New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Western New York
Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York. It includes the cities of Buffalo, Niagara Falls, the surrounding suburbs, as well as the outlying rural areas of the Great Lakes lowlands, the Genesee Valley, the Southern Tier; the historic beginnings of the region can be defined by its original eastern boundary of Preemption Line, created by the December 16, 1786 political settlement between the states of New York and Massachusetts, both of which claimed political dominion over the land. This eastern boundary shifted because of changing county borders in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Western New York consists of 17 western counties in New York State: Allegany, Chautauqua, Erie, Livingston, Niagara, Orleans, Seneca, Wayne and Yates, with a land area of 11,764 square miles. Western New York includes the area of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase; the area is served by Buffalo and Rochester media markets, although there is considerable overlap between these two markets, as well as other American and Canadian media markets.
In terms of the combined statistical areas used by the United States Census Bureau, Western New York consists of the Buffalo-Cheektowaga, NY area, the Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY area, the Elmira-Corning, NY area. Western New York is in some contexts considered a sub-region of "Upstate New York". While the term includes both the Buffalo and Rochester metropolitan areas "Western New York" describes only the Buffalo-Niagara region, with Greater Rochester being classified as part of the Finger Lakes Region. Western New York has four "sub-regions". One "sub-region" is the Greater Niagara Region, comprising Niagara and Wyoming counties; the second "sub-region" is the Genesee Region. This “sub-region” includes Monroe, Wayne, Orleans and Yates counties; these two sub-regions share Wyoming County. A further subset of the Genesee Region is the GLOW Counties, a collection of rural counties that includes Genesee, Livingston and Orleans Counties; the mountainous southern regions of Chautauqua and Allegany counties make up a third "sub-region" known as Chautauqua–Allegheny Region.
This portion of Western New York takes up most of the western New York counties along the New York–Pennsylvania border. The fourth region is the western Finger Lakes Region, Seneca, Steuben and Chemung counties. A large portion of the Finger Lakes Region is not part of Western New York, but rather Central New York; the first three sub-regions are included in Western New York, while the western Finger Lakes region are included in the Finger Lakes region, though it is at times considered part of Western New York. If it were counted as a single area, the population of Western New York would number just over 2.6 million, would rank as the 24th largest metropolitan area of the United States, between the Pittsburgh metropolitan area and the Sacramento, California metropolitan area. However, the U. S. Census Bureau has classified the Rochester areas as two different metropolitan areas. If it were counted as a state, the population of Western New York would rank as the 37th most populated state in the United States.
Allegany County, population 48,357 Cattaraugus County, population 79,458 Chautauqua County, population 133,539 Chemung County, population 88,911 Erie County, population 919,086 Genesee County, population 59,977 Livingston County, population 64,810 Monroe County, population 747,813 Niagara County, population 215,124 Ontario County, population 108,519 Orleans County, population 42,836 Schuyler County, population 18,514 Seneca County, population 35,305 Steuben County, population 99,063 Wayne County, population 92,962 Wyoming County, population 41,892 Yates County, population 25,344 The following cities are found in the 17 western counties: Batavia, Canandaigua, Dunkirk, Geneva, Lackawanna, Niagara Falls, North Tonawanda, Rochester, Tonawanda. Hornell; the following villages are found in the 17 western counties: Addison, Albion, Alexander, Allegany, Andover, Angola, Arkport, Avoca, Barker, Belmont, Bemus Point, Blasdell, Bolivar, Brocton, Caledonia, Canisteo, Castile, Celoron, Cherry Creek, Clarence, Clifton Springs, Cohocton, Cuba, Delevan, Dresden, Dunkirk, East Aurora, East Randolph, East Rochester, Elba, Elmira Heights, Falconer, Forestville, Fredonia, Geneseo, Hamburg, Hilton, Honeoye Falls, Interlaken, Lakewood, Lancaster, Le Roy, Lewiston, Limestone, Little Valley, Lodi, Lyons, Macedon, Mayville, Middleport, Montour Falls, Mount Morris, Newark, North Collins, North Hornell, North Tonawanda, Oakfield, Orchard Park, Painted Post, Panama, Penn Yan, Perrysburg, Pike, Portville, Red Creek, Riverside, Rushville
Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. Indiana University has a combined student body of more than 110,000 students, which includes 46,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University Bloomington campus. Indiana University has a total of nine different campuses; each one of the campuses is an four-year degree-granting institution. The flagship campus of Indiana University is located in Bloomington. Indiana University Bloomington is the location of Indiana University; the Bloomington campus is home to numerous premier Indiana University schools, including the College of Arts and Sciences, the Jacobs School of Music, an extension of the Indiana University School of Medicine the School of Informatics and Engineering, which includes the former School of Library and Information Science, School of Optometry, the O'Neil School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Kelley School of Business.
