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Estonians are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language. Estonia was first inhabited about 10,000 years ago, just after the Baltic ice lake had retreated from Estonia. Living in the same area for more than 5,000 years would put the ancestors of Estonians among the oldest permanent inhabitants in Europe. On the other hand, some recent linguistic estimations suggest that Finno-Ugrian language arrived around the Baltic Sea later during the Early Bronze Age; the oldest known endonym of the Estonians is maarahvas meaning "land people" or "country folk". It was used up until the mid-19th century, when it was replaced by Eesti rahvas "Estonian people" during the Estonian national awakening. Eesti, the modern endonym of Estonia, is thought to be derived from the word Aestii, the name given by the ancient Germanic people to the Baltic people living northeast of the Vistula River; the Roman historian Tacitus in 98 AD was the first to mention the "Aestii" people, early Scandinavians called the land south of the Gulf of Finland "Eistland", the people "eistr".

Proto-Estonians were called Chuds in Old East Slavic chronicles. The Estonian language belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic family of languages, as does the Finnish language; the branch is a little more than 1000 years old. The first known book in Estonian was printed in 1525, while the oldest known examples of written Estonian originate in 13th-century chronicles. Although Estonian national consciousness spread in the course of the 19th century during the Estonian national awakening, some degree of ethnic awareness preceded this development. By the 18th century the self-denomination eestlane spread among Estonians along with the older maarahvas. Anton thor Helle's translation of the Bible into Estonian appeared in 1739, the number of books and brochures published in Estonian increased from 18 in the 1750s to 54 in the 1790s. By the end of the century more than a half of adult peasants could read; the first university-educated intellectuals identifying themselves as Estonians, including Friedrich Robert Faehlmann, Kristjan Jaak Peterson and Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald, appeared in the 1820s.

The ruling elites had remained predominantly German in language and culture since the conquest of the early 13th century. Garlieb Merkel, a Baltic-German Estophile, became the first author to treat the Estonians as a nationality equal to others. However, in the middle of the century, the Estonians became more ambitious and started leaning toward the Finns as a successful model of national movement and, to some extent, toward the neighbouring Latvian national movement. By the end of 1860 the Estonians became unwilling to reconcile with German cultural and political hegemony. Before the attempts at Russification in the 1880s, their view of Imperial Russia remained positive. Estonians have strong ties to the Nordic countries stemming from important cultural and religious influences gained over centuries during Scandinavian and German rule and settlement. Indeed, Estonians consider themselves Nordic rather than Baltic, in particular because of close ethnic and linguistic affinities with the Finns.

After the Treaty of Tartu recognised Estonia's 1918 independence from Russia, ethnic Estonians residing in Russia gained the option of opting for Estonian citizenship and returning to their fatherland. An estimated 40,000 Estonians lived in Russia in 1920. In sum, 37,578 people moved from Soviet Russia to Estonia. During World War II, when Estonia was invaded by the Soviet Army in 1944, large numbers of Estonians fled their homeland on ships or smaller boats over the Baltic Sea. Many refugees who survived the risky sea voyage to Sweden or Germany moved from there to Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States or Australia; some of these refugees and their descendants returned to Estonia after the nation regained its independence in 1991. Over the years of independence, increasing numbers of Estonians have chosen to work abroad in Finland, but in other European countries, making Estonia the country with the highest emigration rate in Europe; this is at least due to the easy access to oscillating migration to Finland.

Recognising the problems arising from both low birth rate and high emigration, the country has launched various measures to both increase the birth rate and to lure migrant Estonians back to Estonia. Former president Toomas Hendrik Ilves has lent his support to the campaign Talendid koju! which aims to coordinate and promote the return of Estonians who have particular skills needed in Estonia. One of the largest permanent Estonian community outside Estonia is in Canada with about 24,000 people. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, about 17,000 arrived in Canada to Montreal. Toronto is the city with the largest population of Estonians outside of Estonia; the first Estonian World Festival was held in Toronto in 1972. Some notable Estonian Canadians include Endel Tulving, Elmar Tampõld, Alison Pill, Uno Prii, Kalle Lasn, Andreas Vaikla. Demographics of Estonia Estonian Americans Estonian Argentines Estonian Australians Estonian Canadians Estonian national awakening Gauja Estonians List of Estonian Americans List of notable Estonians Petersoo, Pille.


Land Ordinance of 1784

The Ordinance of 1784 called for the land in the created United States of America west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River to be divided into separate states. The ordinance was adopted by the United States Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation. Thomas Jefferson was the principal author, his original draft of the ordinance contained five important articles: The new states shall remain forever a part of the United States of America. They shall bear the same relation to the confederation as the original states, they shall pay their apportionment of the federal debts. They shall in their governments uphold republican forms. After the year 1800 there shall be involuntary servitude in any of them. In the late eighteenth century, slavery prevailed throughout much more than half the lands of Europe. Jefferson designed the ordinance to establish from end to end of the whole country a north and south line, at which the westward extension of slavery should be stayed by an impassable bound.

