1955 Pan American Games
The 2nd Pan American Games opened on March 12, 1955, in the University Stadium in Mexico City, Mexico, in front of a capacity crowd of 100,000 spectators. A total number of 2,583 athletes from 22 nations marched in review and formed ranks upon the infield; the nations paraded into the stadium in Spanish alphabetical order: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Curaçao, El Salvador, United States, Haiti, Panama, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic and Tobago, Uruguay and Mexico. The hot sun, combined with the high altitude, caused two members of the U. S. team to collapse. Both recovered. On March 6, 1951, PASO selected Mexico City over Guatemala City to host the II Pan American Games. Seventeen of the eighteen countries participated with El Salvador abstaining. Guatemala City received two votes, one from Guatemala and one from Mexico, Mexico City received the remaining fifteen votes. To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the icon next to the column title.
Note^ The medal counts for the United States and Chile are disputed
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
The National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico, abbreviated IPN, is one of the largest public universities in Mexico with 171,581 students at the high school and postgraduate levels. It is the second best university in Mexico in the technical and engineering domain according to the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2018, it was founded on 1 January 1936 during the administration of President Lázaro Cárdenas del Río as a response to provide professional education to the most disadvantaged social classes in that period, a practice, maintained because it is one of the few vocational schools in the world. The institute consists of 98 academic units offering 293 courses of study, it includes 80 undergraduate and 135 postgraduate programs. Its main campus, called'Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos' or'Zacatenco', is on 530 acres north Mexico City; the IPN is based in Mexico City and its suburbs, but with several research institutes and facilities distributed over 22 states. The institute was founded on January 1, 1936 during the administration of President Lázaro Cárdenas in what had been known as the Ex hacienda Santo Tomás — a large estate owned by Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés in the 16th century and donated by the federal government.
Prominent astronomer Luis Enrique Erro, former revolutionary Juan de Dios Bátiz Paredes and former minister of education Narciso Bassols were among its initial promoters. During the administration of former director Alejo Peralta sufficient lands were given to IPN. Expropriated lands of Santa Maria Ticomán and San Pedro Zacatenco were used; the construction of what is now the Professional Unit "Adolfo López Mateos" began in 1958. In 1959, former President Adolfo López Mateos, the former minister of education Jaime Torres Bodet, former director of IPN Eugenio Mendez Docurro, inaugurated the first four buildings of Zacatenco, which were occupied by the Superior School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Superior School of Engineering and Architecture; the institute is organized around 98 academic units including 18 vocational high schools, 26 university colleges, 20 scientific and technical research centers, 17 continuing education centers, 4 units for educational support, 3 support units for education innovation, 8 support units for research and technological and enterprise foment, 2 units affiliated to science, enterprise research and development.
These schools are in Mexico City, although several extension and research facilities are distributed over 22 states. Some units enjoy a high degree of budgetary freedom; the institute as a whole is headed by a director-general appointed by the President of Mexico after some consultation with members of its academic community. Since November 2017, its director-general is Mario Alberto Rodríguez Casas. In addition to its academic endeavors, as part of its cultural promotion strategy, the institute operates'Canal Once', the oldest public broadcast service in Latin America featuring original cultural, scientific and entertainment programming, foreign shows and classic and non-commercial films from all over the world; the Institute offers 80 undergraduate programs leading to four- or five-year bachelor's degrees and 135 postgraduate programs leading to 29 postgraduate diplomas, 70 master's degrees and 36 doctorate degrees. Like most public universities in Mexico, in addition to its undergraduate and graduate schools the institute sponsors several vocational high schools called'Centros de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos', most of which are in Greater Mexico City.
Upon completion, they lead to a technician degree. For this level of study, the institute offers 78 technical careers. IPN fields 27 varsity teams in sports or activities such as archery, American football, baseball, body building, boxing, cycling, gymnastics, indoor soccer, karate, mountaineering, soccer, taekwondo, touch football, volleyball and wrestling; the university maintains a fierce rivalry with all the athletic teams from the National Autonomous University of Mexico but have a bitter competition with its football program, the "Pumas Dorados". Guillermo González Camarena: television pioneer. Jerzy Rzedowski: plant scientist. Esther Orozco: biology researcher, winner of the 1997 UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal and the 2006 L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science for her work on amoebiasis. Evangelina Villegas: biochemist laureated with the 2000 World Food Prize and whose work with maize led to the development of Quality Protein Maize. Pablo Rudomín: neuroscientist laureated with the Prince of Asturias Award.