In addition to its flagship campus, Indiana University comprises seven lesser extensions throughout Indiana: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is an urban expansion, co-locating degree programs of Indiana University alongside those of Purdue University and extending public higher education to the capitol. Located just west of downtown Indianapolis, it is the central location of several Indiana University schools, including the School of Medicine, the IU School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, the School of Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the School of Social Work, the Indiana University administrated Herron School of Art and Design, the Robert H. McKinney School of Law. Indiana University East is located in Richmond. Indiana University Fort Wayne, the system's newest campus, is located in Fort Wayne, it was established in 2018 after the dissolution of the former entity Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne, an extension similar to that of IUPUI under the administration of Purdue University.
IU Fort Wayne took over IPFW's academic programs in health sciences, with all other IPFW academic programs taken over by the new entity, Purdue University Fort Wayne. Indiana University Kokomo is located in Kokomo. Indiana University Northwest is located in Gary. Indiana University South Bend is located in South Bend. Indiana University Southeast is located in New Albany. Indiana University – Purdue University Columbus is located in Columbus. According to the National Association of College and University Business Officers, the value of the endowment of the Indiana University and affiliated foundations in 2016 is over $1.986 billion. The annual budget across all campuses totals over $3 Billion; the Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation is a not-for-profit agency that assists IU faculty and researchers in realizing the commercial potential of their discoveries. Since 1997, university clients have been responsible for more than 1,800 inventions, nearly 500 patents, 38 start-up companies.
In the 2016 Fiscal Year alone, the IURTC was issued 53 U. S. patents and 112 global patents. Richard G. Johnson - Acting Science Adviser to Ronald Reagan, physics professor at University of Bern, manager of the Space Sciences Laboratory of University of California - Berkeley. Trigger Alpert - Jazz bassist for the Glenn Miller Orchestra Joshua Bell - Grammy award-winning violinist and conductor Hoagy Carmichael - Composer, singer and bandleader John T. Chambers - Chairman and former CEO of Cisco Systems Nicole Chevalier - Operatic soprano Alton Dorian Clark - Hip-hop recording artist and record producer Pamela Coburn, soprano Suzanne Collins - Author of The Underland Chronicles and The Hunger Games trilogy Mark Cuban - Owner of the NBA's Dallas Mavericks John Cynn - Professional Poker Player. 2018 World Series of Poker Champion. Mary Czerwinski - Computer scientist at Microsoft Research and Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery Thomas P. Dooley - author and research scientist Judith Lynn Ferguson, author of 65 cookery related books, cookery editor of Woman's Realm women's magazine, Head of Diploma Course at Le Cordon Bleu- London Matt Fields - Fashion Designer - Founder of street wear brand Dope Couture George Goehl - Community organizer and executive director of People's Action Michael D. Higgins - 9th President of Ireland Lissa Hunter - Artist Jamie Hyneman - Host of the television series MythBusters Narendra Jadhav - Economist and writer Jason Jordan - Professional wrestler Nina Kasniunas - Political scientist and professor E.
W. Kelley - Businessman. News Jay Schottenstein - CEO of Schottenstein Stores Kyle Schwarber - Professional baseball player Tavis Smiley - Host of The Tavis Smiley Show. S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia Brad Stephens - former Austra
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time. In particular, it describes the processes of mountain building, the growth and behavior of the strong, old cores of continents known as cratons, the ways in which the rigid plates that constitute the Earth's outer shell interact with each other. Tectonics provides a framework for understanding the earthquake and volcanic belts that directly affect much of the global population. Tectonic studies are important as guides for economic geologists searching for fossil fuels and ore deposits of metallic and nonmetallic resources. An understanding of tectonic principles is essential to geomorphologists to explain erosion patterns and other Earth surface features. Extensional tectonics is associated with the stretching and thinning of the crust or the lithosphere; this type of tectonics is found at divergent plate boundaries, in continental rifts and after a period of continental collision caused by the lateral spreading of the thickened crust formed, at releasing bends in strike-slip faults, in back-arc basins, on the continental end of passive margin sequences where a detachment layer is present.
