Guns N' Roses
Guns N' Roses abbreviated as GNR, is an American hard rock band from Los Angeles, formed in 1985. When they signed to Geffen Records in 1986, the band comprised vocalist Axl Rose, lead guitarist Slash, rhythm guitarist Izzy Stradlin, bassist Duff McKagan, drummer Steven Adler; the current lineup consists of Rose, Slash, McKagan, keyboardist Dizzy Reed, guitarist Richard Fortus, drummer Frank Ferrer and keyboardist Melissa Reese. Guns N' Roses' debut album, Appetite for Destruction, reached number one on the Billboard 200 a year after its release, on the strength of the Top 10 singles "Welcome to the Jungle", "Paradise City", "Sweet Child o' Mine", the band's only single to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100; the album has sold 30 million copies worldwide, including 18 million units in the United States, making it the country's bestselling debut album and eleventh-bestselling album. Their next studio album, G N' R Lies, reached number two on the Billboard 200, sold ten million copies worldwide, included the Top 5 hit "Patience".
Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II, recorded and released in 1991, debuted at number two and number one on the Billboard 200 and have sold a combined 35 million copies worldwide, including 14 million units in the United States. The Illusion albums included the lead single "You Could Be Mine", covers of "Live and Let Die" and "Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door", a trilogy of ballads, which featured notably high-budget music videos; the Illusion records were supported by the extensive Use Your Illusion Tour, a world tour that lasted from 1991-1993. "The Spaghetti Incident?", an album of covers, was the band's last studio album to feature Slash and McKagan. Work on a follow up album stalled due to creative differences between band members. After a more than a decade of work and several lineup changes, Guns N' Roses's long-awaited sixth studio album Chinese Democracy, was released. At an estimated $14 million in production costs, it is the most expensive rock album in history, it debuted at number three on the Billboard 200, but undersold industry expectations despite positive critical reception.
Slash and McKagan rejoined the band in 2016 for the Not in This Lifetime... Tour, which became the second-highest-grossing concert tour on record, grossing over $562 million by December 2018. In their early years, the band's hedonism and rebelliousness drew comparisons to the early Rolling Stones and earned them the nickname "the most dangerous band in the world." The band's classic lineup, along with members Reed and drummer Matt Sorum, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012, its first year of eligibility. Guns N' Roses have sold more than 100 million records worldwide, including 45 million in the United States, making them the 41st-bestselling artist in history. In 1984, Hollywood Rose member Izzy Stradlin was living with L. A. Guns member Tracii Guns; when L. A. Guns needed a new vocalist, Stradlin suggested Hollywood Rose singer Axl Rose. Months Guns N' Roses was formed in March 1985 by Rose, rhythm guitarist Stradlin, along with L. A. Guns founders lead drummer Rob Gardner and bassist Ole Beich.
The band coined its name by combining the names of both previous groups. Rejected names for the band included "Heads of Amazon" and "AIDS", their first show, promoted as "L. A. Guns and Hollywood Rose presents Guns N Roses", was on March 26, 1985. After this show, Beich was replaced by Duff McKagan. Around this time, the band planned to release an EP with "Don't Cry", a cover of "Heartbreak Hotel", "Think About You" and "Anything Goes". However, plans for the release fell through, as Guns left the band after an argument with Rose leading to his replacement by Rose and Stradlin's one-time Hollywood Rose bandmate, Slash. Gardner was replaced by another former Hollywood Rose member, Steven Adler. Slash had previously played with McKagan and Adler in Road Crew; the band's "classic" lineup was finalized on June 4, 1985 when Adler and Slash joined. After two days of rehearsals, the band played their first show with the lineup on June 6, 1985. Two days the band embarked on a short, disorganized tour of the West Coast, from Sacramento, California, to McKagan's hometown of Seattle, Washington.
