click links in text for more info

Esther Brimmer

Esther Diane Brimmer is an American foreign policy expert and former Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs. In June 2013, she returned to academia. In January 2017, she became the executive director and CEO of NAFSA. From October 2013 to January, 2017, she served as the J. B. and Maurice C. Shapiro Professor of International Affairs at the George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs, she received a B. A. in International Relations from Pomona College in Claremont, California, USA. and a M. A. and D. Phil. in International Relations from the University of Oxford, UK. Brimmer has served in international affairs think tanks. From 1999-2001 she was a Member of the Office of Policy Planning at the U. S. Department of State working on the European Union, Western Europe, the United Nations, multilateral security issues. From 1995-1999 she managed projects as a Senior Associate at the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, she served as a Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs and as a Legislative Analyst at the Democratic Study Group in the United States House of Representatives.

From 1989-1991 she was a management consultant with McKinsey. From September 2005 on Brimmer was a visiting professor at the College of Europe, she was nominated to the post of Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs by President Barack Obama on March 11, 2009, was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 2, 2009. Dr. Brimmer served as Deputy Director and Director of Research at the Center for Transatlantic Relations at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, Washington, D. C, she is a member of the Atlantic Council Board of Directors, Council on Foreign Relations, Women in International Security. She left her post at the State Department in June 2013 to resume her position in academia. Brimmer is the daughter of Andrew Brimmer, the first African American to have served as governor of the Federal Reserve System, her husband is author Steven Beller. They have one son Nathaniel, she has, inter alia, edited Transforming Homeland Security: U.

S. and European Approaches, The Strategic Implications of European Union Enlargement, The EU’s Search for a Strategic Role: ESDP and Its Implications for Transatlantic Relations and The European Union Constitutional Treaty: A Guide for Americans, she is the author of The United States, the European Union and International Human Rights Issues

List of lakes in Sheridan County, Montana

There are at least 28 named lakes and reservoirs in Sheridan County, Montana. Brightsmen Lake, 48°58′49″N 104°23′43″W, el. 2,257 feet Brush Lake, 48°35′55″N 104°06′35″W, el. 1,959 feet Capeneys Lake, 48°28′20″N 104°19′18″W, el. 1,939 feet Clear Lake, 48°39′12″N 104°08′44″W, el. 2,018 feet Comers Lake, 48°53′45″N 104°15′18″W, el. 2,287 feet Dominek Lake, 48°43′33″N 104°05′33″W, el. 2,041 feet Flat Lake, 48°54′43″N 104°05′12″W, el. 2,096 feet Gaulke Lake, 48°54′01″N 104°03′08″W, el. 2,073 feet Goose Lake, 48°48′47″N 104°04′17″W, el. 2,051 feet Horseshoe Lake, 48°35′42″N 104°02′43″W, el. 1,965 feet Johnson Lake, 48°59′11″N 104°22′27″W, el. 2,228 feet Katy Lake, 48°31′30″N 104°12′23″W, el. 1,952 feet Larson Slough, 48°57′25″N 104°11′28″W, el. 2,175 feet Lochin Slough, 48°55′18″N 104°34′54″W, el. 2,356 feet Lone Tree Lake, 48°56′28″N 104°13′39″W, el. 2,146 feet Long Lake, 48°33′35″N 104°09′13″W, el. 1,952 feet Mallard Pond, 48°34′21″N 104°08′27″W, el. 1,952 feet Mattson Slough, 48°56′21″N 104°34′56″W, el. 2,395 feet North Lake, 48°53′02″N 104°04′01″W, el. 2,080 feet Park Lake, 48°53′57″N 104°18′22″W, el. 2,316 feet Salt Lake, 48°59′48″N 104°18′01″W, el. 2,165 feet Syme Slough, 48°54′28″N 104°35′55″W, el. 2,326 feet Tadpole Lake, 48°48′03″N 104°10′19″W, el. 2,126 feet Widgeon Slough, 48°57′53″N 104°14′49″W, el. 2,155 feet Boxelder Lake, 48°47′12″N 104°33′15″W, el. 2,093 feet Homestead Lake, 48°22′11″N 104°35′04″W, el. 1,929 feet Homestead Lake, 48°24′30″N 104°34′14″W, el. 1,926 feet Medicine Lake, 48°28′37″N 104°30′34″W, el. 1,936 feet List of lakes in Montana

