Eta Carinae

Eta Carinae known as Eta Argus, is a stellar system containing at least two stars with a combined luminosity greater than five million times that of the Sun, located around 7,500 light-years distant in the constellation Carina. A 4th-magnitude star, it brightened in 1837 to become brighter than Rigel, marking the start of its so-called "Great Eruption", it became the second-brightest star in the sky between 11 and 14 March 1843 before fading well below naked eye visibility after 1856. In a smaller eruption, it reached 6th magnitude in 1892 before fading again, it has brightened since about 1940, becoming brighter than magnitude 4.5 by 2014. At declination −59° 41′ 04.26″, Eta Carinae is circumpolar from locations on Earth south of latitude 30°S,. The two main stars of the Eta Carinae system have an eccentric orbit with a period of 5.54 years. The primary is a peculiar star similar to a luminous blue variable, 150–250 M☉ of which it has lost at least 30 M☉ and is expected to explode as a supernova in the astronomically near future.

This is the only star known to produce ultraviolet laser emission. The secondary star is hot and highly luminous of spectral class O, around 30–80 times as massive as the Sun; the system is obscured by the Homunculus Nebula, material ejected from the primary during the Great Eruption. It is a member of the Trumpler 16 open cluster within the much larger Carina Nebula. Although unrelated to the star and nebula, the weak Eta Carinids meteor shower has a radiant close to Eta Carinae. There is no reliable evidence of Eta Carinae being observed or recorded before the 17th century, although Dutch navigator Pieter Keyser described a fourth-magnitude star at the correct position around 1595–1596, copied onto the celestial globes of Petrus Plancius and Jodocus Hondius and the 1603 Uranometria of Johann Bayer. Frederick de Houtman's independent star catalogue from 1603 does not include Eta Carinae among the other 4th magnitude stars in the region; the earliest firm record was made by Edmond Halley in 1677 when he recorded the star as Sequens within a new constellation Robur Carolinum.

His Catalogus Stellarum Australium was published in 1679. The star was known by the Bayer designations Eta Roboris Caroli, Eta Argus or Eta Navis. In 1751 Nicolas Louis de Lacaille gave the stars of Argo Navis and Robur Carolinum a single set of Greek letter Bayer designations within his constellation Argo, designated three areas within Argo for the purposes of using Latin letter designations three times over. Eta fell within the keel portion of the ship, to become the constellation Carina, it was not known as Eta Carinae until 1879, when the stars of Argo Navis were given the epithets of the daughter constellations in the Uranometria Argentina of Gould. Eta Carinae is too far south to be part of the mansion-based traditional Chinese astronomy, but it was mapped when the Southern Asterisms were created at the start of the 17th century. Together with s Carinae, λ Centauri, λ Muscae, Eta Carinae forms the asterism 海山. Eta Carinae has Foramen, it is known as 海山二. Halley gave an approximate apparent magnitude of 4 at the time of discovery, calculated as magnitude 3.3 on the modern scale.

The handful of possible earlier sightings suggest that Eta Carinae was not brighter than this for much of the 17th century. Further sporadic observations over the next 70 years show that Eta Carinae was around 3rd magnitude or fainter, until Lacaille reliably recorded it at 2nd magnitude in 1751, it is unclear whether Eta Carinae varied in brightness over the next 50 years. In 1827 Burchell noted Eta Carinae's unusual brightness at 1st magnitude, was the first to suspect that it varied in brightness. John Herschel, in South Africa at the time, made a detailed series of accurate measurements in the 1830s showing that Eta Carinae shone around magnitude 1.4 until November 1837. On the evening of December 16, 1837, Herschel was astonished to see that it had brightened to outshine Rigel; this event marked the beginning of a 18-year period known as the Great Eruption. Eta Carinae was brighter still on January 2, 1838, equivalent to Alpha Centauri, before fading over the following three months. Herschel did not observe the star after this, but received correspondence from the Reverend W.

S. Mackay in Calcutta, who wrote in 1843, "To my great surprise I observed this March last, that the star Eta Argus had become a star of the first magnitude as bright as Canopus, in colour and size like Arcturus." Observations at the Cape of Good Hope indicated it peaked in brightness, surpassing Canopus, over March 11 to 14, 1843 before beginning to fade brightened to between the brightness of Alpha Centauri and Canopus between March 24 and 28 before fading once again. For much of 1844 the brightness was midway between Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri, around magnitude +0.2, before brightening again at the end of the year. At its brightest in 1843 it reached an apparent magnitude of −0.8 −1.0 in 1845. The peaks in 1827, 1838, 1843 are to have occurred at the periastron passage—