The band drove in a separate van and had to abandon their gear when both vans broke down on the way to Seattle, forcing them to hitch-hike up the coast and back home to LA with only their guitars. The so-called "Hell Tour" settled the band's first stable lineup, with McKagan commenting, "This trip had set a new benchmark for what we were capable of, what we could and would put ourselves through to achieve our goals as a band."Through the band's increasing presence on the Hollywood club scene – playing famed bars such as The Troubadour and The Roxy – Guns N' Roses drew the attention of major record labels. The group signed with Geffen Records in March 1986, they had turned down an offer from Chrysalis Records, nearly double Geffen's, due to Chrysalis wanting to change the band's image and sound and Geffen offering full artistic freedom. In December of that year, the group released the four-song EP Live?!*@ Like a Suicide, designed to keep interest in the band alive while the group withdrew from the club scene to work in the studio.
The EP release was designed to sooth over the label, who felt the band didn't have enough songs to record an album. The EP contained covers of Ro
Jean-Marie Faustin Godefroid "João" de Havelange was a Brazilian lawyer, businessman and centenarian who served as the seventh President of FIFA from 1974 to 1998. His tenure as President is the second longest in FIFA's history, behind only that of Jules Rimet, he received the title of Honorary President when leaving office, but resigned in April 2013. He was succeeded by Sepp Blatter. João Havelange served as a member of the International Olympic Committee from 1963 to 2011, he was the longest-serving active member upon his resignation. In July 2012 a Swiss prosecutor's report revealed that, during his tenure on FIFA's Executive Committee, he and his son-in-law Ricardo Teixeira took more than $41 million in bribes in connection with the award of World Cup marketing rights. Havelange was born in Rio de Janeiro, to an affluent family. An excellent student at school, Havelange was accepted to the prestigious Law School of Fluminense Federal University, from which he graduated at the age of 24 with a BA in Law.
He worked as a legal advisor for bus company Auto Viação Jabaquara, became president-director of another bus company, Viação Cometa S/A. He was senior partner at chemical and metallurgical company Orwec Química e Metallurgia Ltda. Interested in sports since his childhood years, at the age of 20 Havelange competed as a swimmer at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, but failed to go beyond the heats of the 400m freestyle and 1500m freestyle events, he was part of the Brazilian team that tied for 13th in water polo at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. He was the chef de mission of the Brazilian delegation at the 1956 Summer Olympic Games in Melbourne; as President of the Metropolitan Swimming Federation in Brazil, Havelange became a member of the Brazilian Olympic Committee and joined the Union Cycliste Internationale in 1958. After becoming Vice-President of the Brazilian Sports Confederation, he served as President of the Confederation from 1958 to 1973. In 1974 Havelange defeated Englishman Stanley Rous for the presidency of FIFA, the governing body of world association football.
Havelange became the first non-European to hold the post. He lobbied in 86 different countries for the presidency accompanied by Pelé. Sports marketer Patrick Nally said that "Havelange had seen the future...he knew that if he became the president of the only federation running its own high-profile world championship he would enjoy huge economic power". Appealing to developing nations, Havelange promised an expanded World Cup, a youth World Cup that they might be able to host. Threatened by Havelange's international campaign for the presidency, Rous asked Horst Dassler managing Adidas' French subsidiary to help his campaign. Dassler engaged in intense lobbying of the delegates at the 39th FIFA Congress, where the vote was to be held; the election went to a second round, Havelange won by sixteen votes. Havelange did not have sufficient money to fund his programme for FIFA, so he sought financial support from Dassler, who wished to supply Adidas branded equipment to the national federations. Supported by sports marketer Patrick Nally, Havelange enlisted Adidas and Coca-Cola as primary sponsors of FIFA tournaments.