Bernard Nicholls

Frank Bernard "Ben" Nicholls was an American professional golfer and golf course designer of English birth. He compiled an outstanding record in a golf career that included five top-10 finishes in the U. S. Open and one T10 finish in the Open Championship. In 1900, during Harry Vardon's exhibition tour, Nicholls did what no other golfer in North America could accomplish—beat Harry Vardon. Nicholls defeated the legendary British golfer in two separate matches in resounding fashion. Nicholls was born in Dover, England, he was the son of Lois Elizabeth Cordrey. Nicholls married Minnie Sharp on 16 May 1898 at St. George's Church in Deal, England. Prior to leaving England he worked at an athletic goods store in Liverpool and was a daily visitor to the Royal Liverpool Golf Club links at Hoylake, county of Cheshire. In his days at Hoylake he became good friends with fellow English golfers John Ball, Jr. – the great amateur player – and Herbert Tweedie who would become a golf course architect. At the age of 17, Nicholls –, called "Ben" by those who knew him – was hired to design a golf course in France and by 1899 was the head professional at the Philadelphia Country Club.

On 13 July 1905 he played in the first professional golf tournament played on a public links golf course in the United States when he competed in an Open Tournament at the Van Cortlandt Park course. Nicholls and Willie Anderson finished joint second five shots behind Isaac Mackie, he worked at Whitemarsh Valley Country Club in 1912–13 and was at Wilmington Country Club with his younger brother Gilbert Nicholls in 1914. In 1915 he took a position at LuLu Country Club in Glenside and worked there until late 1916; when he registered for the draft during World War I on 9 September 1918 he was working at the Charlotte Country Club in Charlotte, North Carolina. Nicholls stated on 20 February 1916, "In the year 1894, at the age of 17, I was called to France to lay out the first golf course in Paris, but a miniature affair on an island situated in the Seine. In connection with this work I became acquainted with the Viscomte de Janze, one of the oldest leaders of golf in the district of Paris and the man, responsible for the excellent course at La Boulie... as well as several others."

Viscomte Leon de Janze was the founder of the Societe de Sport de Puteaux in 1896. Nicholls would go on to build another course at Aix-les-Bains in the French eastern frontier. There, Nicholls said he met Monsier le Docteur Brachie, a leading physician and "multimillionaire of the place". Brachie said, "I want a golf course in Aix-les-Basin. Far up on the mountain side I have a piece of land. After breakfast we will take the mules and look over this property with a view to building a course there". Nicholls mentioned that difficulties were encountered in viewing the land due to the fact that it was wooded. "I saw some beautiful olive and fig trees, but more important, I saw 60 husky Italian laborers equipped and ready to work. After threading our way through this mountainous woodland and taking another look at the 60 huskies, I promised to give Monsier Le Docteur a golf course in six weeks", said Nicholls. Brachie retorted, "Nicholls. Moreover, I will have King Leopold of the Belgians and King George of Greece present for the grand opening".

In Nicholls' memoirs, written in 1916, he stated that he built Spain's second golf course on the Island of Toxa, belonging to Spain and situated in the Bay of Arousa, some 35 miles from Vigo, which Nicholls added, "boasts the second finest harbor in the world. It is said, it was by royal command of his majesty King Alphonso that I undertook the work". Nicholls compiled results in the U. S. Open that were superb, he was consistent in his play from 1897 through 1907, finishing in the top 10 on six occasions. Nicholls had a respectable T10 finish in the 1909 Open Championship held 10–11 June at Royal Cinque Ports Golf Club in Deal, England. One major feather in the cap of Nicholls is that he was the only player to beat Harry Vardon, the famous British master golfer, on Vardon's 1900 exhibition tour to points across the U. S. and Canada. In fact, Nicholls beat Vardon twice. On 17 February 1900, at Ormond, Nicholls soundly defeated Vardon 5 and 4, his second victory over Vardon was on 13 October 1900 at Brae Burn Country Club, West Newton, when he won 2 up in a 36-hole match.

His wife, Minnie Sharp Nicholls, died in 1939. Nicholls had eight siblings: brothers Gilbert and Alfred, sisters Florence, Clara and Blanche, he had son Norman Bernard Nicholls and daughter Doris Lillian Nicholls. His younger brother, Gilbert Nicholls, was a fine player. Bernard Nicholls died at Jefferson Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 3 November 1924 due to septic meningitis. Interment was at Northwood Cemetery. Note: Nicholls never played in the Masters Tournament, founded in 1934, nor the PGA Championship. CUT = Missed the half-way cut DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew "T" = Tied for a place Yellow background for top-10 Sources

Atomic force acoustic microscopy

Atomic force acoustic microscopy is a type of scanning probe microscopy. It is a combination of atomic force microscopy; the principal difference between AFAM and other forms of SPM is the addition of a transducer at the bottom of the sample which induces longitudinal out-of-plane vibrations in the specimen. These vibrations are sensed by a tip called a probe; the figure shown here is the clear schematic of AFAM principle here B is the magnified version of the tip and sample placed on the transducer and tip having some optical coating gold coating to reflect the laser light on to the photodiode. Any type of material can be measured with this microscope. In particular, Nano-scale properties such as elastic modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio can be measured; the frequency used sweeps from some few kHz to MHz. The sine longitudinal waves are sensed by the probe, the deflection of the probe is detected by laser light focused on to a position sensitive photodiode; this deflection of the reflected laser beam from the cantilever indicates the flexural and torsional parameters of the specimen.

