Essex is a town in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 6,683 at the 2010 census, it is made up of three villages: Essex Village and Ivoryton. Essex is one of the few American towns to be attacked by a foreign power. 28 vessels, with a total value estimated to be close to $200,000, were destroyed by the British. One historian has called it the "Pearl Harbor" of that war. On that date 136 British marines and sailors under the command of Richard Coote rowed 6 boats from four British warships anchored in Long Island Sound, 6 miles up the Connecticut River, past the unmanned fort in Old Saybrook, arriving at the boat launch at the foot of Main Street in Essex close to 4 A. M; the boats were armed with swivel guns loaded with grapeshot, the officers armed with swords and pistols, the marines with "Brown Bess" muskets, the sailors with torches and axes. They commandeered the town, eliciting a promise of no resistance from the Essex militia in return for promising not to harm the townspeople or burn their homes, while a messenger rode to Fort Trumbull in New London for help.
A dubious local myth states that Coote did not burn the town as a favor to a local merchant who greeted him with a secret Masonic handshake. The British marched to the Bushnell Tavern seized the town's stores of rope and, according to the April 19, 1814 Hartford Courant, "$100,000 or upwards" worth of rum, their main targets, were the newly constructed privateers in the harbor, ready or nearly ready for sail, which they burned. Within 6 hours, their mission was accomplished, The British went downstream with two captured ships in tow, including the Black Prince, a vessel that may well have inspired the raid. Stranded in the river by low tide, they were forced to wait at the extreme range of the shots of the volunteers from the nearby town of Killingworth who lined the riverbanks. At the time of the raid, Essex had been a major center of shipping and shipbuilding, but was suffering under a blockade by The British. Captain Richard Hayden, a prominent shipbuilder, had advertised his Black Prince in a New York City newspaper as "a 315 ton sharp schooner that would make an ideal privateer."
This may have caught the attention of The British, who investigated Essex and launched the successful raid. As a consequence of the practical, but somewhat less than heroic, response of the town to the raid, shortly afterwards, the name of the town was changed to Essex. On the second Saturday of each May since 1964, the "Sailing Masters of 1812" of Essex commemorate the "Burning of the Ships" with an ancient fife and drum corps parade down Main Street and ceremony at the steamboat dock, wearing the United States naval uniform of that period; the Connecticut River Museum, situated at the site where Coot landed, now hosts an exhibit portraying the raid, featuring a large diorama by Russell Joseph Buckingham, a musket ball believed to have been fired and a plank from the ship Osage, burned by The British. Plans are to expand the celebration of "the town's worst day in history" in future years, according to the museum's executive director, Jerry Roberts. Centerbrook, a fertile and productive agricultural area, was the "center" of town until the Revolutionary War.
Many farmhouses remain from this era. The Selah Griswold House and Clark Nott House on Bokum Road are fine examples of two-story center chimney homes that were characteristic of the time; the Benjamin Bushnell Homestead on Ingham Hill Road falls into the same category. Characteristic of Centerbrook were smaller Cape Cod type homes; the Snow House on Main Street, the Nott House on Westbrook Road, the Taylor Bushnell House on Ingham Hill Road, the Silent Rose House near the train station are fine examples. The dominant building in Centerbrook, from a historical standpoint, is the Congregational Church; this structure is the second to stand here, the oldest existing church building in Middlesex County. There were a few homes built in Essex Village during the first half of the 18th century. One of the more notable is the Pratt House on West Avenue, an "organic" structure built according to the immediate needs of the Pratt family. Shipbuilding dominated between the Civil War; as a result, the village came to be the focal point of the area.
