Museum of Portuguese Music (Estoril)
The Museum of Portuguese Music is a small museum housed in the Casa Verdades de Faria in Estoril, municipality of Cascais, Portugal, on the Portuguese Riviera. It contains a collection of Portuguese musical instruments and other items, as well as a music documentation centre, is used for recitals; the attractive building that houses the museum was commissioned in 1918 by Jorge O'Neil, a Portuguese / Irish aristocrat connected to the tobacco industry. O’Neill was responsible for the construction of the Tower of San Sebastián and the Casa de Santa Maria, both in neighbouring Cascais. Known as the Torre de S. Patrício, the building was designed by the Portuguese architect Raul Lino, it is considered an excellent example of a Revivalist approach that includes Neo-romanticism, one of the main examples of the so-called summer architecture, used to describe some buildings constructed in the Estoril and Cascais area from the mid- 19th Century. Its interior is decorated with 18th century tiles. Around 1942, Enrique Mantero Belard acquired the building, making a number of changes in the house and in the garden.
His wife, Gertrudes Verdades de Faria, promoted social gatherings and cultural events, was a patron of the arts. In his will of 1974, in addition to leaving significant sums to the charity Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa, he left the house to the Municipality of Cascais, to be named after his wife and used as a museum and public garden; the museum opened in 1987 and it was extensively remodelled in 2005. However, it has been criticised for insufficiently recognising the archaeological and artistic heritage of the building in presenting the museum's contents. A large part of the museum's collection of popular string and percussion musical instruments used in Portugal was put together by the Corsican musician and ethnologist Michel Giacometti, who spent much of his life studying Portuguese folk music; the collection of 381 instruments was acquired by the Cascais Municipality in 1981, together with some ethnographic items. Giacometti was on the committee to set up the museum, with the collaboration of the Portuguese Institute of Cultural Heritage and the Portuguese Museum of Ethnology in Lisbon.
Giacometti’s library was acquired, allowing the creation of the documentation centre of the Museum. In 1994, the composer Fernando Lopes Graça, who had worked with Giacometti on his research, left many items to the Municipality of Cascais in his will and these were incorporated in the museum in 1995. At this time the museum took on its present name. More it has incorporated a collection acquired from the conductor Álvaro Cassuto. Instruments to be seen are guitars, accordions, bagpipes, drums and idiophones, such as castanets and lamellophones; the documentary collection includes the personal libraries of Giacometti and Lopes-Graça, together with the field and bibliographical collections of Giacometti. Additionally it contains Lopes-Graça's musical work, considerable correspondence, photographs, together with the library of Portuguese music by Cassuto. List of music museums Media related to Category:Museums in Lisbon at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Musical instrument museums at Wikimedia Commons
Carol II of Romania
Carol II reigned as King of Romania from 8 June 1930 until his abdication on 6 September 1940. Carol was the eldest son of Ferdinand I and became crown prince upon the death of his grand-uncle, King Carol I in 1914, he was the first of the Hohenzollern kings of Romania to be born in the country. Carol, by contrast, spoke Romanian as his first language and was the first member of the Romanian royal family to be raised in the Orthodox faith, he possessed a hedonistic personality that contributed to the controversies marring his reign, his life was marked by numerous scandals, among them marriages to Zizi Lambrino and Princess Helen of Greece and Denmark, daughter of King Constantine I of Greece. His continued affairs with Magda Lupescu obliged him to renounce his succession rights in 1925 and leave the country. Princess Helen divorced him in 1928. King Ferdinand died in 1927 and Carol's five-year-old son ascended the throne as Michael I. Carol returned to Romania in 1930 and replaced his son and the regency, in place.