Thrust tectonics is associated with the lithosphere. This type of tectonics is found at zones of continental collision, at restraining bends in strike-slip faults, at the oceanward part of passive margin sequences where a detachment layer is present. Strike-slip tectonics is associated with the relative lateral movement of parts of the crust or the lithosphere; this type of tectonics is found along oceanic and continental transform faults which connect offset segments of mid-ocean ridges. Strike-slip tectonics occurs at lateral offsets in extensional and thrust fault systems. In areas involved with plate collisions strike-slip deformation occurs in the over-riding plate in zones of oblique collision and accommodates deformation in the foreland to a collisional belt. In plate tectonics the outermost part of the Earth – the crust and uppermost mantle – are viewed as acting as a single mechanical layer, the lithosphere; the lithosphere is divided into separate "plates" that move relative to each other on the underlying weak asthenosphere in a process driven by the continuous loss of heat from the Earth's interior.
There are three main types of plate boundaries: divergent, where plates move apart from each other and new lithosphere is formed in the process of sea-floor spreading. Convergent and transform boundaries form the largest structural discontinuities in the lithosphere and are responsible for most of the world's major earthquakes. Convergent and divergent boundaries are the site of most of the world's volcanoes, such as around the Pacific Ring of Fire. Most of the deformation in the lithosphere is related to the interaction between plates, either directly or indirectly. Salt tectonics is concerned with the structural geometries and deformation processes associated with the presence of significant thicknesses of rock salt within a sequence of rocks; this is due both to the low density of salt, which does not increase with burial, its low strength. Neotectonics is the study of the motions and deformations of the Earth's crust that are current or recent in geological time; the term may refer to the motions and deformations themselves.
The corresponding time frame is referred to as the neotectonic period. Accordingly, the preceding time is referred to as palaeotectonic period. Tectonophysics is the study of the physical processes associated with deformation of the crust and mantle from the scale of individual mineral grains up to that of tectonic plates. Seismotectonics is the study of the relationship between earthquakes, active tectonics, individual faults in a region, it seeks to understand which faults are responsible for seismic activity in an area by analysing a combination of regional tectonics, recent instrumentally recorded events, accounts of historical earthquakes, geomorphological evidence. This information can be used to quantify the seismic hazard of an area. Techniques used in the analysis of tectonics on Earth have been applied to the study of the planets and their moons. Tectonophysics Seismology UNESCO world heritage site Glarus Thrust Volcanology Edward A. Keller Active Tectonics: Earthquakes and Landscape Prentice Hall.
A. van der S. Marshak. Earth Structure – An Introduction to Structural Geology and Tectonics. 2nd edition. New York: W. W. Norton. P. 656. ISBN 0-393-92467-X; the Origin and the Mechanics of the Forces Responsible for Tectonic Plate Movements The Paleomap Project
Erie County, New York
Erie County is a populated county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,040; the county seat is Buffalo. The county's name comes from Lake Erie, it was named by European colonists for the regional Iroquoian language-speaking Erie tribe of Native Americans, who lived south and east of the lake before 1654. Since the late 20th century, Erie County has been considered part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area; the county's southern part is known as the Southtowns. When counties were established by the English colonial government in the Province of New York in 1683, present-day Erie County was part of Indian territory occupied by Iroquoian-speaking peoples, it was administered as part of New York colony. Significant European-American settlement did not begin until after the United States had gained independence with the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, they forced the Iroquois to cede most of their lands. About 1800 the Holland Land Company, formed by Americans and Dutch associates, extinguished Indian claims by purchasing the land from New York, acquired the title to the territory of what are today the eight western-most counties of New York, surveyed their holdings, established towns, began selling lots to individuals.
The state was eager to have farms and businesses developed. At this time, all of western New York was included in Ontario County; as the population increased, the state legislature created Genesee County in 1802 out of part of Ontario County. In 1808, Niagara County was created out of Genesee County. In 1821, Erie County was created out of Niagara County, encompassing all the land between Tonawanda Creek and Cattaraugus Creek; the first towns formed in present-day Erie County were the Town of Willink. Clarence comprised the northern portion of Erie county, Willink the southern part. Clarence is still a distinct town, but Willink was subdivided into other towns; when Erie County was established in 1821, it consisted of the towns of Amherst, Boston, Collins, Eden, Hamburg, Holland and Wales. The county has a number of houses and other properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Erie County, New York. In 1861, the hamlet of Town Line, in the Town of Lancaster, voted 85 to 40 to secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America.