Gilberto Calvillo Vives: president of the United Nations' Statistics Commission. Alberto Pérez Gómez: architectural historian and winner of the 1984 Alice Davis Hitchcock Award. Ruth Rivera Marin: architect, the first woman to study architecture at the College of Engineering and Architecture. Constantino Reyes-Valerio: chemist and art historian, discovered the recipe to create Maya blue and coined the term Arte Indocristiano. Raúl Rojas: professor of computer science and mathematics and a renowned specialist in artificial neural networks. Ernesto Zedillo: former President of Mexico. Josefina Vázquez Mota: former Secretary of Ed
Italy national football team
The Italy national football team has represented Italy in association football since their first match in 1910. The squad is under the global jurisdiction of FIFA and is governed in Europe by UEFA—the latter of, co-founded by the Italian team's supervising body, the Italian Football Federation. Italy's home matches are played at various stadiums throughout Italy, their primary training ground is located at the FIGC headquarters in Coverciano, Florence. Italy is one of the most successful national teams in the history of the World Cup, having won four titles and appearing in two other finals, reaching a third place and a fourth place. In 1938, they became the first team to defend their World Cup title, due to the outbreak of World War II, retained the title for a further 12 years. Italy had previously won two Central European International Cups. Between its first two World Cup victories, Italy won the Olympic football tournament. After the majority of the team was killed in a plane crash in 1949, the team did not advance past the group stage of the following two World Cup tournaments, failed to qualify for the 1958 edition—failure to qualify for the World Cup would not happen again until the 2018 edition.
Italy returned to form by 1968, winning a European Championship, after a period of alternating unsuccessful qualification rounds in Europe appeared in two other finals. Italy's highest finish at the FIFA Confederations Cup was in 2013, where the squad achieved a third-place finish; the team is known as gli Azzurri. Blue is the traditional colour of the national teams representing Italy and it comes from the border colour of the royal House of Savoy crest used on the flag of the Kingdom of Italy; the national team is known for its long-standing rivalries with other top footballing nations, such as those with Brazil, France and Spain. In the FIFA World Ranking, in force since August 1993, Italy has occupied the first place several times, in November 1993 and during 2007, with its worst placement in August 2018 in 21st place; the team's first match was held in Milan on 15 May 1910. Italy defeated France by a score of 6–2, with Italy's first goal scored by Pietro Lana; the Italian team played with a system and consisted of: De Simoni.
First captain of the team was Francesco Calì. The first success in an official tournament came with the bronze medal in 1928 Summer Olympics, held in Amsterdam. After losing the semi-final against Uruguay, an 11–3 victory against Egypt secured third place in the competition. In the 1927–30 and 1933–35 Central European International Cup, Italy achieved the first place out of five Central European teams, topping the group with 11 points in both editions of the tournament. Italy would later win the gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics with a 2–1 victory in extra time in the gold medal match over Austria on 15 August 1936. After declining to participate in the first World Cup the Italian national team won two consecutive editions of the tournament in 1934 and 1938, under the direction of coach Vittorio Pozzo and the performance of Giuseppe Meazza, considered one of the best Italian football players of all time by some. Italy hosted the 1934 World Cup, played their first World Cup match in a 7–1 win over the United States in Rome.
Italy defeated Czechoslovakia 2–1 in extra time in the final in Rome, with goals by Raimundo Orsi and Angelo Schiavio to achieve their first World cup title in 1934. They achieved their second title in 1938 in a 4–2 defeat of Hungary, with two goals by Gino Colaussi and two goals by Silvio Piola in the World Cup that followed. Rumour has it, before the 1938 finals fascist Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini was to have sent a telegram to the team, saying "Vincere o morire!". However, no record remains of such a telegram, World Cup player Pietro Rava said, when interviewed, "No, no, no, that's not true, he sent a telegram wishing us well, but no never'win or die'." In 1949, 10 of the 11 players in the team's initial line-up were killed in a plane crash that affected Torino, winners of the previous five Serie A titles. Italy did not advance further than the first round of the 1950 World Cup, as they were weakened due to the air disaster; the team had travelled by boat rather than by plane. In the World Cup finals of 1954 and 1962, Italy failed to progress past the first round, did not qualify for the 1958 World Cup due to a 2–1 defeat to Northern Ireland in the last match of the qualifying round.