His reign was marked by re-alignment with Nazi Germany, adoption of anti-semitic laws and evolved into a personal dictatorship beginning in 1938. On 6 September 1940, he was forced by his Prime Minister Ion Antonescu to leave the country and withdraw abroad into exile, he was succeeded by his son Michael. Carol was born in Peleș Castle. Carol grew up under the thumb of his dominating grand-uncle, King Carol I who excluded his parents, the German-born Crown Prince Ferdinand and the British-born Crown Princess Marie from any role in bringing him up. Romania in the early 20th century had a famously relaxed "Latin" sexual morality, the British Princess Marie of Edinburgh who despite or because of her Victorian upbringing ended up "going native", having a long series of affairs with various Romanian men with whom she could obtain more emotional and sexual satisfaction than she could with Ferdinand, who fiercely resented being cuckolded; the stern Carol I felt that Marie was unqualified to raise Prince Carol because of her affairs and her young age, as she was only seventeen when Carol was born, while Marie regarded the king as cold, overbearing tyrant who would crush the life out of her son.
Additionally, the childless Carol I who had always wanted a son treated Prince Carol as his surrogate son, spoiled him, indulging his every whim. Ferdinand was a rather shy and weak man, overshadowed by the charismatic Marie who become the most loved member of the Romanian royal family. Growing up, Carol felt ashamed of his father whom both mother pushed around. Carol's childhood was spent being caught up in an emotional tug-of-war between Carol I and Marie who had different ideas about how to raise him; the Romanian historian Marie Bucur described the battle between Carol I and Princess Marie as between traditional 19th century Prussian conservatism as personified by Carol I vs. the 20th century liberal and sexually liberated values of the "New Woman" as personified by Princess Marie. Aspects of both Marie's and Carol I's personalities were present in Carol II; because of the battle between the king and Marie, Carol ended being both spoiled and deprived of love. Carol II was the first real Romanian of the Hohenzollern kings as both his father and great-uncle were born and grew up in Germany and only came to Romania as adults.
Carol by contrast, was born in and grew up in Romania, was the first of the Romanian branch of the House of Hohenzollern to speak Romanian as his first language. Besides for Romanian, Carol was fluent in English and German. During his teenage years, Carol acquired the "playboy" image, to become his defining persona for the rest of his life. Carol I expressed some concern at the direction that Prince Carol was taking as his only serious interest was stamp collecting, the young prince spent an inordinate amount of time drinking, chasing after women and had fathered at least two illegitimate children by the teenage schoolgirl Maria Martini by the time he was 19. Carol become a favorite of gossip columnists around the world owing to the frequent photographs that appeared in the newspapers showing him at various parties with him holding a drink in one hand and a woman in the other. In order to teach the prince the value of the Prussian virtues, the king had the prince commissioned as an officer into a Prussian guards regiment in 1913.
His time with the 1st Prussian Guards regiment did not achieve the desired results, Carol remained the "playboy prince". Romania in the early 20th century was an intensely Francophile nation, indeed the most Francophile nation in the entire world as the Romanian elite obsessively went about embracing all things French as the model for perfection in everything. To certain extent, Carol was influenced by the prevailing Francophilia, but at the same time he inherited from Carol I in the words of the American historian Margaret Sankey a "profound love of German militarism" and the idea that all democratic governments were weak governments. In November 1914, Carol joined the Romanian Senate, as the 1866 Constitution guaranteed him a seat there upon reaching maturity. Known more for his romantic misadventures than for any leadership skills, Carol was first married in the Cathedral Church of Odessa, Ukraine, 31 August 1918, to Joanna Marie Valentina Lambrino, known as "Zizi", the daughter of a Romanian general, Constantin Lambrino.
The fact that Carol had technically deserted as he left his post at the Army without permission to marry Lambrino caused immense controversy at the time. The marriage was an
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I is a former King of Spain, reigning from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain before the abolition of the monarchy in 1931 and the subsequent declaration of the Second Spanish Republic. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, during his family's exile. Generalísimo Francisco Franco, the Spanish dictator who initiated the civil war by means of a coup d'état against the constitutional republic in 1936, took over the government of Spain after his victory in the Spanish Civil War in 1939, in 1947 Spain's status as a monarchy was affirmed and a law was passed allowing Franco to choose his successor. Juan Carlos's father, was the fourth child of Alfonso, who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969 was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Franco's successor as head of state. Juan Carlos came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his secondary education in 1955, he began his military training and entered the General Military Academy at Zaragoza.
He attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, finished his tertiary education at the University of Madrid. In 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Denmark in Athens; the couple had two daughters and a son together: Elena and Felipe. Due to Franco's declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spain's head of state in the summer of 1974. Franco died in November the following year and Juan Carlos became king on 22 November 1975, two days after Franco's death, the first reigning monarch since 1931. Expected to continue Franco's legacy, Juan Carlos, soon after his accession introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and begin the Spanish transition to democracy; this led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy. In 1981, Juan Carlos played a major role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the King's name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America.
Hailed for his role in Spain's transition to democracy, the King and the monarchy's reputation began to suffer after controversies surrounding his family arose, exacerbated by an elephant-hunting trip he undertook during a time of financial crisis in Spain. In 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded to the throne as Felipe VI. Juan Carlos was born to Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in Rome, where his grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain and other members of the Spanish royal family lived in exile following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931, he was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias. He was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, his early life was dictated by the political concerns of his father and General Franco. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there.
He began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the Instituto San Isidro in Madrid. He joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza. Juan Carlos has two sisters: Duchess of Badajoz, he had a younger brother, Alfonso. On the evening of Holy Thursday, 29 March 1956, Juan Carlos's younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the family's home Villa Giralda in Estoril, on the Portuguese Riviera; the Spanish Embassy in Portugal issued the following official communiqué: Whilst His Highness Prince Alfonso was cleaning a revolver last evening with his brother, a shot was fired hitting his forehead and killing him in a few minutes. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infante's return from the Maundy Thursday religious service, during which he had received holy communion. Alfonso had won a local junior golf tournament earlier in the day went to evening Mass and rushed up to the room to see Juan Carlos who had come home for the Easter holidays from military school.
It is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun, given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had been held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired; as they were alone in the room, it is unclear how Alfonso was shot, but according to Josefina Carolo, dressmaker to Juan Carlos's mother, Juan Carlos pointed the pistol at Alfonso and pulled the trigger, unaware that it was loaded. Bernardo Arnoso, a Portuguese friend of Juan Carlos said that Juan Carlos fired the pistol not knowing that it was loaded, adding that the bullet ricocheted off a wall, hitting Alfonso in the face. Helena Matheopoulos, a Greek author who spoke with Juan Carlos's sister Pilar, said that Alfonso had been out of the room and when he returned and pushed the door open, the door knocked Juan Carlos in the arm, causing him to fire the pistol. In 1957, Juan Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Marín, another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia. In 1960–61, he studied Law, International Political Economy and Public Finance at Complutense University.
He went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela and began carrying out official engagements. The dictatorial re
Lisboa Region is one of the seven NUTS II designated regions of Portugal, which includes two NUTS III subregions: Greater Lisbon and Peninsula of Setúbal. The region covers an area of 3001.95 km2 and includes a population of 2,815,851 inhabitants according to the 2011 census, a density of 1039 inhabitants/km2. Considered as representing the Lisboa Metropolitan Region, it is a region of significant importance in industry, it is urbanized. Prior to 2002, the area was included within the NUTS II region of Tagus Valley. "Despite the territorial configuration for statistical purposes, in force since 2002, matching the NUTS II the Lisbon, Region Greater Lisbon - composed only NUTSIII Greater Lisbon and Setúbal Peninsula - the area of intervention of the CCDRLVT - Steering Committee and Regional Development, abbreviated to CCDR -, continues to be composed of 5 NUTSIII. For the Regional Funds, management responsibilities under the policy of the European Union in Portugal, this regions it's the region of Lisbon that consists of Grande Lisboa and Península de Setúbal, for regional planning the region is called Lisbon and the Tagus Valley, composed by 5 NUTSIII."
