La Rioja (Spain)
La Rioja is an autonomous community and a province in Spain, located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Its capital is Logroño. Other cities and towns in the province include Calahorra, Alfaro, Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Nájera, it has an estimated population of 315,675 inhabitants, making it the least populated region of Spain. It covers part of the Iberian Range in the south; the community is a single province, so there is no County Council, it is organized into 174 municipalities. It borders the Basque Country to the north, Navarre to the northeast, Aragón to the southeast, Castilla y León to the west and south; the area was once occupied by pre-Roman Berones and Basques. After partial recapture from the Muslims in the early tenth century, the region became part of the Kingdom of Pamplona being incorporated into Castile after a century and a half of disputes. From the eighteenth century the Rioja region remained divided between the provinces of Burgos and Soria, until in 1833 the province of Logroño was created, changing the name of the province to La Rioja in 1980 as a prelude to its constitution under a single provincial autonomous community in 1982.
The name "Rioja" is first attested in 1099. The region is well known for its wines under the brand Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja. In Roman times the territory of La Rioja was inhabited by the tribes of the Berones and the Vascones, it was part of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. In medieval times La Rioja was a disputed territory; the Visigoths created the Duchy of Cantabria that included most of La Rioja, as a border march against the Vascones. After the Muslim invasion of AD 711, La Rioja fell into the Muslim domains of Al Andalus. Most of the territory was reconquered in 923 by Sancho I of Pamplona, acting for the Kingdom of Pamplona together with the Kingdom of León and the Counts of Castile, feudal lords of the Leonese King; the lower region around Arnedo came under control of his allies the Banu Qasi of Tudela. The territory to the east of the Leza River remained under Muslim control. There was a dispute between Count Fernán González of Castile and the kings of Pamplona-Navarra, involving great battles.
It was decided in favour of the Navarrese after the imprisonment of the Count's family in Cirueña, in 960. La Rioja formed the independent Kingdom of Viguera from 970 to about 1005, at which point it became a part of the Kingdom of Pamplona. Sancho Garcés moved the capital of the Kingdom of Pamplona to Nájera, creating the so-called kingdom of Nájera-Pamplona which was, due to its large size, the first Spanish Empire. After the independence of Castile in 1035, this new kingdom fiercely fought against Pamplona for the possession of Bureba, La Rioja and other territories. In 1076, after the murder of Sancho IV, Navarre was divided among Aragon. Castile obtained La Rioja, together with other Navarrese lands; the name "La Rioja" first appears in written records in the Miranda de Ebro charter of 1099. The territory was centred on the fortified site of Logroño: the 12th-century church Iglesia de Santa Maria de Palacio recalls its origin as a chapel of the administrative palace. Logroño was a borderland disputed between the kings of Navarre and the kings of Castile from the 10th century.
The region was awarded to Castile in a judgement by Henry II of England and annexed in 1177. Its importance lay in part in the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela, the Camino de Santiago, which crossed the River Ebro on the stone bridge, the Puente de Piedra. Up to the 19th century the territory remained divided between the provinces of Soria; the region was taken by Napoleonic forces in the Peninsular War and remained solidly in French hands until 1814. In the 1810 project of Llorente it was to be a part of the prefecture of Arlanzón with its capital in Burgos; the Constitutional Cortes declared La Rioja an independent province at the time of the Liberal Constitution of 1812, during the Liberal Triennium in January 1822 the province of Logroño was created by royal decree as part of the administrative reform of Riego, taking in the whole of the historical territory of La Rioja. However, Ferdinand VII soon annulled these decisions and restored most of the previous territorial divisions.