Italy did not take part in the first edition of the European Championship in 1960, was knocked out by the Soviet Union in the first round of the 1964 European Nations' Cup qualifying. Their participation in the 1966 World Cup was ended by a 0–1 defeat at the hands of North Korea. Despite being the tournament favourites, the Azzurri, whose 1966 squad included Gianni Rivera and Giacomo Bulgarelli, were eliminated in the first round by the semi-professional North Koreans; the Italian team was bitterly condemned upon their return home, while North Korean scorer Pak Doo-ik was celebrated as the David who killed Goliath. Upon Italy's return home, furious fans threw fruit and rotten tomatoes at their transport bus at the airport. In 1968, Italy participated in their first European Championship, hosting the European Championship and winning their first major competition since the 1938 World Cup, beating Yugoslavia in Rome for the title. Th
Club de Fútbol América S. A. de C. V. known as Club América or América, is a professional football club based in Mexico City, Mexico. Nicknamed Las Águilas, it competes in Liga MX, the top tier of Mexican football The club was founded in 1916, since 1959 has been owned by media company Grupo Televisa; the team plays its home games at the Estadio Azteca, the largest stadium in Mexico and Latin America, the seventh largest association football-specific stadium in the world. The club has a long-standing rivalry with Guadalajara, as both are the most successful and most popular clubs in the country, are the only clubs to have never been relegated to the second division. Matches between them are known as El Súper Clásico, considered to be the biggest rivalry in Mexico, one of the biggest in the world. América play local derbies against Cruz Azul and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; the club has won a record thirteen league titles, as well as a record six Copa México titles, five Campeón de Campeones cups.
In international competitions, América has ten FIFA recognized club trophies, the most for a club from the CONCACAF region. It has won a record seven CONCACAF Champions Cup/Champions League titles, two Copa Interamericana cups and one CONCACAF Giants Cup. By 1916 football was a popular sport in Mexico amongst college students in Mexico City. College students from Colegio Mascarones and Colegio Marista de la Perpetua formed two football teams with the names Récord and Colón. On 12 October 1916, the two squads decided to consolidate to make a more competitive squad. Many names were considered for this new squad, team player Pedro "Cheto" Quintanilla suggested the name "América", since they had formed the team on Columbus Day; the players agreed and soon designed a crest which had the map of the Americas centered with a'C' for "Club" on the left and an'A' for "América" on the right. The players had to decide on their team colours. Rafael Garza Gutiérrez went to get some of his father's navy blue trousers and a yellow shirt and it was decided amongst the group that those would be the club's colors.
In 1916, Club América had to prove itself to the Mexican Football League, which consisted of foreign-born players. At the time, América was the only club in Mexico City with Mexican-born players. Necaxa, Real Club España, Asturias were members of the Liga Mayor de la Ciudad. América's acceptance into the league rested on three games. América tied the third and were accepted. In 1919, the team changed its name to Club Unión, though the club returned to the name América the following year. From 1924 to 1928, América was able to attract impressive crowds. In 1926, América became the first Mexican club to play outside of Mexico. Aside from broadening their horizons, Club América along with Atlante petitioned to reduce the number of foreign players in the league. Shortly after the Mexican Football Federation was formed in 1928, Rafael Garza Gutiérrez was designated as the head coach of the Mexico national team. Most of the national team squad that participated in the 1928 Summer Olympics and 1930 World Cup consisted of players from Club América.
Until 1942, Mexico had several leagues, although the league in Mexico City was considered the most developed. In 1942–43, the first National League was established and it was known as the Liga Mayor. Club América had declined from its then-prime of the 1920s and 1930s: aging players, diminishing financial resources, resulting lack of interest made the team a bottom-feeder at the start of the beginning stage of the professional era7, it was during this time that the rivalry with Guadalajara was born. The 1951–1952 season saw América finish in 11th place out of 12, with a 3-point-advantage over Veracruz, who were relegated. In 1954 América defeated rivals Guadalajara on penalties after a 0–0 draw in the Copa México final, thus winning their first league cup. In 1956, the club was sold to soft drink manufacturer Jarritos; the new owner was trying to build upon the club's National Cup titles in 1954 and 1955 against Guadalajara. During the 1954–55 season América won their first Campeón de Campeones championship, defeating Zacatepec 3–2.
The owner failed to build upon previous success and on 22 July 1959, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, owner of Telesistema Mexicano, bought América from Isaac Bessudo. Following the acquisition, Azcárraga told his players, "I do not know much about football, but I do know a lot about business, this, will be a business."The 1959–1960 season saw América reach second place in the league, behind Guadalajara. On 21 April 1964, at the Estadio Olímpico Universitario, the team, now coached by Alejandro Scopelli, defeated Monterrey 6–5 in the final match of the Copa México. During the match Alfonso Portugal scored five of América's six. On 7 May 1965, América regained the Mexican "Copa" championship after a 4–0 victory over Morelia at the Estadio Olímpico Universitario; the goals were scored by Vavá, each scoring twice. After Mexico hosted the 1970 FIFA World Cup, the league tournament format was changed in response to the championship's disputed winners, hence the Liguilla format was started; the first play-off final was in 1971 between Toluca and América, leaders of Groups 1 and 2, respectively.