It sent five soldiers for the Confederate Army, did not rejoin the Union until January 1946. The Town Line Fire Department supports the slogan "Last of the Rebels", due to their Confederate ties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,227 square miles, of which 1,043 square miles is land and 184 square miles is water. Erie County is in the western portion of upstate New York, bordering on the lake of the same name. Part of the industrial area that has included Buffalo, it is the most populous county in upstate New York outside of the New York City metropolitan area; the county lies on the international border between the United States and Canada, bordering the Province of Ontario. The northern border of the county is Tonawanda Creek. Part of the southern border is Cattaraugus Creek. Other major streams include Buffalo Creek, Cayuga Creek, Cazenovia Creek, Scajaquada Creek, Eighteen Mile Creek, Ellicott Creek; the county's northern half, including Buffalo and its suburbs, is flat and rises up from the lake.
The southern half, known as the Southtowns, is much hillier. It has the northwesternmost foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; the highest elevation in the county is a hill in the Town of Sardinia that tops out at around 1,940 feet above sea level. The lowest ground is about 560 feet, on Grand Island at the Niagara River; the Onondaga Escarpment runs through the northern part of Erie County. Niagara County - north Genesee County - northeast Wyoming County - southeast Cattaraugus County - south Chautauqua County - southwest Niagara Region, Canada - northwest Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site As of the census of 2010, there were 919,040 people residing in the county; the population density was 910 people per square mile. There were 415,868 housing units at an average density of 398 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.18% White, 13.00% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 1.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
3.27 % of the population were Latino of any race. 19.6% were of German, 17.2% Polish, 14.9% Italian, 11.7% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 91.1 % spoke 3.0 % Spanish and 1.6 % Polish as their first language. There were 380,873 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.10% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,567, the median income for a family was $49,490.
Males had a median income of $38,703 versu
Disc golf is a flying disc sport in which players throw a disc at a target. It is played on a course of 9 or 18 holes. Players complete a hole by throwing a disc from a tee area toward a target, throwing again from the landing position of the disc until the target is reached; the number of throws a player uses to reach each target are tallied, players seek to complete each hole, the course, in the lowest number of total throws. The game is played in about 40 countries and there are over 103,000 active members of the PDGA worldwide. Disc golf was first invented in the early 1900s; the first game was held in Bladworth, Canada in 1926. Ronald Gibson and a group of his Bladworth Elementary School buddies played a game of throwing tin lids into 4 foot wide circles drawn into sandy patches on their school grounds, they called the game Tin Lid Golf and played on a regular basis. However, after they grew older and went their separate ways, the game came to an end, it was not until the 1970s that modern disc golf would be introduced to Canadians at the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto and Vancouver, BC.
Modern disc golf started in the early 1960s, but there is debate over who came up with the idea first. The consensus is. Students at Rice University in Houston, for example, held tournaments with trees as targets as early as 1964, in the early 1960s, players in Pendleton King Park in Augusta, Georgia would toss Frisbees into 50-gallon barrel trash cans designated as targets. In 1968 Frisbee Golf was played in Alameda Park in Santa Barbara, California by teenagers in the Anacapa and Sola street areas. Gazebos, water fountains, lamp posts, trees were all part of the course; this took place for several years and an Alameda Park collectors edition disc still exists, though rare, as few were made. Clifford Towne from this group went on to hold a National Time Aloft record. Two early coordinators of the sport are George Sappenfield and Kevin Donnelly, through similar backgrounds and the help of Ed Headrick at Wham-O, were able to individually spread the sport in their California cities. Donnelly began playing a form of Frisbee golf in 1959 called Street Frisbee Golf.
In 1961, while a recreation leader and recreation supervisor for the City of Newport Beach, California, he formulated and began organizing Frisbee golf tournaments at nine of the city's playgrounds he supervised. This culminated in 1965 with a documented, Wham-O sponsored, citywide Frisbee golf tournament spearheaded by "Steady" Ed Headrick at Wham-O; this publicized tournament included hula hoops as holes, with published rules, hole lengths and prizes. In 1965, Sappenfield was a recreation counselor during a summer break from college during which, he set up an object course for his children to play on; when he finished college in 1968, Sappenfield became the Parks and Recreation supervisor for Conejo Recreation and Park District in Thousand Oaks, California. Sappenfield planned a disc golf tournament as part of a recreation project and contacted Wham-O Manufacturing to ask them for help with the event. Wham-O supplied Frisbees for throwing, hula hoops for use as targets. Before 1973 and the invention of the disc golf target called the disc pole hole, there were only a few disc golf object courses in the U.
