oath to prevent her from producing a rival to his rule. She became pregnant after taking her vows and claimed that she had been raped by Mars, the Roman god of war.
Livy speculates. She was imprisoned by King Amulius and he ordered the newborn twins to be cast into the River Tiber, they were instead left by the swollen banks of the river, when the waters subsided, a she-wolf found them and suckled them until they were found and adopted by a shepherd named Faustulus and his wife Laurentia. He mentions, without attribution, a claim that Larentia was in fact a prostitute who serviced Faustulus and the other shepherds; the she-wolf tale arose from the slang word for her profession. They grow up strong, braving wild bandits along the way. In his account of the conflict with Amulius, Livy states that Faustulus had always known that the boys had been abandoned by the order of the king and had hoped that they were of Royal blood. On their way to celebrate the Lupercalia, the twins were ambushed by some of the thieves they had driven off. After a struggle, Remus was captured; the thieves accused him of stealing from Numitor's land. He was handed over to the former king, his grandfather—unbeknownst to either at the time—for punishment.
With Remus a captive, Faustulus told Romulus the truth of the twins’ origin. Meanwhile, encountering his grandson for the first time since infancy—a grandson whom he had thought long dead—looked favorably upon his royal demeanor and physicality, he realized the truth of who Remus and his twin brother Romulus were. Romulus and the other shepherds traveled separately to the city and converged with Remus and Numitor's supporters at the palace, where they killed Amulius. Seizing the moment, Numitor called for an assembly to regain his crown, he made public the ordeal of the twins and announced the death of Amulius, claiming he had given the order to kill him. To help boost their grandfather's effort to regain his throne, the twins marched their men into the center of the assembly and proclaimed him king; the people followed Numitor was once again king of the Alban kingdom. Inspired, the twins set out to build their own city; the twins began to argue immediately after starting out on their undertaking.
According to Livy, both wanted to be the king of their new city. H
Vatican Hill is a hill located across the Tiber river from the traditional seven hills of Rome. It is the location of St. Peter's Basilica; the ancient Romans had several opinions about the derivation of the Latin word Vaticanus. Varro connected it to a Deus Vaticanus or Vagitanus, a Roman deity thought to endow infants with the capacity for speech evidenced by their first wail. Varro's rather complicated explanation relates this function to the tutelary deity of the place and to the advanced powers of speech possessed by a prophet, as preserved by the antiquarian Aulus Gellius: We have been told that the word Vatican is applied to the hill, the deity who presides over it, from the vaticinia, or prophecies, which took place there by the power and inspiration of the god. "As Aius," says he, "was called a deity, an altar was built to his honour in the lowest part of the new road, because in that place a voice from heaven was heard, so this deity was called Vaticanus, because he presided over the principles of the human voice.
St. Augustine, familiar with Varro's works on ancient Roman theology, mentions this deity three times in The City of God. Vaticanus is more to derive in fact from the name of an Etruscan settlement called Vatica or Vaticum, located in the general area the Romans called vaticanus ager, "Vatican territory". If such a settlement existed, however, no trace of it has been discovered; the consular fasti preserve a personal name Vaticanus in the mid-5th century BC, of unknown relation to the place name. Vaticanus Mons was most a name in Classical Latin for the Janiculum. Cicero uses the plural form Vaticani Montes in a context that seems to include the modern Vatican Hill as well as the Monte Mario and the Janiculan hill; the Vaticanum or Campus Vaticanus was a level area between the Vaticanus Mons and the Tiber. During the Republican era, it was an unwholesome site frequented by the destitute. Caligula and Nero used the area for chariot exercises, as at the Gaianum, renewal was encouraged by the building of the Circus of Nero known as the Circus Vaticanus or the Vaticanum.
The location of tombs near the Circus Vaticanus is mentioned in a few late sources. The Vaticanum was the site of the Phrygianum, a temple of the Magna Mater goddess Cybele. Although secondary to this deity's main worship on the Palatine Hill, this temple gained such fame in the ancient world that both Lyon, in Gaul, Mainz, in Germany called their own Magna Mater compounds "Vaticanum" in imitation. Remnants of this structure were encountered in the Seventeenth Century reconstruction of St. Peter's Square. Vaticanus Mons came to refer to the modern Vatican Hill as a result of calling the whole area the "Vatican". Christian usage of the name was spurred by the martyrdom of St. Peter there. Beginning in the early 4th century AD, construction began on the Old St. Peter's Basilica over a cemetery, the traditional site of St. Peter's tomb. Around this time, the name Vaticanus Mons was established in its modern usage, the Janiculum hill was distinguished from it as the Ianiculensis Mons. Another cemetery nearby was opened to the public on 10 October 2006 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the Vatican Museums.