The high-frequency signal is sent to a lock-in amplifier and correlated with the reference signal sent by the signal generator to form the AFAM image. Since the development of atomic force microscopy many modes and related techniques have emerged. Ultrasonic force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy, scanning acoustic force microscopy and AFAM all come under the branch of near-field microscopy techniques called contact resonance force microscopy. CRFM techniques depend principally on the calculation of contact resonance frequencies and how they shift with variations in the sample. Atomic force acoustic microscopy was developed by Rabe and Arnold from the Fraunhofer Institute of Nondestructive Testing in 1994; the technique is now used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of the local elastic properties of materials. AFAM was used by Anish al. to map the precipitates in the polycrystalline materials. In the AFAM setup the sample is coupled to a piezoelectric transducer; this emits longitudinal acoustic waves into the sample, causing out-of-plane vibrations in the sample's surface.

The vibrations are transmitted into the cantilever via the sensor tip. The cantilever vibrations are measured by a 4-section photo-diode and evaluated by a lock-in amplifier; this setup can be used either to take acoustic images. The latter are maps of cantilever amplitudes on a fixed excitation frequency near the resonance. A contact-mode topography image is acquired with the acoustic one; the frequency range employed covers the flexural modes of the cantilever from 10 kHz up to 5 MHz, with an average frequency of around 3 MHz. It can be used to map the elastic modulus variations between the precipitates and matrix of a material, such that the elastic properties of the thin films can be determined, it can be used in air and liquid media. Probes used for AFAM are made up of silicon silicon. Cantilevers with low spring constants for soft materials and high spring constants for hard materials are used. Within the probe structure, the cantilever and tip material may not be same. Tips are manufactured using anisotropic etching or vapor deposition.

The probe is placed at an angle around 11-15 degrees from the horizontal axis. Two models are used for the calculations in AFAM: the cantilever dynamics model and the contact mechanics model. Using these two models the elastic properties of the materials can be determined. All the calculations are done using LabView software; the frequency of the eigen modes of the cantilever depends, amongst other parameters, on the stiffness of the tip-sample contact and on the contact radius, which in turn are both a function of the Young's modulus of the sample and the tip, the tip radius, the load exerted by the tip, the geometry of the surface. Such a technique allows one to determine the Young's modulus from the contact stiffness with a resolution of a few tens of nanometers, mode sensitivity is about 5%. For calculation of the elastic properties of the materials we need to consider two models: cantilever dynamic model - calculation of the k*. Use of the two models mentioned above will take us to correct determination of the various elastic properties for various materials.

The steps needed to be considered for the calculation are: Acquire the contact resonances for any two bending modes. The two modes can be acquired simultaneously. Importance of simultaneous acquisition has been demonstrated by al.. By measuring the contact-resonance frequencies of two modes, one can write two equations containing two unknown values L1 and k*. By plotting k* as a function of the tip position for the two modes, one obtains two curves, the cross-point of which yields a unique value of k* of the system using both modes. Using the Hertz contact model, k* can be converted to E*; as accurate measurement of R of the tip is difficult. The reference sample may be a single crystal. Frequency shifts are easier to measure than absolute amplitudes or phase. Can be used in air as well as liquid environment like. Can test any type of material. Atomic level resolution. Flaw characterization and detection of hidden structures can be done. Quantitative cha

Lakeside Shopping Centre

Lakeside Shopping Centre, branded as Intu Lakeside, is a large out-of-town shopping centre located in West Thurrock, in the borough of Thurrock, Essex just beyond the eastern boundary of Greater London. It was constructed on the site of a former chalk quarry; the first tenants moved into the complex in 1988 and it was completed in 1990, being opened on 25 October of that year by Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, Marcus Bradford and Angus Ogilvy. New spaces in the red car park were added as as October 2019; the shopping centre, in addition to the retail parks, forms one of the largest shopping areas in a single location within Europe, with 2,600,000 square feet of retail space on a site of 200 acres. The community of Chafford Hundred has grown to the east of the centre since its opening, its main rival is the Bluewater Shopping Centre in Greenhithe, just across the River Thames. The centre was rebranded as "intu Lakeside" in 2013 following the renaming of parent Capital Shopping Centres Group plc as "intu properties plc".

