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Essex

Essex is a county in the southeast of England, northeast of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the southwest; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. There are three definitions of the extent of Essex, the widest being the Ancient County, the more usual being the smaller Ceremonial County and smallest being the administrative county – the area administered by the County Council and which excludes the two unitary authorities of Thurrock and Southend-on-Sea; the Ceremonial County occupies the eastern part of what was, during the Early Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Essex. As well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. Essex had its roots in the Kingdom of the East Saxons, a polity, to have had its roots in the territory of the Iron Age Trinovantes tribe.

Essex corresponds closely, to the territory of the Trinovantes tribe. Their production of their own coinage marks them out as one of one of the more advanced tribes on the island, this advantage is due to the Belgic element within their elite, their capital was the oppidum of Britain's oldest recorded town, which had its own mint. The tribe were in extended conflict with their western neighbours, the Catuvellauni, lost ground. By AD 10 they had came under the complete control of the Catuvellauni, who took Colchester as their own capital; the Roman invasion of AD 43 began with a landing on the south coast in the Richborough area of Kent. After some initial successes against the Britons, they paused to await reinforcements, the arrival of the Emperor Claudius; the combined army proceeded to the capital of the Catevellauni-Trinovantes at Colchester, took it. Claudius held a review of his invasion force on Lexden Heath where the army formally proclaimed him Imperator; the invasion force that assembled before him included four legions, mounted auxiliaries and an elephant corps – a force of around 30,000 men.

At Colchester, the kings of 11 British tribes surrendered to Claudius. Colchester became a Roman Colonia, with the official name Colonia Claudia Victricensis, it was the most important city in Roman Britain and in it they established a temple to the God-Emperor Claudius. This was the largest building of its kind in Roman Britain; the establishment of the Colonia is thought to have involved extensive appropriation of land from local people and other grievances led to the Trinovantes joining their northern neighbours, the Iceni, in the Boudiccan revolt. The rebels entered the city, after a Roman last stand at the temple of Claudius, methodically destroyed it, massacring many thousands. A significant Roman force attempting to relieve Colchester was destroyed in pitched battle, known as the Massacre of the Ninth Legion; the rebels proceeded to sack London and St Albans, with Tacitus estimating that 70–80,000 people killed in the destruction of the three cities. Boudicca was defeated in battle, somewhere in the west midlands, the Romans are to have ravaged the lands of the rebel tribes, so Essex will have suffered greatly.

Despite this, the Trinovantes identity persisted. Roman provinces were divided into civitas for local government purposes – with a civitas for the Trinovantes implied by Ptolemy; the late Roman period, the period shortly after, was the setting for the King Cole legends based around Colchester. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire, its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England.

After the Norman Conquest, county rather than shire became the more usual term is England's main sub-divisions, but their boundaries and role remained the same. The invaders established a number of castles in the county, to help protect the new elites in a hostile country. There were castles at Colchester, Castle Hedingham, Rayleigh and elsewhere. Hadleigh Castle was developed much in the thirteenth century. After the arrival of the Normans, the Forest of Essex was established, this was a Royal forest which covered the large majority of the county, however it is important to note that at that time, the term was a legal term, that at this stage had a weak correlation between woods and commons and the extent of the forest, most of the Forest of Essex was at that time farmland; the naturalist Oliver Rackham carried out an analysis of Domesday returns for Essex and was able to estimate the county was 20% wooded in 1086 with the proportion declining steeply between that point and the depopulation associated with the Black Death.

In 1204, the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested. G

Terminalia amazonia

Terminalia amazonia is a species of tree in the Combretaceae family. It is native to North America and South America and has been used for commercial logging; the wood is durable. In Belize, Terminalia amazonia is located in the Mountain Pine Ridge; this species can grow up to 70m in height. It can reach a diameter of 1 to 3m; the bark is straight. At the beginning, the branches grow horizontally and the apex assumes a vertical position; the bark is grayish brown or yellow with a bitter taste. The leaves are light green and opaque below. Terminalia amazonia has different names in different countries. In Central America and Panama, it is known as roble coral, amarillón, canùx, volador, amarillo real, guayabo de charco. In Mexico, it is referred as tepesuchil. In Cuba, the common names are chicharrón. In Belize it is referred as bullywood. Arispin and acietuno are the common names for Venezuela. Lastly, in Colombia the common names for Terminalia amazonia are palo prieto. Terminalia amazonia is a tropical tree of humid evergreen forest.

It blooms between April while the fruit ripens between March and May. The young part of the green wood is light grayish orange or yellowish when dry; the heart is a little darker and when dry, it acquires a reddish yellow color. There are an approximate average of 2 rings per cm; because of the wood of Terminalia amazonia is hard and durable, it is used in general woodwork as well as in floors. Seed trees should have a diameter of at least 40 to 70 cm; the fruit must be ripe. Once the seeds are harvested, they should be transported with cloth bags and allowed to dry in the sun for two days of three to four hours. Seeds are orthodox and should be kept in airtight containers or 4 °C with moisture content of 6 to 8%; some Terminalia amazonia plants present problems of pests during the early stages of development. The attack causes large deformation reducing the quality of the wood, it is common to encounter the problem of "gumming" caused by a virus which causes weakening of the tree until it dies