The Vatican Hill was included within the city limits of Rome during the reign of Pope Leo IV, between 848 and 852, expanded the city walls to protect St. Peter's Basilica and the Vatican. Thus, Vatican Hill has been within the walls and city limits of Rome for over 1100 years; until the Lateran Treaties in 1929 it was part of the Rione of Borgo. Before the Avignon Papacy, the headquarters of the Holy See were located at the Lateran Palace. After the Avignon Papacy the church administration moved to Vatican Hill and the papal palace was the Quirinal Palace, upon the Quirinal Hill. Since 1929, part of the Vatican Hill is the site of the State of the Vatican City. However, the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, is not St. Peter's in the Vatican, but Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, extra-territorially linked, as indicated in the Lateran Pacts signed with the Italian state in 1929, with the Holy See. Nino Lo Bello. Incredible Book of Vatican Facts and Papal Curiosities, 1998. New York: Liguori Publications.
The Discobolus of Myron is a Greek sculpture completed at the start of the Classical Period, figuring a youthful ancient Greek athlete throwing discus, circa 460–450 BC. The original Greek bronze is lost but the work is known through numerous Roman copies, both full-scale ones in marble, cheaper than bronze, such as the first to be recovered, the Palombara Discobolus, smaller scaled versions in bronze. A discus thrower depicted is about to release his throw: "by sheer intelligence", Kenneth Clark observed in The Nude, "Myron has created the enduring pattern of athletic energy, he has taken a moment of action so transitory that students of athletics still debate if it is feasible, he has given it the completeness of a cameo." The moment thus captured in the statue is an example of rhythmos and balance. Myron is credited with being the first sculptor to master this style; as always in Greek athletics, the Discobolus is nude. His pose is said to be unnatural to a human, today considered a rather inefficient way to throw the discus.
There is little emotion shown in the discus thrower's face, "to a modern eye, it may seem that Myron's desire for perfection has made him suppress too rigorously the sense of strain in the individual muscles," Clark observes. The other trademark of Myron embodied in this sculpture is how well the body is proportioned, the symmetria; the potential energy expressed in this sculpture's wound pose, expressing the moment of stasis just before the release, is an example of the advancement of Classical sculpture from Archaic. The torso shows no muscular strain, however though the limbs are outflung. Myron's Discobolus was long known from descriptions, such as the dialogue in Lucian of Samosata's work Philopseudes: "When you came into the hall," he said, "didn't you notice a gorgeous statue up there, by Demetrios the portraitist?" "Surely you don't mean the discus-thrower," said I, "the one bent over into the throwing-position, with his head turned back to the hand that holds the discus, the opposite knee flexed, like one who will spring up again after the throw?"
"Not that one," he said, "that's one of Myron's works, that Diskobolos you speak of..." Prior to this statue's discovery the term Discobolus had been applied in the 17th and 18th centuries to a standing figure holding a discus, a Discophoros, which Ennio Quirino Visconti identified as the Discobolus of Naukydes of Argos, mentioned by Pliny. The Discobolus Palombara, the first copy of this famous sculpture to have been discovered, was found in 1781, it is a 1st-century AD copy of Myron's original bronze. Following its discovery at a Roman property of the Massimo family, the Villa Palombara on the Esquiline Hill, it was restored by Giuseppe Angelini; the Italian archaeologist Giovanni Battista Visconti identified the sculpture as a copy from the original of Myron. It was famous, though the Massimo jealously guarded access to it. In 1937 Adolf Hitler negotiated to buy it, succeeded in 1938, when Galeazzo Ciano, Minister of Foreign Affairs, sold it to him for five million lire, over the protests of Giuseppe Bottai, Minister of Education, the scholarly community.
It was displayed in the Glyptothek. It is now in the National Museum of Rome, displayed at the Palazzo Massimo. After the discovery of the Discobolus Palombara a second notable Discobolus was excavated, at Hadrian's Villa in 1790, was purchased by the English antiquary and art dealer established in Rome, Thomas Jenkins, at public auction in 1792; the English connoisseur Charles Townley paid Jenkins £400 for the statue, which arrived at the semi-public gallery Townley commissioned in Park Street, London, in 1794. The head was wrongly restored, as Richard Payne Knight soon pointed out, but Townley was convinced his was the original and better copy, it was bought for the British Museum, with the rest of Townley's marbles, in July 1805. Other Roman copies in marble have been recovered, torsos that were known in the 17th century but, wrongly restored and completed, have since been identified as further repetitions after Myron's model. For one such example, in the early 18th century Pierre-Étienne Monnot restored a torso, now recognized as an example of Myron's Discobolus as a Wounded Gladiator who supports himself on his arm as he sinks to the ground.