S. and Canada. Despite having never heard of the International Frisbee Association that Ed Headrick and Wham-O had put together, or seeing a copy of the IFA Newsletter, Jim Palmeri, his brother, a small group of people from Rochester, NY, had been playing disc golf as a competitive sport on a regular basis since August 1970, including tournaments and weekly league play. By 1973, they had promoted two City of Rochester Disc Frisbee Championship events which featured disc golf as the main event. In Canada, beginning in 1970, Ken Westerfield and Jim Kenner played Frisbee golf daily on an 18 object hole course they designed at Queen's Park in downtown Toronto and presented Canada's first disc golf competitions. In California, the Berkeley Frisbee Group established a standardized 18 hole object course on the Berkeley campus in 1970. University of Michigan Nichols Arboretum, Ann Arbor had an object Frisbee golf course designed in the early 1970s. Wham-O's $50,000 Disc Golf Tournament was significant turning point for disc golf.
Held in Huntington Beach, California. The tournament was groundbreaking and foremost because of the cash involved, its massive payout right in the title, but because the competitors had to qualify for an invitation. 72 qualifying events were established around the country, bringing in the best disc golfers from across the United States. "Steady Ed" Headrick and Dave Dunipace are two inventors and players who impacted how disc golf is played. In 1976 Headrick formalized the rules of the sport, founded the Disc Golf Association, the Professional Disc Golf Association, the Recreational Disc Golf Association and invented the first formal disc golf target with chains and a basket. Dave Dunipace invented the modern golf disc in 1983, with the revolutionary change of adding a beveled rim, giving the disc a greater distance and accuracy. Dave was one of the founders of a well-known disc manufacturer. In 1982 Ed Headrick turned over control of the PDGA to the players and Ted Smethers to be run independently and to officiate the standard rules of play for the sport.
"Steady Ed" Headrick began thinking about the sport dur
Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane, but including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years; the energy that the plants obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating and electricity generation, it is used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is called a non-renewable resource. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: thermogenic.
Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas; the World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas; the by-products of this processing include: ethane, butanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is informally referred to as "gas" when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline in North America, where the term gasoline is shortened in colloquial usage to gas. Natural gas was discovered accidentally in ancient China, as it resulted from the drilling for brines.
Natural gas was first used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to boil salt water to extract the salt, in the Ziliujing District of Sichuan; the discovery and identification of natural gas in the Americas happened in 1626. In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well at Fredonia, New York, United States, which led to the formation of the Fredonia Gas Light Company; the state of Philadelphia created the first municipally owned natural gas distribution venture in 1836. By 2009, 66 000 km³ had been used out of the total 850 000 km³ of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3400 km³ of gas per year, the total estimated remaining economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250 years at current consumption rates. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in recoverable reserves lasting less as few as 80 to 100 years.
In the 19th century, natural gas was obtained as a by-product of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces. Unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was prohibitively expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fields. Today, unwanted gas associated with oil extraction is returned to the reservoir with'injection' wells while awaiting a possible future market or to repressurize the formation, which can enhance extraction rates from other wells. In regions with a high natural gas demand, pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer. In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids technologies.
GTL technologies can convert natural gas into liquids products such as diesel or jet fuel. A variety of GTL technologies have been developed, including Fischer–Tropsch, methanol to gasoline and syngas to gasoline plus. F–T produces a synthetic crude that can be further refined into finished products, while MTG can produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas. STG+ can produce drop-in gasoline, jet fuel and aromatic chemicals directly from natural gas via a single-loop process. In 2011, Royal Dutch Shell's 140,000 barrels per day F–T plant went into operation in Qatar. Natural gas can be "associated", or "non-associated", is found in coal beds, it sometimes contains a significant amount of ethane, propane and pentane—heavier hydrocarbons removed for commercial use prior to the methane being sold as a consumer fuel or chemical plant feedstock. Non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide must be removed before the natural gas can be transported. Natural gas extracted from oil wells is called casinghead gas (whether or not produced up the a