Eth is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic and Elfdalian. It was used in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages but was subsequently replaced with dh and d, it is transliterated as d. The lowercase version has been adopted to represent a voiced dental fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet. In Old English, ð was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English dental fricative phoneme /θ/ or its allophone /ð/, which exist in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now spelled "th". Unlike the runic letter þ, ð is a modified Roman letter. Ð was not found in the earliest records of Old English. A study of Mercian royal diplomas found that ð began to emerge in the early 8th century, with ð becoming preferred by the 780s. Another source indicates that the letter is "derived from Irish writing"; the lowercase version has retained the curved shape of a medieval scribe's d, which d itself in general has not. Ð was used throughout the Anglo-Saxon era but fell out of use in Middle English disappearing altogether by 1300.
In Icelandic, ð represents a voiced dental fricative, the same as the th in English that, but it never appears as the first letter of a word, where þ is used in its stead. The name of the letter is pronounced in isolation as and therefore with a voiceless rather than voiced fricative. In Faroese, ð is not assigned to any particular phoneme and appears for etymological reasons. In the Icelandic and Faroese alphabets, ð follows d. In Olav Jakobsen Høyem's version of Nynorsk based on Trøndersk, ð was always silent and was introduced for etymological reasons. Ð has been used by some in written Welsh to represent /ð/, represented as dd. U+1D9E ᶞ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL ETH is used in phonetic transcription. U+1D06 ᴆ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL ETH is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet; the Faroese and Icelandic keyboard layouts have a dedicated button for eth. On Microsoft Windows, eth can be typed using the alt code Alt+ for lowercase or Alt+ for uppercase, or by typing AltGr+d using the US International keyboard layout.
On macOS, eth can be typed by activating the ABC Extended keyboard layout and typing ⌥ Option+D. Using the compose key, popular on Linux, eth can be typed by typing Compose D H for lowercase or Compose ⇧ Shift+D ⇧ Shift+H for capital letters. On Chrome OS, holding Alt Gr and pressing the D key will result in ð being written. Holding shift or putting Caps Lock on will result in Ð. For text-messaging the letter Ð is available on a standard Icelandic keyboard, or may be available on the long-press for'D' when the Icelandic keyboard is downloaded if not in use. Substituting the three letters "eth" is an acceptable alternative, or workaround; the letter ð is sometimes used in mathematics and engineering textbooks as a symbol for a spin-weighted partial derivative. This operator gives rise to spin-weighted spherical harmonics. A capital eth is used as the currency symbol for Dogecoin. Thorn D with stroke African D Insular script Ladefoged, Peter; the Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
Pétursson, Magnus, "Étude de la réalisation des consonnes islandaises þ, ð, s, dans la prononciation d'un sujet islandais à partir de la radiocinématographie", Phonetica, 33: 203–216, doi:10.1159/000259344 "Thorn and eth: how to get them right", Briem, archived from the original on 2019-07-26, retrieved 2010-08-22 "Älvdalsk ortografi", Förslag till en enhetlig stavning för älvdalska, February 2007, archived from the original on February 6, 2007CS1 maint: unfit url
Nikita Mikhailovskii is a Russian professional basketball player for Avtodor Saratov of the VTB United League. On 8 May 2019, Mikhailovskii was named VTB United League Young Player of the Year as the league's top player under age 22. In seven games at the 2018 Albert Schweitzer Tournament in Germany, Mikhailovskii averaged 17.3 points, 7.1 rebounds, 1.7 steals per game for the Russian national under-18 team, who finished in fourth place, made the All-Tournament Team. Mikhailovskii was named to the All-Star Five at the 2018 FIBA Europe Under-18 Championship in Riga, Latvia after averaging 16.3 points, 7.4 rebounds and 2.1 assists per game and leading Russia to fourth place. He played for the Russian under-19 team at the 2019 FIBA Under-19 World Cup in Greece. On 30 June 2019, Mikhailovskii recorded 20 points, 13 rebounds, 12 assists in an 83–75 win over Greece, it was the first triple-double at the tournament since Dario Šarić in 2013. VTB United League profile Avtodor Saratov profile
Dipu Moni is a Bangladeshi politician, serving Bangladesh Government as the Minister of Education of Bangladesh since January 2019. She served Bangladesh as Foreign Minister of Bangladesh from 2009 to 2013, she was appointed the first female Foreign Minister on 6 January 2009 after a landslide victory for the Awami League-led Grand Alliance on 29 December 2008. Moni is a daughter of MA Wadud, a founding member of the Bangladesh Awami League and known for his role in the Language Movement and as the first Council-elected General Secretary of the East Pakistan Chhatra League. Dipu Moni passed HSC from Dhaka. Moni studied MBBS at Hospital and LLB at Bangladesh National University, she earned Master of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, earned Master of Laws at the University of London as an external student. She had completed a course on Conflict Resolutions from Harvard University, she is a lawyer of Bangladesh Supreme Court. Moni was the Secretary for Women's Affairs and a Member of the Sub‐Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Bangladesh Awami League before her induction to the cabinet.
She represented Chandpur‐3 as a Member of Bangladesh Parliament. She worked for women's rights and entitlements, health legislation, health policy and management, health financing, strategic planning, health and human rights under the Constitution and law in Bangladesh's economic and social development programmes and foreign policy issues of the region and globally; as a Minister of Foreign Affairs she has represented her government's position to the Cabinet Ministers and public representatives of Asia and the US, Ambassadors and Senior Representatives of International Institutions. As the foreign minister she sought an apology for the 1971 Bangladesh Genocide from Pakistan, she tried to bring the absconding killers of president Sheikh Mujib. She is the present Awami League Joint General Secretary, she was elected chairman of Asian University for Women in 2016. She is the chairperson of the parliamentary committee on foreign affairs; as the minister of foreign affairs, Moni was criticized by different news media because of her frequent overseas visits.
According to some news reports, she made 187 foreign trips and 600 days of overseas stay in four and a half years. In response, Moni said she went abroad every time with the consent of the prime minister, who gave her approval after studying the pros and cons of every visit, she made 114 foreign tours, including 36 with the president and the prime minister and claimed that the number of her bilateral visits was 62, not 17 as reported. Moni is married to Tawfique Nawaz, an Oxbridge educated Senior Advocate of the Bangladesh Supreme Court, they have one son, Tawquir Rashaad Nawaz and a daughter, Tani Deepavali Nawaz