The support of commercial organizations was crucial to the future of Havelange and FIFA, provided a model for global sporting federations. Nally stated that: "The money we bought into FIFA through Coke was changing the face of the federation. Havelange was building a new international headquarters in Zurich, appointing professional full-time staff and PR and finance people. FIFA was showing the way. Other federations were watching closely. Many others were eager to follow and quick to fall into the hands of Horst and myself" The sale of television rights increased under Havelange's leadership. In 1987 the European rights to the next three FIFA World Cups were sold for $440 million, the non-United States rights for the three tournaments from 1998 sold for $2.2 billion. Under Havelange's presidency the FIFA World Cup expanded from 16 to 32 teams, with Havelange overseeing six world cups during his time in office; the FIFA U-17 World Cup, FIFA U-20 World Cup, FIFA Confederations Cup and FIFA Women's World Cup were all introduced under his tenure.
The head of the Argentina's 1978 FIFA World Cup organizing committee, Omar Actis, was assassinated in August 1976. Awarded the World Cup in 1966, Argentina did little to prepare for the event before the 1976 Argentine coup d'état that saw a military junta rule the country. In 1982 Carlos Lacoste, former de facto President of Argentina during the junta, became Vice-President of FIFA. Lacoste had been head of the organising committee for the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina and was cousin of de facto President Jorge Rafael Videla. Democratic rule was restored to Argentina in 1983 and Lacoste was investigated for corruption. Havelange was an associate of Brazilian criminal Castor de Andrade, head of an illegal gambling association. Andrade was sentenced to six years in prison in 1994 for racketeering. Havelange wrote a character reference for Andrade in 1987 as "amiable and pleasant... predominant feature.. Loyalty.. Good family man, a devoted friend, is admired as a sports administrator". "I authorize Castor de Andrade to use this statement as he deems appropriate".
Police investigating Andrade found this reference and evidence that Andrade had provided Havelange with a box at the Rio Carnival. Havelange's daughter
Athletics at the 2007 Pan American Games
The athletics competition at the 2007 Pan American Games was held at the Flamengo Park and Estádio Olímpico João Havelange in Rio de Janeiro between 22 July and 29 July 2007. In the 47 events that took place, thirteen Games records in athletics were equalled or beaten at the 2007 edition. Cuba fielded its best athletes and topped the medal table, winning twelve gold medals and having the greatest medal haul overall with a total of 30; the hosts, took second place on the table having won nine golds and 23 medals overall. The United States – continuing its tradition of fielding a far from full strength squad – had its worst performance in the Pan American athletics competition. With six golds for third place, it finished outside the top two for the first time in Games history. Canada and Mexico were the next most successful nations, placing fourth and fifth in the medal tally, respectively. * Host nation 2007 in athletics GeneralBiscayart, Eduardo. Rio opens-up to Athletics at Eduardo. Pérez retains 20 km Walk title - Day One Biscayart, Eduardo.
Moreno takes Hammer with 75.20 Games record -- Day Two Biscayart, Eduardo. Barber takes 100m title with 11.02 -- Day 3 Biscayart, Eduardo. Ennis-London beats Felicien in a thriller – Pan American Games, Day 4 Biscayart, Eduardo. Cuba's five gold medal party – Pan-Am Games, Day 5 Biscayart, Eduardo. Robles shines with rainy 13.25 – Pan-Am Games Day 6 Biscayart, Eduardo. Brazilian de Almeida wins Marathon - Pan-Am Games, Final Day Official site Results Book
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could host more than one type of sport or event, this concept refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity, it is used most in Canada and the United States, where the two most popular outdoor team sports – football and baseball – require radically different facilities. Football uses a rectangular field, while baseball is played on large outfield; this requires a particular design to accommodate both an oval. While building stadiums in this way means that sports teams and governments can share costs, it imposes some challenges. In North America, multipurpose stadiums were built during the 1960s and 1970s as shared home stadiums for Major League Baseball and National Football League or Canadian Football League teams; some stadiums were renovated to allow multipurpose configurations during the 1980s. This type of stadium is associated with an era of suburbanization, in which many sports teams followed their fans out of large cities into areas with cheaper, plentiful land.