The shopping centre is the eleventh largest in Britain with 1,434,000 sq ft available as retail floorspace - the MetroCentre in Gateshead, after its expansion in 2004, is the largest. There are over 250 shops, 50 cafes and restaurants, a 26-acre lake named Alexandra Lake with a PADI certified diving school complex. Intu Lakeside has on average 500,000 visitors per week, it is open on weekdays from 10:00 am to 10:00 pm, on Saturday from 9:00 am to 9:00 pm, Sunday from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. Intu have rebuffed the rumours that circulate online about the presence of 3 "golden parking spaces"; the centre's car parks have capacity for 11,857 cars. The centre has a direct link to Chafford Hundred railway station where c2c trains run to London Fenchurch Street via Upminster and West Ham or east towards Southend Central via Grays and Stanford-le-Hope; the Centre is connected to the M25 motorway, London's outermost ring road running south towards Dartford and Gatwick and North towards Enfield and Heathrow.

As well as the M25 the centre is connected to the A13 road which connects central and east London to Basildon and Southend-on-Sea. It is connected to the Transport for London bus network by 370 to Romford and 372 to Hornchurch with other operators such as Ensignbus to the surrounding Thurrock area and First's route 100 to Basildon and Chelmsford. Route X80 operated by Ensignbus provides a link to Bluewater across the Dartford Crossing. To ensure the centre maintains its competition with the newer Bluewater shopping centre, which lies just over the Thames in Greenhithe, Lakeside had a £30 million refurbishment in 2004; this included new Italian porcelain flooring, new lighting, a new ceiling and new glass roofs which allow much more natural light into the shopping centre. There are now new, faster lifts, four more escalators, along with automatic entrance doors; the refurbishment has encouraged refitting of many shops so that they complement the new surroundings. In September 2005, Next opened an 18,600 sq ft. extension to its store.

The Lakeside Pavilion, a market area adjoining the main shopping centre via a covered bridge, was closed in 2006 for refurbishment, re-opening in June 2007 as'The Boardwalk'. The Boardwalk provides an additional 59,000 sq ft. of retail space for eleven new restaurants along with more retail and leisure space, as well as a 10-metre boardwalk, offering external seating overlooking Alexandra Lake. The Old Orleans bar and restaurant boat was refurbished and re-opened on the same day, with new features including a rooftop bar. Vue cinema formed part of the old Lakeside Pavilion, with a seven screen cinema; this closed on 11 January 2007 to be refurbished, was re-opened on Friday 15 June 2007. The'Evolution Screen', with a combination of giant bean bag chairs amongst VIP seating, was the first of its kind in the UK. Apple opened its tenth UK store at Lakeside Shopping Centre. Marks & Spencer, one of the centre's four anchor stores, applied for planning permission in July 2008 to allow construction of a 23,970 sq ft third storey extension to their store, in addition to an extensive refurbishment of the store layout and customer facilities.

The application was approved at the end of October 2008 although no construction has taken place as of July 2011. Supergroup, owners of the Cult and Superdry brands opened its largest-ever store at the centre in July 2010, in the unit occupied by Woolworths. Ed's Easy Diner opened their fifth restaurant in the centre's food court in July 2010. Taco Bell re-entered the UK market in June 2010 with the opening of its first stores at intu Lakeside. In 2011 US fashion giant Forever 21 opened a 35,000 sq ft flagship store at intu Lakeside, in a three-floor unit. In July 2016 this store closed down. Intu Lakeside was granted permission in 2012 to extend to include 30-40 new stores, a new footbridge across the Alexandra Lake to the Lakeside Retail Park, a new leisure area, a new 80 bed Travelodge hotel overlooking the river and a brand new transport hub where the current railway station bridge is to allow easier interchange; the new 225,000 sq ft leisure area was completed in early 2019 and will include a Nickelodeon-branded enterta

S14 (classification)

S14, SB14, SM14 are disability swimming classifications used for categorising swimmers based on their level of disability. This classification is for people with intellectual disabilities; the classification was created by the International Paralympic Committee and has roots in a 2003 attempt to address "the overall objective to support and co-ordinate the ongoing development of accurate, reliable and credible sport focused classification systems and their implementation."For the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio, the International Paralympic Committee had a zero classification at the Games policy. This policy was put into place in 2014, with the goal of avoiding last minute changes in classes that would negatively impact athlete training preparations. All competitors needed to be internationally classified with their classification status confirmed prior to the Games, with exceptions to this policy being dealt with on a case by case basis. Swimmers who have competed in this class include Siobhan Paton, Taylor Corry and Mitchell Kilduff of Australia.

Para-swimming classification Swimming at the Summer Paralympics T20, the classification for intellectual disabilities in athletics