After a 0–0 draw in Toluca, América obtained their second league title after winning the second-leg 2–0 at the Estadio Azteca. The following season saw. América would
The Estadio Azteca is a multi purpose stadium located in Mexico City. It is the official home stadium of the association football team Club América, the Mexico national team; the stadium sits at an altitude of 7,200 feet above sea level. With an official capacity of 87,523, it is the largest stadium in Mexico; as of 2018, the stadium serves as the home of Cruz Azul. Regarded as one of the most famous and iconic football stadiums in the world, it is the first to have hosted two FIFA World Cup Finals, it hosted the 1986 quarter-final match between Argentina and England in which Diego Maradona scored both the "Hand of God goal" and the "Goal of the Century". The stadium hosted the "Game of the Century", when Italy defeated West Germany 4–3 in extra time in one of the 1970 semifinal matches; the stadium was the principal venue for the football tournament of the 1968 Summer Olympics. The Estadio Azteca was designed by architects Pedro Ramírez Vázquez and Rafael Mijares Alcérreca and broke ground in 1961.
The inaugural match was between Club América and Torino F. C. on 29 May 1966, with a capacity for 107,494 spectators. The first goal was scored by Brazilian Arlindo Dos Santos and the second one by Brazilian José Alves "Zague". Mexican president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz made the initial kick and FIFA president Sir Stanley Rous was the witness. A modern illumination system was inaugurated on June 5, 1966, with the first night game played between Spanish side Valencia C. F. and Necaxa. The first goal of the match was scored by Honduran José Cardona for Valencia. Roberto Martínez, aka Caña Brava, became the first Mexican to score a goal in the stadium after scoring for Necaxa; the result was a 3–1 victory for Valencia. In 1978 the stadium hosted the final of the Copa Interamericana between América and Boca Juniors of Argentina, would host a final again in 1990 between América and Club Olimpia of Paraguay; the Estadio Azteca is the site in which Pelé and Diego Maradona lifted the trophy for the last time.
Estadio Azteca has been used for musical performances throughout its history. Michael Jackson, U2, Luis Miguel, Elton John, Maná, Juan Gabriel, Gloria Estefan, Lenny Kravitz, *Nsync, Ana Gabriel, The Three Tenors all have become part of the stadium's main spectacle; the stadium has been used for political events, including Mexican president Felipe Calderón's campaign closure in 2006, as well as religious events, such as Jehovah's Witnesses conventions, the appearance of Pope John Paul II in 1999. In April 2017, it was announced that starting July 2018, Cruz Azul would relocate to the Azteca on a temporary basis, due to the impending demolition of the Estadio Azul. According to club owner Guillermo Álvarez, they plan on building a new private stadium, which could take an estimated three-to-four years; the stadium has undergone gradual improvements and renovations, including the replacing of seating within the stadium as well as the installation of electronic advertising boards. In May 2015, modern Panasonic LED panels were installed at the north and south ends of the stadium, replacing the phosphorous panels installed in 1998.
In February 2015, a vast renovation plan was unveiled with the intention that the completion of the project coincide with the stadium's 50th anniversary and with Club América's centenary in 2016, as well as the construction of a commercial hub outside the stadium to be completed some time in 2019. It was reported that Grupo Televisa, owners of the stadium, approved a joint-venture bid from private development firms IQ Real Estate and Alhel; the hub, named "Foro Azteca", will consist of a mall, office spaces, two hotels, new leisure spaces and parking spaces for 2,500 cars. The renovations to the stadium were planned in two phases; the second phase consisted of the construction of new media boxes and private skyboxes at the upper west stand. The renovations to the stadium were completed in November 2016; the seating capacity was reduced to 87,000 as a result of the renovations. The name "Azteca" is a tribute to the Aztec heritage of Mexico City; the stadium is owned by Mexican multimedia conglomerate Televisa, which has a heated media rivalry with the similarly-named TV Azteca.