In the 1833 reorganization, a province of Logroño was again formed within the region of Castilla la Vieja. The province increased its territory temporarily in 1841. In 1980 the province changed its name to La Rioja, following the adoption of the Estatuto de San Millán in 1982, during the reorganization following the Spanish transition to democracy, it was constituted as a uni-provincial autonomous community, it has the smallest population. Nearly half of its citizens live in the capital. La Rioja is bordered by the Basque Country, Aragón, Castile and León; the river Ebro flows through this region. The Ebro runs through the north of the community; the entire right bank belongs to La Rioja. There are only three municipalities, Briñas, San Vicente de la Sonsierra and Ábalos on the left bank(kn
Palace of the Kings of Navarre, Estella
The Palacio de los Reyes de Navarra called the Palacio de los Duques de Granada de Ega, is a historical building in Estella, Spain. In the twentieth century the building, which had fallen into disrepair, was restored and in 1991 converted into the Museo Gustavo de Maeztu, housing the work of the painter Gustavo de Maeztu y Whitney and open to the public; the building is important in the history of architecture in Navarre, since it is the only civil building extant from the Romanesque period. In 1931, it was declared a national monument by the Spanish government, it is a Romanesque building built in the second half of 12th century, located in the Plaza de San Martín and on the corner of Calle de San Nicolás, an ancient entrance for pilgrims. The most significant element is the main facade, located opposite the stairway of San Pedro de la Rúa, it consists of two floors built in ashlar masonry, which are divided in height by a simple molded cornice. The lower body is a gallery of four arches framed by columns attached to the wall, decorated with capitals of vegetable and figurative type.
On the left side there are figures of stylized forms that narrate an episode of the Legend of Roland the scene of Roldan's fight against the giant Ferragut, trying to exemplify the struggle of good against evil. It is signed by Martinus of Logroño. On the right side, the decoration is formed by thin leaves of Cistercian rooted; the second floor has four large windows, each divided into its internal space by four pointed arches that rest on fine encapsulated columns adorned with plant and figurative decoration. Above them, a cornice with sculpted corbels. Here the original forms alternate with recent reconstructions, given that over time the structure was modified to adapt to the needs and diverse functions that it has had as a palace and as a prison for the judicial district, it is closed on its sides with a decorative scheme on its different capitals. On the left is a capital with plant decoration, while on the right side you can see a set where scenes have been conceived related to the sin of pride, the punishment of hell and lust.
The third floor, work of the 18th century, is built in brick. Since June 14, 1991, it has housed the painter's museum Gustavo de Maeztu; the rooms of the museum are distributed in the last two floors of the building and house paintings, drawings and other pieces by this painter, one of the most important of the so-called "Basque School". Photograph before restoration, accompanied by extensive text in Spanish Photographs at La Guía Digital del Arte Románico Photograph at Flickr
Ablitas is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarra, northern Spain. From:INE Archiv ABLITAS in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ablitas Website
Pamplona or Iruña is the capital city of the Autonomous Community of Navarre, in Spain, also of the former Kingdom of Navarre. Pamplona is the second largest city in the greater Basque cultural region, composed of two Spanish autonomous communities and Basque Country, the French Basque Country. Pamplona has a moderate climate being at 446 metres in terms of elevation. In addition to its elevation, Pamplona being inland results in cool nights by Spanish standards; the city is famous worldwide for the running of the bulls during the San Fermín festival, held annually from July 6 to 14. This festival was brought to literary renown with the 1926 publication of Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises, it is home to Osasuna, the only Navarrese football club to have played in the Spanish top division. Pamplona is located in the middle of Navarre in a rounded valley, known as the Basin of Pamplona, that links the mountainous North with the Ebro valley, it is 92 km from the city of San Sebastián, 117 km from Bilbao, 735 km from Paris and 407 km from Madrid.
