Estonia the Republic of Estonia, is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia, to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia; the territory of Estonia consists of the mainland and of 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2, water 2,839 km2, land area 42,388 km2, is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second-most-spoken Finnic language; the territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 BC. Ancient Estonians became some of the last European pagans to adopt Christianity – following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Swedes and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries; this culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I.
Democratic prior to the Great Depression, Estonia experienced authoritarian rule from 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II, Estonia was contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany being incorporated into the former. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991; the sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million Estonia is one of the least populous members of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the Schengen Area, NATO, from 2020, the United Nations Security Council. Estonia, a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy, among the fastest-growing in the EU; the country ranks high in the Human Development Index, compares well in measures of economic freedom, civil liberties and press freedom.
Estonian citizens receive universal health care, free education, the longest paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally-advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, in 2014, the first state to provide e-residency; the name Estonia has been connected to Aesti, first mentioned by Roman historian Tacitus around 98 AD. Some historians believe he was directly referring to Balts, while others have proposed that the name applied to the whole Eastern Baltic region; the Scandinavian sagas referring to Eistland were the earliest sources to use the name in its modern meaning. The toponym Estland/Eistland has been linked to Old Scandinavian eist, austr meaning "the east". Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted; the oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia.
According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago. The earliest human habitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting and fishing. Around 4900 BC ceramics appear of the neolithic period, known as Narva culture. Starting from around 3200 BC the Corded Ware culture appeared; the Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. A transition from hunting-fishing-gathering subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC; the large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes. The middle Iron Age produced threats appearing from different directions. Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when "Estonian Vikings" defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar.
Similar threats appeared in the east. In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise established a fort in modern-day Tartu. Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne raids by Curonians and by Estonians from the island of Saaremaa, known as Oeselians. In 1187 Estonians, Curonians or/and Karelians sacked Sigtuna, a major city of Sweden at the time. Estonia could be divided into two main cultural areas, the coastal areas of Northern and Western Estonia had close overseas contacts with Scandinavia and Finland, while inland Southern Estonia had more contacts with Balts and Pskov; the landscape of Ancient Estonia featured numerous hillforts. Prehistoric or medieval harbour sites have been found on the coast of Saaremaa. Estonia has a number of graves from the Viking Age, both individual and collective, with weapons and jewellery including types found throughout Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In the early centuries AD, politi
Ross James Miller is an American attorney and politician. He is a Democrat, the former Secretary of State of Nevada, 2012–2013 president of the National Association of Secretaries of State. Elected at the age of 30, he was the youngest secretary of state in the history of Nevada and the youngest secretary of state in the country at the time of his election. Miller was not eligible to run for a third term per term limits established by the Nevada Constitution. Miller was the unsuccessful Democratic nominee for attorney general of Nevada in 2014, he was defeated by Republican Adam Laxalt by 46% to 45%. Miller was born on March 1976, in Las Vegas, Nevada, he is one of three children of former Nevada Governor Bob Miller and his wife, Sandy Miller, the former First Lady of Nevada. Miller earned his undergraduate degree at Stanford University, during which time he worked as an intern for President Bill Clinton, he received dual advanced degrees in Law and a master's in business administration from Loyola Marymount University.
Miller became a deputy district attorney in Nevada. His record as a prosecutor led John Walsh to appear in a campaign ad for him during his race for secretary of state; as secretary of state and Nevada's chief election officer in 2008, Miller led a voter registration investigation into the prominent anti-poverty organization, Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now. The investigation led to a search warrant being executed at ACORN's Las Vegas headquarters and led to the filing of 39 criminal counts against ACORN, its Las Vegas field director Christopher Edwards and its former deputy regional field director Amy Busefink. In August 2009, Christopher Edwards pleaded guilty to reduced charges and agreed to testify against ACORN and Busefink. In 2008, Miller issued challenges to 21 term-limited incumbents, they had been in office for the limit specified in a 1996 state referendum. Miller's decision was the subject of a legal challenge, unanimously upheld by the Nevada Supreme Court; as head of Nevada's commercial recordings division, Miller touted the implementation of a Nevada business portal which would create a "one stop shop" for business transactions with the state.
Services offered would range from getting or renewing annual business licenses to registering vehicle fleets to paying state taxes by entering data just once and paying for all the services. The new Web site would function as a clearinghouse for all payments, which would first go to the Secretary of State’s office and be distributed to the cities and counties. Miller chaired Nevada's census efforts in 2010. Due to his personal relationship with Ultimate Fighting Championship president Dana White, Miller partnered with the UFC in a census awareness campaign which featured UFC personalities. Miller and White train together in Mixed Martial Arts. In 2009, Miller was selected as one of "24 Rising Stars" in American governance by the Aspen Institute and awarded the Rodel Fellowship in Public Leadership; the program is a two-year fellowship designed to break down partisan barriers and to enable officeholders to step back from their daily responsibilities to consider broader questions of good governance.