On the ninth anniversary of the fight at Concord and Lexington, Richard Dobbs Spaight of North Carolina, seconded by Jacob Read of South Carolina, moved to strike out the fifth article concerning the restriction on the expansion of slavery. The votes of seven states were needed to approve Jefferson's clause. From a letter from Jefferson to James Madison, dated April 25, 1784: "The clause was lost by an individual vote only. Ten states were present; the four eastern states, New York, Pennsylvania were for the clause. South Carolina and Virginia voted against it. North Carolina was divided, as would have been Virginia, had not one of its delegates been sick in bed." The absent Virginian was James Monroe. For North Carolina the vote of Spaight was neutralized by Williamson. Six States against three, sixteen men against seven strove to stop the spread of slavery. Jefferson denounced this outcome all his life. George Wythe and he, as commissioners to codify the laws of Virginia, had provided for gradual emancipation.

When, in 1785, the legislature refused to consider the proposal, Jefferson wrote: "We must hope that an overruling Providence is preparing the deliverance of these our suffering brethren." In 1786, narrating the loss of the clause against slavery in the ordinance of 1784, he said: "The voice of a single individual would have prevented this abominable crime. The ordinance passed without the 5th clause despite Jefferson's wishes, was in force for three years; the ordinance was further augmented with the Land Ordinance of 1785, superseded by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. To the friends who visited him in the last period of his life, he delighted to renew these aspirations of his earlier years. In a letter written just 45 days before his death, he refers to the ordinance of 1784, saying: "My sentiments have been forty years before the public: although I shall not live to see them consummated, they will not die with me. Thomas Jefferson and slavery Northwest Ordinance Full text at Library of Congress Encyclopædia Britannica article dealing with the 1784, 1785, 1787 ordinances George Bancroft History of the Formation of the Constitution of the United States of America, Volume 1, p. 157–158

Rhun ap Iorwerth

Rhun ap Iorwerth AM is a Welsh politician and journalist who represents Ynys Môn in the Welsh Assembly. He is a member of Plaid Cymru. Born in Tonteg, he was educated at Ysgol Rhyd-y-Main and Ysgol Gynradd Llandegfan before going to Ysgol David Hughes in Menai Bridge, he studied Welsh at Cardiff University. He is married with he and his family reside on the island of Anglesey. In 1994, he joined BBC Cymru Wales, worked as a journalist at BBC Westminster. Returning to Wales after the 1997 devolution referendum, he became BBC Wales' Chief Political Correspondent in 2001, a post he held for five years, before moving into presenting roles, he has been presenter of The Politics Show Wales, Dragon's Eye, ampm, BBC Radio Wales' Good Morning Wales, BBC Radio Cymru's Post Cyntaf breakfast news programme and weekly political discussion programme Dau o'r Bae, the BBC's main evening news programme for S4C Newyddion. He has been a regular correspondent for BBC Network news, featuring on all BBC News channels.

Outside news, he has presented numerous series for S4C, including its coverage of the National Eisteddfod, Y Rhufeiniaid, arts series Pethe. In January 2012, he was announced as one of the patrons of the Cronfa Betsi Fund, the charitable arm of the Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board. On 20 June 2013, former Plaid Cymru leader Ieuan Wyn Jones resigned from the National Assembly for Wales seat in order to take a post leading the new Menai Science Park, triggering a by-election in the constituency. After gaining special dispensation from the Plaid national executive committee, Rhun was accepted as a nominee, stepped down from his commitments at BBC Cymru Wales from 26 June, including Newyddion 9; the by-election provoked a tough local debate, in which Wylfa Nuclear Power Station became a key issue. If Welsh Labour had won they would have had a majority in the Assembly. On 1 August 2013 Rhun gained 12,601 votes, more than three times the number of votes secured by the second-placed candidate Tal Michael, on a turnout of 42.45%.

Plaid Cymru website Official website

Department of Health (Australia)

The Department of Health is a department of the Government of Australia charged with overseeing the running of Australia's health system, including supporting universal and affordable access to medical and hospital services, as well as helping people to stay healthy through health promotion and exercise and other disease prevention activities. The head of the department is the Secretary of the Department of Health Glenys Beauchamp, who reports to the Minister for Health and the Minister for Regional Services, Local Government and Decentralisation the Hon. Greg Hunt MP and Senator Bridget McKenzie, the Minister for Aged Care and the Minister for Indigenous Health The Hon. Ken Wyatt; the ministers are assisted by the Assistant Minister for Health The Hon. Dr David Gillespie MP. According to the Administrative Arrangements Order issued 18 September 2013, matters dealt with by the Department are: Public health, including health protection, medical research Health promotion and disease prevention Primary health care Hospitals funding and policy, including relationships and linkages within the continuum of health care Implementation of the National Health and Hospitals Network Health research Pharmaceutical benefits Health benefits schemes Hearing services policy and funding Specific health services, including human quarantine Sport and recreation National drug strategy Regulation of therapeutic goods Notification and assessment of industrial chemicals Gene technology regulation Medical indemnity insurance issues Private health insurance Blood and Dental policy and funding Health workforce capacity Mental health policy and primary mental health care The Department of Health was established in 1921 and was the precursor to today's Department of Health.