The 18 municipalities: Alcochete Almada Amadora Barreiro Cascais Lisboa Loures Mafra Moita Montijo Odivelas Oeiras Palmela Seixal Sesimbra Setúbal Sintra Vila Franca de Xira Notes SourcesCCDR-LVT. "CCDR-LVT". Lisbon, Portugal: Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional. Archived from the original on 2011-01-21. Retrieved 03-02-2011. CCDR-LVT Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
The Reconquista is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. Traditional historiography has marked the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga, the first known victory in Iberia by Christian military forces since the 711 military invasion of Iberia by combined Arab-Berber forces. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a Muslim patrol in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias. In the late 10th century, the Umayyad vizier Almanzor waged military campaigns for 30 years to subjugate the northern Christian kingdoms.
His armies composed of Slavic and African Mamluks, ravaged the north sacking the great shrine of Santiago de Compostela. When the government of Córdoba disintegrated in the early 11th century, a series of petty successor states known as taifas emerged; the northern kingdoms struck deep into Al-Andalus. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian forces in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south. After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers; the conquest was followed by the Alhambra Decree which expelled Jews who would not convert to Christianity from Castile and Aragon, a series of edicts which forced the conversions of the Muslims in Spain, although a significant part of them was expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. The concept of Reconquista, consolidated in Spanish historiography in the second half of the 19th century, was associated with the development of a Spanish national identity, emphasizing nationalistic and romantic, colonialist, aspects.
Since the 19th century traditional historiography has stressed the existence of the Reconquista, a continuous phenomenon by which the Christian Iberian kingdoms opposed and conquered the Muslim kingdoms, understood as a common enemy who had militarily seized territory from native Iberian Christians. The concept of a Christian reconquest of the peninsula first emerged, in tenuous form, at the end of the 9th century. A landmark was set by the Christian Chronica Prophetica, a document stressing the Christian and Muslim cultural and religious divide in Iberia and the necessity to drive the Muslims out. Both Christian and Muslim rulers fought amongst themselves. Alliances between Muslims and Christians were not uncommon. Blurring distinctions further were the mercenaries from both sides who fought for whoever paid the most; the period is seen today to have had long episodes of relative religious tolerance. The Crusades, which started late in the 11th century, bred the religious ideology of a Christian reconquest, confronted at that time with a staunch Muslim Jihad ideology in Al-Andalus by the Almoravids, to an greater degree by the Almohads.
In fact, previous documents from the 10th and 11th centuries are mute on any idea of "reconquest". Propaganda accounts of Muslim-Christian hostility came into being to support that idea, most notably the Chanson de Roland, a fictitious 11th-century French version of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass dealing with the Iberian Saracens, taught as historical fact in the French educational system since 1880; the modern idea of Reconquista is inextricably linked to the foundational myths of Spanish nationalism in the 19th century, consolidated by the mid-20th century during Franco's National-Catholic dictatorship, based on a strong underlying Castilian ideological element. The idea of a "liberation war" of reconquest against the Muslims, depicted as foreigners, suited well the anti-Republican rebels during the Spanish Civil War who agitated for the banner of a Spanish fatherland threatened by regional nationalisms and communism, their rebellious pursuit was thus a crusade for the restoration of the Church's unity, where Franco stood for both Pelagius of Asturias and El Cid.
The Reconquista has become a rallying call for right and far-right parties in Spain to expel from office incumbent progressive or peripheral nationalist options, as well as their values, in different political contexts as of 2018. Some contemporary authors consider it proved that the process of Christian state-building in Iberia was indeed defined by the reclamation of lands, lost to the Moors in generations past. In this way, state-building might be characterised—at least in ideological, if not practical, terms—as a process by which Iberian states were being'rebuilt'.. In turn, other recent historians dispute the whole concept of Reconquista as a concept created a posteriori in the service of political goals. A few historians point out that Spain and Portugal did not exist as nations, therefore the heirs of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom were not technically reconquering them, as the name suggests. One of the first Spanish intellectuals to question the idea of a "reconquest" that lasted for eight centuries was José Ortega y Gasset, writing in the first half of the 20th century.
However, the term is still in use