They were built near highways and had large parking lots, but were connected to public transit. As multipurpose stadiums were ideal for both sports housed in them, they had fallen out of favor by the 1990s. With the completion of the Truman Sports Complex in Kansas City in 1973, a model for purpose-built stadiums was laid down. Since Oriole Park at Camden Yards opened in 1992, most major league sports stadiums have been built for one sport. Outside North America, the term is used, since association football is the only major outdoor team sport in many countries. In Australia, many sports grounds are suited to both Australian rules football and cricket, as Australian rules is played on cricket ovals. In some cases such as Stadium Australia in Sydney, Docklands Stadium in Melbourne and National Stadium, stadiums are designed to be converted between the oval configuration for cricket and Australian rules football and a rectangular configuration for Rugby and Association Football and in the case of Singapore's National Stadium, an Athletics configuration as well.
Association football stadiums have served as track and field arenas, as well, some still do, whereas a newer generation has no running track to allow the fans closer to the field. Among winter sports a speed skating rink can be a multi-purpose stadium. A rink or two of the size 61 × 30 metres - the regulation size of an IIHF ice hockey rink - are placed inside the oval. Sometimes the ice surface is larger, allowing for bandy and curling; as of 2019, the Oakland Coliseum is the last multipurpose stadium to serve as a full-time home to both an MLB team and an NFL team, that arrangement will end once the Oakland Raiders relocate to Las Vegas in 2020. Meanwhile, the current Yankee Stadium houses both the New York Yankees baseball team and New York City FC of Major League Soccer. Several stadiums hosted multiple sports teams prior to the advent of multipurpose stadiums. In New York City, the Polo Grounds hosted football teams early on; the original Yankee Stadium was designed to accommodate football, as well as track and field, in addition to its primary use for baseball.
Wrigley Field, while built for baseball hosted the Chicago Bears, just as Comiskey Park hosted the Chicago Cardinals and Tiger Stadium hosted the Detroit Lions. Venues such as Cleveland Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium and Baltimore Memorial Stadium were built to accommodate both baseball and football. In the 1960s, multipurpose stadiums began replacing their baseball-only and football-only predecessors, now known as "classics" or "jewel box" parks; the advantage to a multipurpose stadium is that a singular infrastructure and piece of real estate can support both teams in terms of transportation and playing area, money that would have been spent to support infrastructure for two stadiums could be spent elsewhere. Playing into the advent of the multipurpose stadium was Americans' growing use of automobiles, which required professional sports stadiums surrounded by parking. Most cities lacked affordable space for such stadiums near their city centers, so multipurpose stadiums were built in suburbs with freeways access.
Subsets of the multipurpose stadiums were the so-called "cookie-cutter stadiums" or "concrete donuts" which were all similar in design. They featured a circular or nearly circular design, accommodated both baseball and football by rotating sections of the box seat areas to fit the respective playing fields; these fields used artificial turf, as it could withstand the reconfiguration process more or be removed for nonsporting events, plus it could be used in domes, which many of these stadiums were. The first of these stadiums was Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, it was followed during the 1960s and 1970s by Shea Stadium, Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, the Astrodome, Jack Murphy Stadium, Riverfront Stadium, Busch Memorial Stadium, Three Rivers Stadium, Veterans Stadium, the Kingdome. As of 2016, seven of these 11 stadiums have been demolished. Only Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, the Oakland Coliseum, Jack Murphy S
Football at the 2007 Pan American Games – Women's tournament
The women's association football tournament at the 2007 Pan American Games The number of teams was expanded to 10 teams for this edition, with no age limit. The participants were
2016 Summer Paralympics
The 2016 Summer Paralympics, the 15th Summer Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee, held in Rio de Janeiro, from 7 September to 18 September 2016. The Games marked the first time a Latin American and South American city hosted the event, the second Southern Hemisphere city and nation, the first one being the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, the first time a Lusophone country hosted the event; these Games saw the introduction of two new sports to the Paralympic program: canoeing and the paratriathlon. The lead-up to these Paralympics were met with financial shortcomings attributed to tepid sponsor interest and ticket sales, which resulted in cuts to volunteer staffing and transport, the re-location of events and the partial deconstruction of the Deodoro venue cluster. However, ticket sales began to increase as the Games drew nearer, over 2 million tickets were sold in total—overtaking Beijing 2008 as the second-most-attended Paralympic Games on record.