Yet another copy was discovered in 1906 in the ruins of a Roman villa at Tor Paterno in the former royal estate of Castel Porziano, now conserved in the Museo Nazionale Romano. In the 19th century plaster copies of the Discobolos could be found in many large academic collections, now dispersed. Athletes and athletics in ancient Greek art Myron's Discobolus A discussion about the sculpture between Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker on video at Khan Academy/Smarthistory British Museum collection record, GR 1805.7-3.43. Skulpturhalle, Basel collection record, 69-30/SH 948 Capitoline Museum collection record, MC0241 3D preview
The Domus Aurea was a vast landscaped palace built by the Emperor Nero in the heart of ancient Rome after the great fire in 64 AD had destroyed a large part of the city and the aristocratic villas on the Palatine Hill. Suetonius claims this of Nero and the Domus Aurea: When the edifice was finished in this style and he dedicated it, he deigned to say nothing more in the way of approval than that he had at last begun to live like a human being; the Domus Aurea complex covered parts of the slopes of the Palatine, Esquiline and Caelian hills, with a man-made lake in the marshy valley. Its size can only be approximated; some scholars place it at over 300 acres, while others estimate its size to have been under 100 acres. Suetonius describes the complex as "ruinously prodigal" as it included groves of trees, pastures with flocks, vineyards and an artificial lake—rus in urbe, "countryside in the city". Nero commissioned from the Greek Zenodorus a colossal 35.5 m high bronze statue of himself, the Colossus Neronis.
Pliny the Elder, puts its height at only 30.3 m. The statue was placed just outside the main palace entrance at the terminus of the Via Appia in a large atrium of porticoes that divided the city from the private villa; this statue may have represented Nero as the sun god Sol. This idea is accepted among scholars but some are convinced that Nero was not identified with Sol while he was alive; the face of the statue was modified shortly after Nero’s death during Vespasian’s reign to make it a statue of Sol. Hadrian moved it, with the help of the architect Decrianus and 24 elephants, to a position next to the Flavian Amphitheater; this building took the name "Colosseum" in the Middle Ages, after the statue nearby, or, as some historians believe, because of the sheer size of the building. The Golden House was designed as a place of entertainment, as shown by the presence of 300 rooms without any sleeping quarter. Nero's own palace remained on the Quirinal Hill. No kitchens or latrines have been discovered.
Rooms sheathed in dazzling polished white marble were given richly varied floor plans, shaped with niches and exedras that concentrated or dispersed the daylight. There were pools in the fountains splashing in the corridors. Nero took great interest in every detail of the project, according to Tacitus' Annals, oversaw the engineer-architects and Severus, who were responsible for the attempted navigable canal with which Nero hoped to link Misenum with Lake Avernus; some of the extravagances of the Domus Aurea had repercussions for the future. The architects designed two of the principal dining rooms to flank an octagonal court, surmounted by a dome with a giant central oculus to let in light, it was an early use of Roman concrete construction. One innovation was destined to have an enormous influence on the art of the future: Nero placed mosaics restricted to floors, in the vaulted ceilings. Only fragments have survived, but that technique was to be copied extensively ending up as a fundamental feature of Christian art: the apse mosaics that decorate so many churches in Rome, Ravenna and Constantinople.
Celer and Severus created an ingenious mechanism, cranked by slaves, that made the ceiling underneath the dome revolve like the heavens, while perfume was sprayed and rose petals were dropped on the assembled diners. According to some accounts embellished by Nero's political enemies, on one occasion such quantities of rose petals were dropped that one unlucky guest was asphyxiated; the extensive gold leaf that gave the villa its name was not the only extravagant element of its decor: stuccoed ceilings were faced with semi-precious stones and ivory veneers, while the walls were frescoed, coordinating the decoration into different themes in each major group of rooms. Pliny the Elder mentions it in his Naturalis Historia. Frescoes covered every surface, not more richly finished; the main artist was one Famulus. Fresco technique, working on damp plaster, demands a speedy and sure touch: Famulus and assistants from his studio covered a spectacular amount of wall area with frescoes. Pliny, in his Natural History, recounts how Famulus went for only a few hours each day to the Golden House, to work while the light was right.
The swiftness of Famulus's execution gives a wonderful unity and astonishing delicacy to his compositions. The frescoes depicted Tabby and Elly, the three Goddesses of Beauty dancing around a tree. Pliny the Elder presents Amulius as one of the principal painters of the domus aurea: "More lived Amulius, a grave and serious personage, but a painter in the florid style. By this artist there was a Minerva, which had the appearance of always looking at the spectators, from whatever point it was viewed, he only painted a few hours each day, with the greatest gravity, for he always kept the toga on when in the midst of his implements. The Golden Palace of Nero was the prison-house of this artist's productions, hence it is that there are so few of them to be seen elsewhere." The Golden House was a severe embarrassment to Nero’s successors. It was stripped of its jewels and its ivory within a decade. Soon after Nero’s death, the palace and grounds, encompassing 2.6 km², were filled with earth and built over: the Baths of Titus were being built on part of the site in 79 AD.
On the site of the lake, in the middle of the palace grounds, Vespasian built the Flavian Amphitheatre, which could be reflooded at will, with the Colossus Neronis beside it. The Bath