The climate and landscape of the basin is a transition between those two main Navarrese geographical regions. Its central position at crossroads has served as a commercial link between those different natural parts of Navarre; the historical centre of the city is on the left bank of a tributary of the Ebro. The city has developed on both sides of the river; the climate of Pamplona is classified as oceanic with influences of a semi-continental mediterranean climate. Precipitation patterns do not vary much over the course of the year as is typical of marine climates, but both classifications are possible due to the Mediterranean patterns of somewhat drier summer months. Sunshine hours are more similar to the oceanic coastal climate in nearby Basque locations than typical Spanish mediterranean areas are, but rainfall is lower than in Bilbao and San Sebastián. In the winter of 75–74 BC, the area served as a camp for the Roman general Pompey in the war against Sertorius, he is considered to be the founder of Pompaelo, "as if Pompeiopolis" in Strabo's words, which became Pamplona, in modern Spanish.
However, in times it has been discovered that it was the chief town of the Vascones. They called it Iruña, translating to'the city'. Roman Pompaelo was located in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the Ab Asturica Burdigalam, the road from Burdigala to Asturica. During the Germanic invasions of 409 and as a result of Rechiar´s ravaging, Pamplona went through much disruption and destruction, starting a cycle of general decline along with other towns across the Basque territory but managing to keep some sort of urban life. During the Visigothic period, Pamplona alternated between self-rule, Visigoth domination or Frankish suzerainty in the Duchy of Vasconia. In the years 466 to 472, Pamplona was conquered by the Visigoth count Gauteric, but they seemed to abandon the restless position soon, struggling as the Visigoth Kingdom was to survive and rearrange its lands after their defeats in Gaul. During the beginning of the 6th century, Pamplona stuck to an unstable self-rule, but in 541 Pamplona along with other northern Iberian cities was raided by the Franks.
Circa 581, the Visigoth king Liuvigild overcame the Basques, seized Pamplona, founded in the town of Victoriacum. Despite the legend citing Saint Fermin as the first bishop of Pamplona and his baptising of 40,000 pagan inhabitants in just three days, the first reliable accounts of a bishop date from 589, when bishop Liliolus attended the Third Council of Toledo. After 684 and 693, a bishop called Opilano is mentioned again in 829, followed by Wiliesind and a certain Jimenez from 880 to 890. In the 10th century, important gaps are found in bishop succession, recorded unbroken only after 1005. At the time of the Umayyad invasion in 711, the Visigothic king Roderic was fighting the Basques in Pamplona and had to turn his attention to the new enemy coming from the south. By 714-16, the Umayyad troops had reached the Basque-held Pamplona, with the town submitting after a treaty was brokered between the inhabitants and the Arab military commanders; the position was garrisoned by Berbers, who were stationed on the outside of the actual fortress, established the cemetery unearthed not long ago at the Castle Square.
During the following years, the Basques south of the Pyrenees don't seem to have shown much resistance to the Moorish thrust, Pamplona may have flourished as a launching point and centre of assembly for their expeditions into Gascony. In 740, the Wali Uqba ibn al-Hayyay imposed direct central Cordovan discipline on the city. However, in 755 the last governor of Al-Andalus, Yusuf al Fihri, sent an expedition north to quash Basque unrest near Pamplona, resulting in the defeat of the Arab army. From 755 until 781, Pamplona remained autonomous relying on regional alliances. Although sources are not clear, it seems apparent that in 778 the town was in hands of a Basque local or a Muslim rebel faction loyal to the Franks at the moment of Charlemagne's crossing of the Pyrenees to the south. However, on his way back from the failed expedition to Saragossa in August, the walls and the town were destroyed by Charlemagne (ahead of the Frankish defeat in the famous Ba
Allo is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. It had a population of 1,075 in 2011. ALLO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Carlism is a Traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking to take the Spanish throne for a line of the Bourbon dynasty descended from Don Carlos, Count of Molina. The movement was founded due to dispute over the succession laws and widespread dissatisfaction with the Alfonsine line of the House of Bourbon; the movement was at its strongest in the 1830s but had a revival following Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War in 1898, when Spain lost its last remaining significant overseas territories of Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico to the United States. Carlism was a significant force in Spanish politics from 1833 until the end of the Francoist regime in 1975. In this capacity, it was the cause of Carlist Wars during the 19th century, an important factor in the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s. Today, Carlists are a fringe entity. Objectively considered, the Carlism appears as a political movement, it arose under the protection of a dynastic flag that proclaimed itself "legitimist", that rose to the death of Ferdinand VII, in the year 1833, with enough echo and popular roots, they distinguish in him three cardinal bases that define it.