Although there had been little to no confusion between the stadium and television network, Televisa changed the stadium's name to Estadio Guillermo Cañedo on January 20, 1997, in tribute to Guillermo Cañedo de la Bárcena, a top network executive, former Mexican Football Federation president, a prominent member of the FIFA executive committee who had died that day. As with the similar situation with the defunct Candlestick Park in San Francisco in the United States and its sponsored names, few outside of Televisa itself took up the new name, most of the general public had no thought about the stadium's ownership and continued to refer to the Estadio Azteca by its original name. After two of Cañedo's sons took a business interest in TV Azteca in 1998, Televisa returned to referring to it as Estadio Azteca. Known colloquially by the nickname "Coloso de Santa Úrsula", which in English
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy. There are wheelchair divisions; the marathon has an official distance of 42.195 kilometres run as a road race. The event was instituted in commemoration of the fabled run of the Greek soldier Pheidippides, a messenger from the Battle of Marathon to Athens, who reported the victory; the marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896, though the distance did not become standardized until 1921. More than 800 marathons are held throughout the world each year, with the vast majority of competitors being recreational athletes, as larger marathons can have tens of thousands of participants; the name Marathon comes from the legend of the Greek messenger. The legend states that he was sent from the battlefield of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon, which took place in August or September, 490 BC, it is said that he ran the entire distance without stopping and burst into the assembly, exclaiming νενικήκαμεν, before collapsing and dying.
The account of the run from Marathon to Athens first appears in Plutarch's On the Glory of Athens in the 1st century AD, which quotes from Heraclides Ponticus's lost work, giving the runner's name as either Thersipus of Erchius or Eucles. Satirist Lucian of Samosata first gives an account closest to the modern version of the story, but is writing tongue in cheek, names the runner Philippides. There is debate about the historical accuracy of this legend; the Greek historian Herodotus, the main source for the Greco-Persian Wars, mentions Philippides as the messenger who ran from Athens to Sparta asking for help, ran back, a distance of over 240 kilometres each way. In some Herodotus manuscripts, the name of the runner between Athens and Sparta is given as Philippides. Herodotus makes no mention of a messenger sent from Marathon to Athens, relates that the main part of the Athenian army, having fought and won the grueling battle, fearing a naval raid by the Persian fleet against an undefended Athens, marched back from the battle to Athens, arriving the same day.
In 1879, Robert Browning wrote the poem Pheidippides. Browning's poem, his composite story, became part of late 19th century popular culture and was accepted as a historic legend. Mount Pentelicus stands between Marathon and Athens, which means that if Philippides made his famous run after the battle, he had to run around the mountain, either to the north or to the south; the latter and more obvious route matches exactly the modern Marathon-Athens highway, which follows the lay of the land southwards from Marathon Bay and along the coast takes a gentle but protracted climb westwards towards the eastern approach to Athens, between the foothills of Mounts Hymettus and Penteli, gently downhill to Athens proper. This route, as it existed when the Olympics were revived in 1896, was 40 kilometres long, this was the approximate distance used for marathon races. However, there have been suggestions that Philippides might have followed another route: a westward climb along the eastern and northern slopes of Mount Penteli to the pass of Dionysos, a straight southward downhill path to Athens.
This route is shorter, 35 kilometres, but includes a steep initial climb of more than 5 kilometres. When the modern Olympics began in 1896, the initiators and organizers were looking for a great popularizing event, recalling the glory of ancient Greece; the idea of a marathon race came from Michel Bréal, who wanted the event to feature in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. This idea was supported by Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympics, as well as by the Greeks; the Greeks staged a selection race for the Olympic marathon on 22 March 1896, won by Charilaos Vasilakos in 3 hours and 18 minutes. The winner of the first Olympic marathon, on 10 April 1896, was Spyridon Louis, a Greek water-carrier, in 2 hours 58 minutes and 50 seconds; the marathon of the 2004 Summer Olympics was run on the traditional route from Marathon to Athens, ending at Panathinaiko Stadium, the venue for the 1896 Summer Olympics. That men's marathon was won by Italian Stefano Baldini in 2 hours 10 minutes and 55 seconds, a record time for this route until the non-Olympics Athens Classic Marathon of 2014, when Felix Kandie lowered the course record to 2 hours 10 minutes and 37 seconds.
The women's marathon was introduced at the 1984 Summer Olympics and was won by Joan Benoit of the United States with a time of 2 hours 24 minutes and 52 seconds. It has become a tradition for the men's Olympic marathon to be the last event of the athletics calendar, on the final day of the Olympics. For many years the race finished inside the Olympic stadium; the men's marathon medals are awarded during the closing ceremony. The Olympic men's record is 2:06:32, set at the 2008 Summer Olympics by Samuel Kamau Wanjiru of Kenya; the Olympic women's record is 2:23:07, set at the 2012 Summer Olympics by Tiki Gelana