Many homes were erected between 1790 and 1820. By that time, Main Street had much the same make-up as today; the homes were Federal, with one extended family dominating lower Main Street. The first eight structures on the south side of this highway were either built or lived in by members of the Hayden family. Of these eight structures, only the one on the west side of Novelty Lane and the one on the east corner of Parker Lane were not built by this family; the fact that the well known Hayden Shipyard was directly south of these buildings was the primary reason for this situa
Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist used in the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension. It is licensed in the United States, the European Union and other countries by Actelion Pharmaceuticals for the management of PAH under the trade name Tracleer. Bosentan is available as dispersable tablets for oral suspension; the dispersable tablets should be dispersed in a small amount of water before administration. Bosentan is used to treat people with moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension and to reduce the number of digital ulcers — open wounds on on fingertips and less the knuckles — in people with systemic scleroderma. Bosentan causes harm to fetuses and pregnant women must not take it, women must not become pregnant while taking it, it may render hormonal contraceptives ineffective. In the US it is only available from doctors who follow an FDA-mandated risk evaluation and mitigation strategy with respect to risks to fetuses and its risks of causing liver damage; the doctor must document a negative pregnancy test for women before prescribing the drug, counsel about contraception, give regular pregnancy tests.
Because there is a high risk that bosentan causes liver damage, the REMS plan requires pre-testing for elevated transaminases and regular testing while the drug is being taken. Bosentan is contraindicated in patients taking glyburide due to an increased risk of increased liver enzymes and liver damage when these two agents are taken together. In addition to the risk of causing birth defects and of causing liver damage, bosentan has a high risk of causing edema, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, decreasing sperm counts, decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit. Common adverse effects include headache, elevated transaminases, edema. Common adverse effects include anemia, reduced hemoglobin, hypersensitivity reactions, skin inflammation, rashes, red skin, fainting, heart palpitations, low blood pressure, nasal congestion, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, diarrhea. Bosentan is a competitive antagonist of endothelin-B receptors. Under normal conditions, endothelin-1 binding of ET-A receptors causes constriction of the pulmonary blood vessels.
Conversely, binding of endothelin-1 to ET-B receptors has been associated with both vasodilation and vasoconstriction of vascular smooth muscle, depending on the ET-B subtype and tissue. Bosentan blocks both ET-A and ET-B receptors, but is thought to exert a greater effect on ET-A receptors, causing a total decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance. Absolute bioavailability of bosentan is about 50% in healthy subjects. Peak plasma concentration of bosentan with the dispersable tablets for oral suspension is 14% less on average compared to peak concentration of the oral tablets. Bosentan is a substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. CYP2C19 may play a role in its metabolism, it is a substrate of the hepatic uptake transporter organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1. Elimination of bosentan is hepatic, with minimal contribution from renal and fecal excretion. Use of bosentan with cyclosporine is contraindicated because cyclosporine A has been shown to markedly increase serum concentration of bosentan.
Bosentan was studied in heart failure in a trial called REACH-1, terminated early in 1997 due to toxicity at the dose, being studied. It was approved for PAH in the US in 2001 and in Europe in 2002. By 2013 worldwide sales of bosentan were $1.57 billion. The patents on bosentan started expiring in 2015. Ambrisentan Darusentan Sitaxentan
Tanamera – Lion of Singapore is a 1989 Australian drama serial, a co-production between Central Independent television and Grundy in 1989. The lives of two leading families of Singapore, the Dexters and the Soongs, become intertwined when John Dexter falls in love with Julie Soong. Action takes place between the years 1935 and 1948. Notable cast members included Christopher Bowen, Khym Lam, Anthony Calf, Gary Sweet, John Jarratt, Anne-Louise Lambert, Penne Hackforth-Jones, Lewis Fiander, Bryan Marshall, Betty Lucas, Wallas Eaton, Darren Yap and Anthony Wong; the series is based on Tanamera, by Noel Barber. Tanamera is the name of the house built by the patriarch of the Dexter family. Tanamera is derived from Malay for Red Earth; the grounds of the huge Tanamera bungalow consisted of red soil. The series was shown in the United Kingdom, from April 1989. Albania and America. Tanamera – Lion of Singapore on IMDb http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/series/19430 Tanamera Lion of Singapore at AustLit