A) A dynastic flag: b) A historical continuity: c) And a legal-political doctrine: Traditionally, all but one of the Spanish kingdoms allowed the succession of daughters in the absence of sons and of sisters in the absence of brothers. The one exception, tended to favor semi-Salicism; the most elaborate rules of succession formed part of the Siete Partidas of the late 13th century. On 1 November 1700 Philip V, acceded to the Spanish throne. In the French royal house, Salic law applied. Accordingly, the traditional Spanish order of succession had to give way to a semi-Salic system, which excluded women from the crown unless all males in the agnatic descent from Philip, in any branch, became extinct; this change was forced by external pressure to avoid any possible personal union of the Crown of Spain with a foreign monarchy like France.. Although the Spanish government made several attempts to revert to the traditional order, as in the Decree of 1789 by Charles IV of Spain, the succession question became pressing only when, by 1830, Ferdinand VII found himself ailing, without any issue, but with a pregnant wife.
He decided in 1830 to promulgate the 1789 decree, securing the crown for the unborn child if female. The law placed the child, Princess Isabel, ahead of Ferdinand's brother Infante Carlos, who until had been heir presumptive. Many contemporaries saw the changed succession as illegal on various counts, they formed the basis for the dynastic Carlist party, which only recognized the semi-Salic succession law that gave Infante Carlos precedence over Ferdinand's daughter, the future Isabella II. 13 May 1713: Philip V, first of the Spanish Bourbons, together with the Cortes, Spain's parliament, through an Auto Accordado changes the order of succession to the Spanish crown from that outlined in the Siete Partidas. Where the previous rule consisted of male-preference primogeniture, Philip's new law instituted semi-Salic law, under which accession of a female or her descendants is possible only following the extinction of all dynastic males descended in the male line from Philip V. 1789: During the reign of Charles IV, the Cortes approves a reversion of the system of succession to the traditional Siete Partidas order of succession.
However, the law was not promulgated, due in part to protests from the cadet branches of the House of Bourbon, who saw it as diminishing their hereditary rights. 1812. A new Spanish constitution outlines the rules of succession in accordance with the Siete Partidas. 31 March 1830: Ferdinand VII, at the time without issue and his fourth wife pregnant, promulgates the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830 which ratifies the 1789 law, thereby re-establishing the pre-Philippine order of succession. 10 October 1830: The future Isabella II is born to Ferdinand VII. After several court intrigues, the Pragmatic Sanction is definitively approved in 1832. Ferdinand's brother, the Infante Don Carlos, up to that time the heir presumptive, feels robbed of his rights, leaves for Portugal. 1833–1876 Carlist Wars As in many European countries, after the Napoleonic occupation, the Spanish political class was split between the "absolutists", supporters of the ancien régime, the Liberals, influenced by the ideas of the French Revolution.
The long war for Spain's independence from the Napoleonic Empire left a large supply of experienced guerrilla fighters and an oversized military officialdom—for the most part, staunch Liberals. The perceived success of the uprising of 1808 against Napoleon left a broad, if unconscious, belief in the validity of the right of rebellion, with long-lasting effects on the politics of Spain and Spanish America, extending through the 19th century and beyond; the reign of Ferdinand VII proved unable to overcome the political divide or to create stable institutions. The so-called Liberal Triennium re-instated the 1812 constitution after a military "pronunciamiento", but was followed by the Ominous Decade, ten years of absolute rule by the king, that left bitter memories of persecution in both parties. While in power, both groups had divided themselves into radical branches; the radical branch of the absolutists, known as the Apostólicos, looked upon the heir presump
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE