United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Battle of Little Mountain
The Battle of Little Mountain known as Estill's Defeat, was fought on March 22, 1782, near Mount Sterling in what is now Montgomery County, Kentucky. One of the bloodiest engagements of the Kentucky frontier, the battle has long been the subject of controversy resulting from the actions of one of Estill's officers, William Miller, who ordered a retreat leaving the rest of Estill's command to be overwhelmed by the attacking Wyandots. On March 19, 1782, Captain James Estill received a message from Colonel Benjamin Logan requesting assistance after signs of a Wyandot war party had been seen near Boonesborough. Gathering about 40 men from nearby settlements, Estill began searching the area. While he was away, the Wyandots attacked a number of nearby settlements, including Estill's Station, killing 14-year-old Jennie Glass and capturing Munk Estill, a slave who belonged to James Estill. Under interrogation, the courageous slave was able to persuade the Wyandots to hold off their attack, convincing them that Estill's Station was at full strength..
After killing a number of cattle, the Wyandots fled across the river. As soon as the Indians retreated, Samuel South and Peter Hackett, both young men, were dispatched to find Captain Estill and inform him of the attacks, they found Estill near the mouth of Drowning Creek and Red River early on the morning of March 21. About half of Estill's 40 men had left families at the fort, they returned to Estill's Station that same day. Estill soon returned with the rest, he ordered five men to remain at Estill's Station and led the others in pursuit of the Indian raiding party. He set up camp at Little Mountain, near present-day Mt. Sterling, Kentucky. Resuming the chase the next morning, Estill was forced to leave behind 10 more men whose horses were too tired to continue. Finding fresh tracks and the 25 men remaining soon overtook the Wyandots at Little Mountain Creek. On the night of March 22, 1782, Estill and his militiamen encountered the Wyandot raiding party. Separated by Little Mountain Creek, they were a half south of Little Mountain.
The two sides fought in a pitched battle for nearly two hours. The Wyandot leader, was shot by the first volley and urged his men to continue fighting as he lay dying. After firing at each other across the creek for some time, both sides had suffered heavy casualties; when the Wyandots began fording Little River Creek, Estill countered by dividing his forces into three groups. Estill took the right flank, the left being given to Lieutenant William Miller, while another officer held the center. Miller was ordered to flank the rear of the Wyandots from the left; as he prepared to lead his men into battle, a musket ball hit his rifle, knocking the flint from the jaws of the lock. Miller shouted that "it was foolhardy to stay and be shot down", he fled the scene with his men following him. With Estill's left flank now open and the creek defended by only four men, the Wyandots rushed in, killing Estill and six others as the militiamen retreated. Estill had been wounded three times; as he attempted to escape with his men, he was killed in hand-to-hand combat by a pursuing Wyandot warrior.
Militiaman Joseph Proctor shot the attacker dead with his rifle. Only a handful of men were left on each side, the battle ended with the Kentuckians withdrawing from the field; those Kentuckians, captured reported the Wyandots had suffered about 20 casualties. The slave Monk, who had escaped during the battle, reported that 17 Wyandots had been killed and two more wounded; this was confirmed by another prisoner who escaped. Among the 18 Kentuckians who survived the battle at Little Mountain were frontiersman James Anderson, David Lynch and William Irving. Adam Caperton, the father of United States Congressman Hugh Caperton, was killed. William Miller became the scapegoat for both the Kentuckians' defeat and the death of Captain Estill. One of the survivors, David Cook threatened his life twenty years after the battle. Miller never returned to Estill's Station to defend himself against his accusers. Monk Estill won particular distinction for bravery during the battle and carried a wounded militiaman, James Berry 25 miles back to Estill's Station.
He was granted his freedom soon afterwards by Wallace Estill, becoming the first slave to be freed in Kentucky. The traditional site of Estill's death, where he was killed in hand-to-hand combat, is marked by a millstone marker pointing to an old sycamore tree on Kingston Creek. In 1808, Estill County, was named for Captain James Estill. List of battles fought in Ted Franklin. "Death in the Bluegrass: The Battle of Little Mountain." Dixie Gun Works Blackpowder Annual: 66-69. Belue, Ted Franklin. "Wyandot Braves Proved Too Strong at The Battle of Little Mountain". The Kentucky Explorer: 23-26. Conkright, Bessie Taul. "Estill's Defeat. RKHS 22: 311-22
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
The Kentucky River is a tributary of the Ohio River, 260 miles long, in the U. S. Commonwealth of Kentucky; the river and its tributaries drain much of the central region of the state, with its upper course passing through the coal-mining regions of the Cumberland Mountains, its lower course passing through the Bluegrass region in the north central part of the state. Its watershed encompasses about 7,000 square miles, it supplies drinking water to about one-sixth of the population of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The river is no longer navigable above Lock 4 at Frankfort. Concrete bulkheads have been poured behind the upper lock gates of Locks 5-14 to strengthen the weakest link in the dam structures. All 14 dams are now under the management of the state-run Kentucky River Authority; the primary importance of the locks today is to maintain a pool that allows the city of Lexington to draw its drinking water from the river. Despite the fact that the Lexington area receives well over 40 inches of precipitation annually, the limestone, karst geology of that area means that little natural surface water is found in the region.
Winchester, Irvine, Lancaster, Harrodsburg, Versailles and Frankfort draw water from the river for their municipal water supplies. It is estimated; the Kentucky River is formed in eastern Kentucky at Beattyville, in Lee County, by the confluence of the North and South Forks at about 670 feet elevation, flows northwest, in a meandering course through the mountains, through the Daniel Boone National Forest past Irvine and Boonesborough southwest, passing south of Lexington north through Frankfort. It joins the Ohio at Carrollton. 15 miles southwest of Boonesborough it is joined by the Red River. 20 miles southwest of Boonesborough it is joined by Silver Creek. At High Bridge, it is joined by the Dix River. At Frankfort, it is joined by Benson Creek. 10 miles north of Frankfort, it is joined by Elkhorn Creek. Between Clays Ferry in Madison County and Frankfort, the river passes through the Kentucky River Palisades, a series of dramatic steep gorges 100 miles in length, it continues on. The North Fork Kentucky River is 168 miles long.
It rises on the western side of Pine Mountain, in the Appalachians of extreme southeastern Kentucky, in eastern Letcher County near the Virginia state line in Payne Gap, near the intersection of US 23 and US 119. It flows northwest, in a winding course through the mountainous Cumberland Plateau, past Whitesburg and Jackson, it receives Rockhouse Creek at Blackey near its source. 8 miles southeast of Hazard, it receives the Carr Fork. It receives Troublesome Creek at southeast of Jackson. Three miles upstream from its confluence with the South Fork, it receives the Middle Fork, it joins the South Fork to form the Kentucky at Beattyville. The Middle Fork Kentucky River is a tributary of the North Fork Kentucky River 105 miles long, in southeastern Kentucky, it rises in the Appalachian Mountains in southernmost Leslie County 16 miles from the Virginia state line, flows north through the Cumberland Plateau past Hyden. At Buckhorn, it is impounded to form the Buckhorn Lake reservoir. North of the reservoir it flows northwest and joins the North Fork in Lee County 5 miles east of the confluence of the North and South forks at Beattyville.
The South Fork Kentucky River is 45 miles long. It is formed in Clay County, at the town of Oneida in the Daniel Boone National Forest 10 miles northeast of Manchester, by the confluence of Goose Creek and the Red Bird River, it flows north in a meandering course through the mountainous Cumberland Plateau region. It joins the North Fork to form the Kentucky at Beattyville. Kentucky River flooding has been recorded since the early 1800s. Swiss immigrant and lock-keeper, Frank Wurtz, recorded the floods from 1867 on and spoke with local farmers to learn of earlier ones, they told him of great floods in 1817, 1832, 1847, 1854. Wurtz documented the floods of 1867, 1880, 1883, which he claims was five feet taller than the high tide of the 1847 flood; the waters of the 1883 flood washed his post away. On January 1 1919, the waters rose 10 feet in ten hours at Frankfort, dealing damage to many smaller towns along the river. In November of the same year, the waters rose 3 feet in one hour at Frankfort. In 1920, flooding caused the sewers in Frankfort to back up.
There was major flooding in early 1924 and late December 1926. A terrible storm hit northern Kentucky in 1927 with lightning so great one resident was quoted saying, "the lightening was so intense, the whole country could be seen." The flooding from this bad weather hurt Neon and Hazard. Hundreds were forced from their homes. Throughout the 1930s, the area suffering from the economic depression, had to deal with several floods, including a bad one in 1936. In January 1937, 16 inches of rain fell across the state. Taylorsville had 7 inches of rain on January 24th alone; as the Ohio river flooded, it backed into the Kentucky. Maysville declared martial law; the crest reached 42.7 feet tall, flooded half of Frankfort isolating the Old State House. 95% of Paducah was inundated. In all, 12,000 square miles of the Ohio valley were flooded; the 1937 flooding caused ci
Jackson County, Kentucky
Jackson County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,494, its county seat is McKee. The county was formed in 1858 from land given by Madison, Owsley, Clay and Rockcastle counties, it was named for Andrew Jackson, seventh President of the United States. It is dry county. Jackson County is home to the Daniel Boone National Forest. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 347 square miles, of which 345 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. Estill County Lee County Owsley County Clay County Laurel County Rockcastle County Madison County Daniel Boone National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 13,495 people, 5,307 households, 3,953 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 per square mile. There were 6,065 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 99.17% White, 0.05% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.01% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.04% from other races, 0.52% from two or more races.
0.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,307 households out of which 35.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.20% were married couples living together, 10.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.50% were non-families. 23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,177, the median income for a family was $23,638. Males had a median income of $25,087 versus $16,065 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,711.
About 25.80% of families and 30.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.50% of those under age 18 and 24.10% of those age 65 or over. McKee Annville In Presidential elections Jackson County has been overwhelmingly Republican since the Civil War, when it, relative to population, provided more soldiers for the Union Army than any free state, saw a proportion only exceeded by the nearly Republican Owsley County, Clinton County and Clay County, plus Estill County. No Democratic Presidential candidate has carried Jackson County since it was created – indeed no Democrat has received thirty percent of the county’s vote and only Lyndon Johnson in his national landslide of 1964, Bill Clinton in 1996, have received so much as twenty percent; the only times Jackson County has not voted for the Republican Party were in its first election of 1860 when the Republican Party was not yet contesting slave states and the county went to Constitutional Unionist John Bell, in 1912 when the Republican Party was split and Theodore Roosevelt carried the county with 52.37 percent of the vote over William Howard Taft with 577 votes or 34.14 percent.
Since 1916 every Republican Presidential candidate has received at least seventy percent of Jackson County’s vote except for Bob Dole in 1996, who fell a mere 0.02 percent short of that figure. In 1936 Alf Landon, who lost 46 of 48 states, received over eighty-nine percent of Jackson County’s vote; the county gave the Republican candidate the highest percentage in the 1928, 1948, 1960, 1976, 1988 and 1992 Presidential elections. In this last election Jackson County, along with Sioux County, were the only two counties in the U. S to vote for George H. W. Bush by over seventy percent in his re-election campaign. Jackson County is part of Kentucky's 5th congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+31 and is represented by Republican Hal Rogers. In the Kentucky House of Representatives it is in the 89th District and has been represented by Republican Robert Goforth since 2018. In the Kentucky Senate it is in the 21st District and was represented by Republican Tom Jensen until he retired in 2012.
In the 2012 election, Albert Robinson was elected to represent the 21st District. Robinson is a KY businessman. Elementary Schools: McKee Elementary, Sand Gap Elementary, Tyner Elementary Tyner Elementary is the most populated elementary school in the county. Middle Schools: Jackson County Middle School High Schools: Jackson County High School Private Institutions: Annville Christian Academy, Outreach Christian Academy David "Stringbean" Akeman, country music star, born and raised in Annville Freddie Langdon, world champion fiddler Andrew N. Johnson, Prohibition Party's 1944 nominee for vice president of the United States Bill Miner, train robber Rear Admiral Millard J. Johnson Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Jackson County, Kentucky Official Website of Jackson County, Kentucky
Madison County, Kentucky
Madison County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 82,916, its county seat is Richmond. The county is named for Virginia statesman James Madison, who became the fourth President of the United States. Madison County is part of the Richmond-Berea, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Lexington-Fayette-Richmond-Frankfort, KY Combined Statistical Area, it is considered a moist county, meaning that although the county prohibits the sale of alcoholic beverages, it contains a city where retail alcohol sales are allowed. Two of Richmond's 19 precincts are dry. Alcohol can be sold by the drink in Berea, at Arlington and The Bull golf clubs. Madison County is home to Eastern Kentucky University, Berea College, Boone Tavern, Bybee Pottery, one of the oldest pottery operations in the United States; this is where famous pioneer Daniel Boone lived and built Fort Boonesborough, now a state historic site. Indian trader John Findley, Daniel Boone, four others first came into the area, now Madison County in 1769 on a hunting and exploring expedition.