Thorney Abbey

Thorney Abbey, now the Church of St Mary and St Botolph, was a medieval monastic house established on the island of Thorney in The Fens of Cambridgeshire, England. The earliest documentary sources refer to a mid-7th century hermitage destroyed by a Viking incursion in the late 9th century. A Benedictine monastery was founded in the 970s, a huge rebuilding programme followed the Norman Conquest of 1066. A new church was begun under the abbacy of Gunther of Le Mans, appointed in 1085, it was in use by 1089, but not finished until 1108. Henry I was a benefactor of the Abbey; the focus of the settlement shifted away from the fen edge in the late 12th or early 13th century, the earlier site becoming a rubbish dump because of encroaching water. It was reoccupied in the 13th and 14th centuries, when clay layers were laid down to provide a firm foundation for the timber buildings. More substantial buildings were erected in the 16th century and these are thought to have been part of an expanding abbey complex for use as guesthouses, stables, or workshops.

Many of Thorney Abbey's buildings disappeared without trace after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Its last abbot, Robert Blythe, was a supporter of the King, having signed a letter to the pope urging that his divorce should be allowed, he was rewarded with a pension of £200 a year. The abbey was surrendered to the king's commissioners on 1 December 1539, most its buildings were demolished and the stone reused; the site was granted to John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford in 1549/50. The nave of the church survived, was restored as the Parish Church of St Mary and St Botolph in 1638. At this date the aisles were demolished and the arcade openings walled up; some stained glass was installed that came from the Steelyard, the London trading base of the Hanseatic League. The present east end, in the Norman style, is by Edward Blore, dates from 1840-1; the church is a Grade I listed building. There is a model of the monastery in the Thorney Museum; the name Thorney Abbey is given to a Grade I listed house late sixteenth and seventeenth century, in the village of Thorney.

As a large abbey of Anglo-Saxon England a number of saints have been buried and venerated in Thorney, including: Athwulf of Thorney Benedict Biscop Botwulf of Thorney Cissa of Crowland Herefrith of Thorney Huna of Thorney Tancred of Thorney 9th century East Anglian martyr Torthred of Thorney brother of Tancred Tova Wihtred of Thorney Albinus of Thorney an Anglo-Saxon bishop and saint, buried in Thorney. Excavation was undertaken in 2002 prior to redevelopment, by University of Leicester Archaeological Services; this focused on the northern edge of the former island. As well as pottery, animal bone and roofing material, a large deposit of 13th and 14th century painted glass was found in and around the buildings; the intricate designs were of high quality. List of English abbeys and friaries serving as parish churches Thomas, J.. Thorney Abbey discovered? Current Archaeology 204: 619 Parish of Thorney in the City of Peterborough Abbey of Thorney from VCH Thorney Abbey - Catholic Encyclopedia The Calendar and the Cloister, website dedicated to Oxford, St John's College MS 17, an early 12th-century manuscript produced at Thorney Abbey


Norsewood is a small rural town in the Tararua District, part of the Manawatu-Wanganui Region of New Zealand's North Island. The town is situated east of the Ruahine Mountain range and is located 20 kilometres northeast of Dannevirke; as of 2017 it has a total population of around 300. The source of the Manawatu River is located behind Norsewood at the end of Manawatu River Road and is the Natural boundary for the region and Hawke's Bay to the North Norsewood was founded by Norwegian settlers in 1872 as a loggers settlement, retains a Scandinavian tenor; the village was carved out of the forest, was subsequently destroyed in a fire in 1888. The government of New Zealand requested Norwegian immigrants and made an agreement with Winge & Co. in Christiania, which would allow for 3,000 emigrants to New Zealand. In the years 1870-76, nearly 1,000 Norwegians moved to the Norsewood area; the village consists of two parts. Upper Norsewood consists of the town’s main road, located near a glassed-in boathouse known as Bindalsfaering, a gift from the Norwegian government.

Located here is The Barn gift shop, a visitor’s centre and the Pioneer Museum, housed in an 1888 structure. Lower Norsewood is 1 km to the south and strung around Hovding Street; this part of town houses Norsewear, a company, famed for its woolen garments in Norwegian designs. Upper and Lower Norsewood lie on either side of State Highway 2 in Tararua District 20 km northeast of Dannevirke. Crown Hotel is the town's main meeting home of a local pub; the town celebrates its roots with a Scandinavian festival held every year. Furthermore, the main square by Coronation Street welcomes visitors to “Little Norway”, a Norwegian flag flies from the street’s tourist office. Traditional celebrations of May 17, Norway’s Constitution Day, is held on the Sunday closest to May 17. A fishing boat, the Bindalsfaering, is displayed in a glassed boat-house in the town, it was a gift from the Norwegian government. Nearby was a replica of a Norwegian stave church; the town appears in the television series The Almighty Johnsons, where some of its descendants are the reincarnations of Norse gods.