In 2013, The Fix named Miller one of the top ten rising stars in politics. Miller was considered a potential candidate to run for attorney general in 2014, with an eye on becoming Governor of Nevada. Miller was first elected in 2006. In 2010, Miller defeated Republican Rob Lauer by a margin of 53.17% to 37.27%. In 2012, Miller won his first sanctioned mixed martial arts fight and retired from competition. Campaign website Secretary of State website
Prothom Protishruti spelled Pratham Pratishruti, is a 1964 Bengali novel by Ashapurna Devi. Considered to be Devi's magnum opus, it tells a story of Satyabati, given away in marriage at the age of eight to maintain the social norms, was kept under strict surveillance of brahmanical regulations; the novel narrates Satyabati's struggle to fight against family control, mental violence of the polygamy system, social prejudices in patriarchal society. It won Jnanpith Award. I have thought and written about women because I have seen their helplessness and, what I know best. Over the years, great clouds of protest have accumulated, unexpressed in my mind, Satyabati, the heroine of my novel is the expression of that protest; the title Prothom Protishruti refers to the promise Satyabati, the protagonist, has made to educate her daughter Subarna and in which she failed. Critic Madhuri Chatterjee noted that the title can be interpreted in positive terms — it could be the promise with which Satyabati leaves her household to demand answers regarding the position of women.
Spanning 48 chapters, the novel has about 50 characters. Principle characters are: Ramkali Chatterjee – a priest and an Ayurveda doctor Satyabati – Ramkali's daughter Nabakumar – Satyabati's husband Subarna – Satyabati's daughter Sadhan and Saral – Satyabati's sons Shankari – one of the widow members in the family Nagen – Shankari's paramour Suhasini – Shankari's illegitimate daughter Bhabatosh – teacher of Nabakumar, turned'Brahmo' Sarada – wife of Rashbehari, Ramkali's nephew The novel is set in a remote village of undivided Bengal and thereafter Kolkata, its theme focuses on a social structure, based on superstition and injustice to women. Satyabati, the housewife protagonist, rebels against the patriarchal world in which she and many of the women lived, taking an active role in standing up to the people whose behavior is one of keeping women in their traditional place of inferiority. From childhood Satya is outspoken, she points out the unfairness of the society in a facile way. The protagonist of the story is the handsome Ramkali Chatterjee, sometime towards the final decades of the 19th century, combines the functions of priest and physician of the traditional Ayurveda system of medicine in an isolated Bengali village, Five of the women of his extended family — Dinatarini, Shankari and Mokshada are widows.
It is on them that the burden falls, from dawn to dusk, of attending to all the practical problems of running a home. They are obliged to adhere to the rules governing widowhood, rules which however they reinforce by insisting other female members of the family learn to observe in a society dominated by men. Of the other women, just one, the young Satyabati, defies custom, though her father treats her manner of bucking the system indulgently, the other women rebuke her. Ramkali takes her on as a student. Meanwhile one of Ramkali's nephews, following the obligations imposed on a kulin Brahmin, is obliged to undertake a second marriage, which his first wife, Sarada vigorously protests by threatening to kill herself. A s a result, her husband refrains from sleeping with the second wife; the other, jealous women of the house resent Sarada’s success in blackmail her spouse, manage to persuade Rashberari to sleep with the second wife. Things are more complicated after one of the five widows, Shankari elopes with the man, wooing her, something which brings the whole family into disgrace.
To top the sequence off, Ramnkali's own house is destroyed by fire. On her reaching puberty, now married to Nabakumar, is transferred to the home of her parents-in-law where she is treated mercilessly by the mother-in-law, her husband, who has enlightened views thanks to his teacher Bhabatosh, asks Ramkali to take her away in order to avoid her dying by torture. But, Satyabati prefers to stay on a fight for her rights, no matter how much abuse and maltreatment is handed out to her; when her husband falls ill, she manages, now the mother of two children, to have him treated by a European doctor who manages to pull him through his illness. She manoeuvers a job for Nabakumar in Calcutta, determined by the move out of the village to secure a good modern education for her sons, while she too begins a secret life as teacher in a girl’s school where she encounters Shankari and her illegitimate daughter. Shankari, working as a cook for a wealthy family, is shocked by being recognized, commits suicide, leaving her daughter Suhasini an orphan.
The men of that wealthy household customarily rape their servants, being abetted in this by the other women in their group, Satyabati manages to save her by taking her away and putting her in a school where she too develops a strong personality. Nabakumar dislikes his wife’s philanthropic assistance to people outside their closed family, however; this outlook is shared by their sons. Now somewhat late in life, Satyabati becomes pregnant and falls ill. Soudamini, a woman, abandoned by her husband Mukanda, is brought in to nurse her, though at the same time she speaks hostilely of Suhasini. Mukanda, meeting up with Soudamini there, desires to take her back, a proposal she accepts with alacrity. Suhasini, upset by the smears, seeks refuge with Nabakumar’s teacher Bhabatosh, when the latter asks Satyabati, is advised to marry her, which he does. Under his care and tutelage, Suhasini becomes a teacher. Satyabati gives birth to her daughter Subarnalata who, eight years is sent to study at the school where Suhasini teachers, while the two sons become a doctor and a lawyer and Satyabati