The Russian doping scandal affected these Paralympics. A team of two refugee athletes participated in Rio, "hosted" by the Greek and American Paralympic Committees. For the fourth consecutive Summer Paralympics, China topped the medal table, winning 107 gold medals, while Georgia, Malaysia and Vietnam won their first Paralympic gold medals. For the first time in Paralympic history, the first time in the Olympics or Paralympics since 1960, an athlete—Iranian cyclist Bahman Golbarnezhad—died during competition; as part of a formal agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee first established in 2001, the winner of the bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics was to host the 2016 Summer Paralympics. Following the third and final round of voting at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen on 2 October 2009, the right to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were awarded to Rio de Janeiro; the 2007 Pan American Games and Parapan American Games in Rio de Janeiro marked the first time that the Pan Am Games and Parapan Am Games were hosted as parallel events in the same host city.
Andrew Parsons, president of the Brazilian Paralympic Committee, remarked that the organizing teams responsible for the Olympics and Paralympics were maintaining a good relationship and "speaking the same language" in relation to their organizational duties. Parsons praised how well-organized the 2012 Summer Paralympics were, felt that his team had learned lessons from London that could be applied in Rio; as had been common practice since the Olympics and Paralympics began to formally share host cities, the Paralympics' venues were shared with those of the 2016 Summer Olympics. Barra da Tijuca hosted most of the venues, with the remainder located in Copacabana Beach, Maracanã and Deodoro. Barra da Tijuca housed the athletes' village. Carioca Arena 1 – Wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby Carioca Arena 2 – Boccia Carioca Arena 3 – Judo, wheelchair fencing Future Arena – Goalball Olympic Aquatics Stadium – Swimming Olympic Tennis Centre – 5-a-side football, wheelchair tennis Pontal Beach – Road cycling Riocentro – Powerlifting, Sitting volleyball, table tennis Rio Olympic Arena – Wheelchair basketball Rio Olympic Velodrome – Track cycling National Shooting Center – shooting National Equestrian Center – equestrian Deodoro Stadium - 7-a-side football Maracanã Stadium – opening and closing ceremonies Estádio Olímpico João Havelange – athletics Sambadrome Marquês de Sapucaí – archery Fort Copacabana – Athletics and Road Cycling Marina da Glória – sailing Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas – canoeing and rowing The medal design for the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 14 June 2016.
The bronze and silver medals contain 30% recycled materials, while the gold medals were produced using gold, mined and extracted using means that met a series of sustainability criteria, such as being extracted without the use of mercury. The obverse of the Paralympic medals feature the Paralympic emblem and an inscription in braille, while each medal contains differing numbers of metal balls to allow the visually impaired to audibly distinguish their color by shaking them, they are accompanied by a wooden carrying box, a plush toy of Paralympic mascot Tom with hair leaves that match the medal's color. The initial financial shortcomings of the 2016 Paralympics were attributed to slow ticket sales, along a poor public interest, despite the cheapest tickets only costing a quarter of those for the Olympics. During the Olympics, organizers stated that only 12% of an original target of 3.3 million tickets had been sold. By early September, only half of the tickets to medal events had been sold. On 23 August 2016, Greg Nugent, head of marketing of the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics, began a campaign on Twitter known as "#FillTheSeats", encouraging users to donate money to supply local youth and people with disabilities with tickets to the Paralympics.
Nugent began the campaign after noticing the large number of empty seats at competition venues during the 2016 Summer Olympics. Following endorsements of the campaign by prominent figures, such as British band Coldplay, it raised over US$15,000 by 30 August. On 31 August 2016, the IPC an