In 1774, the Transylvania Company, led by Judge Richard Henderson of North Carolina, purchased 20,000,000 acres of land west of the Appalachians from the Cherokee Nation. Daniel Boone was hired to cut a trail through the Cumberland Gap and establish a settlement on the Kentucky River; the settlement at Fort Boonesborough began in April 1775. In 1785, Madison County was established from a portion of Virginia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 443 square miles, of which 437 square miles is land and 6.0 square miles is water. Interstate 75 U. S. 25 U. S. 421 KY 52 Fayette County Clark County Estill County Jackson County Rockcastle County Garrard County Jessamine County As of the census of 2000, there were 70,872 people, 27,152 households, 18,218 families residing in the county. The population density was 161 per square mile. There were 29,595 housing units at an average density of 67 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.01% White, 4.44% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races.
0.97% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. There were 27,152 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.10% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.90. By age, 21.90% were under 18, 18.80% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 20.10% from 45 to 64, 9.80% 65 or older. The median age was 31 years. Both the large 18-to-24 population and the low median age can be explained by the presence of Eastern Kentucky University, to a lesser extent Berea College. For every 100 females, there were 93.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,861, the median income for a family was $41,383. Males had a median income of $31,974 versus $22,487 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $16,790. About 12.00% of families and 16.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.80% of those under age 18 and 17.10% of those age 65 or over. Madison County is served by two school districts: Madison County Schools consisting of 10 elementary, 5 middle, 2 high schools. Berea Independent Schools. Currently consisting of 1 elementary, 1 middle, 1 high school. Eastern Kentucky University, located in Richmond Berea College, located in Berea National College of Business & Technology, located in Richmond Boonesborough Berea Kirksville Richmond Waco Kingston The Blue Grass Army Depot is located just south of Richmond. Mary Kavanaugh Eagle, American activist, book editor Lonnie Napier - former representative for House District 36 in the Kentucky House of Representatives. Dominique Hawkins - basketball player for the University of Kentucky. National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Kentucky Madison County government's website Madison County school district's website The Kentucky Highlands Project List of Madison County historic places on Placeography
Irvine is a home rule-class city in Estill County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county, its population was 2,715 at the time of the 2010 census. It is located on the Kentucky River at the junction of Kentucky Route 52 and Kentucky Route 89. Irvine annually hosts the Mountain Mushroom Festival on the last weekend of April. Irvine and nearby Ravenna are known within Estill County as the "Twin Cities". Irvine is located in the center of Estill County at 37°41′49″N 83°58′1″W; the city limits are on the northeast side of the Kentucky River, the city is bordered by Ravenna to the southeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, Irvine has a total area of 1.49 square miles, of which 1.41 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 5.13%, is water. Kentucky Route 89 passes through Irvine as Main Street. Route 89 leads north 27 miles to Winchester and south 28 miles to McKee, while Route 52 leads southeast 26 miles to Beattyville and west 19 miles to Richmond. Gen. Green Clay established the town of Irvine on 20.5 acres of his land on January 28, 1812, four years after Estill County was separated from Madison County.
It was named for a pioneer settler of Madison County. The post office was established in 1813, the city was incorporated by the state legislature in 1849. On October 13, 1864, Irvine was sacked by Confederate guerrillas. By Kentucky standards, Irvine remained small until the 1870s, when its population passed 300. Connection to the Louisville & Nashville Railroad's North Fork, as well as an early-20th century coal boom around the city increased the local population; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,843 people, 1,259 households, 793 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,871.7/sq mi. There were 1,409 housing units at an average density of 927.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 99.26% White, 0.04% African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.04% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.56% of the population. There were 1,259 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families.
33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.82. 22.9% of the population was under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,286, the median income for a family was $25,046. Males had a median income of $28,988 versus $17,194 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,075. About 20.9% of families and 28.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 22.0% of those age 65 or over. Major employers include Carhartt. Mercy Health Partners operates Wallace Memorial Hospital in Irvine. Harry Dean Stanton, character actor Kevin Richardson, member of the Backstreet Boys Lee Rose, basketball coach Estill Development Alliance - Estill County Information Estill County Water District 1 Mountain Mushroom Festival