René Drouart de Bousset

René Drouard de Bousset was a French Baroque composer and organist. He was born in Paris on 12 December 1703, he was the son of Jean-Baptiste Drouard de Bousset, minor nobility and maître de musique of the chapelle of the Louvre. René was a pupil of Nicolas Bernier. In February 1739 Bousset was appointed organist at the parish church of St André-des-Arts, Paris simultaneously co-organist with Armand-Louis Couperin at Notre Dame de Paris and the church of Saint Merry from 1755 to 1760, he noted for a series of publications of cantatas on biblical subjects. Bousset died on 19 May 1760; the catalogue of Bousset's works can be found on the Philidor Portal. Available recordings are listed. Drouard de Bousset composed an opera in 1729 L'Amour guéri par l'amour. Ie. RECUEIL D'AIRS NOUVEAUX SERIEUX ET À BOIRE Dedié au Public COMPOSÉS PAR Mr. DE BOUSSET Maistre de Musique du Roy, pour les Academies des Inscriptions, et des Sciences. Gravé par du Plessy. Prix 3tt. SE VEND A PARIS. Chez L'Auteur, rüe du plastre au Marais.

Le Sr. Boivin Marchand, rüe St. Honoré a la Regle d'Or. Le Sr. le Clerc, rüe du Roule a la Croix d'Or. Avec Privilege du Roy. 1731. IIe. RECUEIL D'AIRS NOUVEAUX SERIEUX ET À BOIRE Dedié au Public COMPOSÉS PAR Mr. DE BOUSSET Maistre de Musique du Roy, pour les Academies des Inscriptions, et des Sciences. Gravé par du Plessy. Prix 3tt. SE VEND A PARIS. Chez L'Auteur, rüe du plastre au Marais. Le Sr. Boivin Marchand, rüe St. Honoré a la Regle d'Or. Le Sr. le Clerc, rüe du Roule a la Croix d'Or./ Avec Privilege du Roy. 1731. CONCERTOS EN TRIOTS POUR LES VIELES ET MUSETTES Qui se peuvent joüer sur les Flutes Traversiere et a Bec, Hautbois et Violon. On peut doubler toutes les parties hors les Endroits Marqués Seuls et Duo. 1er Oeuvre. COMPOSÉS PAR Mr DE BOUSSET Maitre de Musique du Roy pour les Academies des Inscriptions, et des Sciences. 5tt En blanc. SE VENDENT A PARIS. Chez L'Auteur, rüe du Plastre Ste Avoye. La Veuve Boivin, rüe St Honoré a la Regle d'Or. Le Sr. le Clerc, rüe du Roule a la Croix d'Or. Avec Privilege du Roy.

1736. CANTATES SPIRITUELLES TIRÉES Des Pseaumes, des Histoires les plus interessantes de l'Ecriture Sainte, et autres sujets pieux. A Voix seule, avec Symphonie Et Sans Symphonie COMPOSÉES PAR Mr. DE BOUSSET Maître de Musique du Roy pour ses Academies des Inscriptions et des Sciences. Gravé par N. Baillieul le Jeune. PRIX EN BLANC 7.tt 10.s. Se Vendent a Paris chez l'Auteur ruë du Platre St. Avoye. La Veuve Boivin Mde. Ruë St. Honoré à la Le Sr.. Le Clerc Md. Ruë du Roule à la Croix d'Or. Paris, l'auteur, Boivin, Le Clerc, 1739. IIeme RECEÜIL DE CANTATES SPIRITUELLES Tirées des Histoires les plus interessantes de L'ancien Testament. A Voix seule, et à deux Voix Avec Simphonie et sans Simphonie COMPOSÉES PAR MR. DE BOUSSET Maitre de Musique du Roy pour ses Academies des Inscriptions et des Sçiences. Organiste de l’Eglise Paroissiale de S. André des Arcs, et des Chanoines reguliers de Ste. Croix de la Bretonnerie. Gravées par Baillieul le jeune. Prix en blanc 4tt. SE VENDENT A PARIS Chez L'auteur ruë du Plâtre S. Avoye, La Veuve Boivin ruë S Honoré à la régle d'Or.

Le Sr. Le Clerc rüe du Roule à la Croix d'Or. Le Sr. de la Guette Md. Libraire rüe St. Jacques à au Bon Pasteur. Avec Privilege du Roy 1740. Pièces de Clavecin composées par M. du Bousset Maître de Musique du Roi, pour ses Académies Royales des Inscriptions & des Sciences, & Organiste de la paroisse de S. André des Arts. Prix 6 liv. Chez l'Auteur, rue du Jouy, & aux Addresses ordinaires de Musique. 1754. Annual motet for the oratory of the Académie des sciences Felicity Smith The music of René Drouard de Bousset: a source study 2008 Judith cantata – on Le Passage de la Mer Rouge cantatas by Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre and Bousset. Ensemble Le Tendre Amour, with Luanda Siqueira, soprano. K617. 2009 Cantatas from psalms 83 and 147, cantatas Abraham. Ensemble Le Tendre Amour, with Michiko Takahashi and Bernhard Hansky, baritone. Brilliant Classics. 2013 Free scores by René Drouart de Bousset at the International Music Score Library Project