The first Department of Health was dissolved in 1987, when it was merged with the Department of Community Services to form the Department of Community Services and Health. In June 1991, the Department of Health and Community Services was formed when housing industry programs were transferred from the Department of Industry and Commerce. In March 1993 the Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs joined with the Department of Health and Community Services to form the Department of Health, Local Government and Community Services. Subsequently, in December 1993, the Department was abolished and replaced with the Department of Human Services and Health. In 1994, the Office of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health was established. After a new government was elected in March 1996, the Department of Health and Family Services was formed; the department had responsibility for the Supported Accommodation Assistance Program from the former Department of Housing and Regional Development.

The department assumed responsibility for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health matters from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission. After the October 1998 election, the Department was abolished and replaced by the Australian Federal Department of Health and Aged Care, named to reflect new responsibilities and functions. Responsibility for Family and Children's Services, Disability Programs and the Commonwealth Rehabilitation Service were transferred to the Department of Family and Community Services on 22 October 1998. Following the November 2001 election, the Australian Federal Department of Health and Aged Care was abolished and replaced with the Australian Federal Department of Health and Ageing; the Australian Federal Department of Health and Ageing was abolished in 2013 and replaced by the current Australian Federal Department of Health on 18 September 2013 by way of an Administrative Arrangements Order issued by the Governor-General of Australia on the recommendation of the Abbott Government.

Minister for Health Minister for Ageing List of Australian Commonwealth Government entities

Mohsen Tanabandeh

Mohsen Tanabandeh is an Iranian cinema and television actor and screenwriter. Tanabandeh has studied acting at University of Architecture, he began theater acting in 1992 and appeared in his first cinematic movie in 2001. 2018 – Ghasam 2015 – Guinness 2018 – Rona, Azim's Mother 2017 – Ferrari 2015 – Iran Burger 2015 – Muhammad: The Messenger of God 2014 – Lamp 100 2011 – Nadarha 2010 – Sang-e aval 2010 – Saint Petersburg 2010 – Haft Daghighe ta Paeez 2008 – A Petition for Allah 2008 – Zamani baraye doost dashtan 2007 – Be khatere sogand 2006 – Offside 2005 – A Few Kilos of Dates for a Funeral 2003 – Danehaye rize barf 2018 – Ghasam 2015 – Guinness 2010 – Haft Daghigheh ta Paeez 2008 – Estesh'hadi baraye khoda 2007 – Catch Me If You Can 2008 – Pesarha Sarbaz Be Donya Nemiayand 2005 – Chand Migiri Gerye Koni 2011–present – Paytakht 2016 – Alal Badal 2014 – Ablah 2013 – Shahgoosh 2008 – Ma'mor Badragheh 2011–present – Paytakht 2017 – Alal badal 2012 – Check Bargashti 2010 – Char Divari 2008 – Payamak az diare baghi Mohsen Tanabandeh on Instagram Mohsen Tanabandeh on IMDb

Rock veneer

A rock veneer is a geomorphic formation in which rock fragments of gravel or cobble size form a thin cover over a surface or hillslope. Rock veneers are one or two clasts thick and may or cover the ground surface. Veneers form in semiarid and arid regions where chemical weathering rates and the potential for mass wasting are low. Other names for a rock veneer are rock-fragment cover, stone pavement, desert pavement, stony mantle and reg. Rock veneers arise from the weathering of resistant rocks of quartzite, felsic granites, coarse granites, dense basalts; as these larger rocks are deposited on a surface, smaller sands either are removed by wind or water erosion, or settle and form a fine-grained layer beneath the larger veneer rocks. The larger clasts rearrange and settle to form the rock veneer. Rock veneers form a variety of ways, with two major types. Rock veneers are distinguished through six variables: particle size, particle density, stability characteristics, potential for storing mobile sediments, degree of abrasion, varnishing.

Gully gravure is a transportation process. Valleys formed of gullies and rills are made and coarse rock fragments are deposited in side channels; as the side channels fill in, water forms new, less resistant channels down the borders of the coarse channels and finer gullies and rills. These channels build up, the process happens again, resulting in a reversal of rills and gullies, with coarser clasts on the surface. Root throw is the process that occurs when a tree topples, raising its rootwad and the rock fragments in it. Fine sediment falls back into the rootwad pit or travels downstream, but coarse sediments form a local rock veneer around the rootwad; this local rock veneer is larger than the pit of the rootwad, as falling clasts extend the area of veneer. In a study of rootwads in Westcliffe, Colorado, it was estimated that root throw could have created a rock veneer over 90% of the surface during the Holocene. Root throw produces a rock veneer when there are a large number of clasts near the surface, where there are: a slow rate of chemical weathering, insufficient precipitation to move the large clasts, high velocity winds, conditions favorable to shallow-rooted trees, trees large enough to embed coarse rock in their roots.

Hillslopes with a rock veneer have lower erosion rates. Rock veneers form a rocky armor on the hillslope which prevents the erosion of smaller sediments and stabilizes the slope. Rock veneers, forming when influx and outflux sediment rates are equal, indicate a hillslope in equilibrium due to their protective cover on the slope. Erosion rates on veneered hillslopes are low to moderate