Three-point field goal
A three-point field goal is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw; the distance from the basket to the three-point line varies by competition level: in the National Basketball Association the arc is 23 feet 9 inches from the center of the basket. In the NBA and FIBA/WNBA, the three-point line becomes parallel to each sideline at the points where the arc is 3 feet from each sideline. In the NCAA the arc is continuous for 180° around the basket. There are more variations. In 3x3, a FIBA-sanctioned variant of the half-court 3-on-3 game, the same line exists, but shots from behind it are only worth 2 points with all other shots worth 1 point; the three-point line was first tested at the collegiate level in 1945, with a 21-foot line, in a game between Columbia and Fordham, but it was not kept as a rule.
There was another one-game experiment in 1958, this time with a 23-foot line, in a game between St. Francis and Siena. In 1961, Boston University and Dartmouth played one game with an experimental rule that counted all field goals as three points. At the direction of Abe Saperstein, the American Basketball League became the first basketball league to institute the rule in 1961, its three-point line was a radius of 25 feet from the baskets, except along the sides. The Eastern Professional Basketball League followed in its 1963–64 season; the three-point shot became popularized by the American Basketball Association, introduced in its inaugural 1967–68 season. ABA commissioner George Mikan stated the three-pointer "would give the smaller player a chance to score and open up the defense to make the game more enjoyable for the fans." During the 1970s, the ABA used the three-point shot, along with the slam dunk, as a marketing tool to compete with the NBA. Three years in June 1979, the NBA adopted the three-point line for a one-year trial for the 1979–80 season, despite the view of many that it was a gimmick.
Chris Ford of the Boston Celtics is credited with making the first three-point shot in NBA history on October 12, 1979. Rick Barry of the Houston Rockets, in his final season made one in the same game, Kevin Grevey of the Washington Bullets made one that Friday night as well; the sport's international governing body, FIBA, introduced the three-point line in 1984, at 6.25 m, it made its Olympic debut in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. The NCAA's Southern Conference became the first collegiate conference to use the three-point rule, adopting a 22-foot line for the 1980–81 season. Ronnie Carr of Western Carolina was the first to score a three-point field goal in college basketball history on November 29, 1980. Over the following five years, NCAA conferences differed in their use of the rule and distance required for a three-pointer; the line was as close as 17 ft 9 in in the Atlantic Coast Conference, as far away as 22 ft in the Big Sky. Used only in conference play for several years, it was adopted by the NCAA in April 1986 for the 1986–87 season at 19 ft 9 in and was first used in the NCAA Tournament in March 1987.
The NCAA adopted the three-pointer in women's basketball on an experimental basis for that season at the same distance, made its use mandatory beginning in 1987–88. In 2007, the NCAA lengthened the men's distance by a foot to 20 ft 9 in, effective with the 2008–09 season, the women's line was moved to match the men's in 2011–12. American high schools, along with elementary and middle schools, adopted a 19 ft 9 in line nationally in 1987, a year after the NCAA; the NCAA used the FIBA three-point line in the National Invitation Tournament in 2018. For three seasons beginning in 1994–95, the NBA attempted to address decreased scoring by shortening the distance of the line from 23 ft 9 in to a uniform 22 ft around the basket. From the 1997–98 season on, the NBA reverted the line to its original distance of 23 ft 9 in. Ray Allen is the NBA all-time leader in career made three-pointers with 2,973. In 2008, FIBA announced that the distance would be increased by 50 cm to 6.75 m, with the change being phased in beginning in October 2010.
In December 2012, the WNBA announced that it would be using the FIBA distance, starting in 2013. The NBA has discussed adding a four-point line, according to president Rod Thorn. In the NBA, three-point field goals became more frequent along the years by mid 2015 onward; the increase in latter years has been attributed to NBA player Stephen Curry, credited with revolutionizing the game by inspiring teams to employ the three-point shot as part of their winning strategy. The 1979–80 season had an average 0.8 three-point goals per game and 2.8 attempts. The 1989–90 season had an average 2.2 three-point goals per game and 6.6 attempts. The 1999–2000 season had an average 4.8 three-point goals
Milan is a village in Rock Island County, United States. The population was 5,099 at the 2010 census; the village is located near the Quad Cities of Iowa. The village is on the Rock River in northwest Illinois, about 4 miles upstream of its outlet to the Mississippi; the village is the site of the south campsites which comprised the Sauk and Fox village of Saukenuk, once the second-largest Native American inhabitation in North America. Platted along the right-of-way for the Hennepin Canal, in 1837, the village site was called in land speculation papers "Hampton". "Hampton's" land speculators, George Camden and Franklin Vandruff, sold land along the Rock River, along a north-west flowing creek, re-routed north into the Rock's main channel. Along Mill Creek, the industries of wool-carding and "pearl" button-making helped rename the village by 1841 as Camden Mills; the village has "sister cities" in Missouri and Michigan. Milan is located at 41°26′47″N 90°33′56″W. According to the 2010 census, Milan has a total area of 6.463 square miles, of which 5.87 square miles is land and 0.593 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 5,348 people, 2,310 households, 1,457 families residing in the village. The population density was 965.9 people per square mile. There were 2,378 housing units at an average density of 429.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 92.46% White, 4.32% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.08% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.92% of the population. There were 2,310 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.88. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $34,556, the median income for a family was $43,802. Males had a median income of $31,875 versus $22,747 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,608. About 6.2% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.9% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. Milan is home to the John Deere North American Parts Distribution Center, one of the largest warehouses in the world. Before ceasing operations in 2003, Eagle Food Centers was based out of Milan. Ken Bowman, pro football center, winner of three NFL championships with Green Bay Packers, was born in Milan. Ethan Happ, Wisconsin Badgers basketball player Ralph Fletcher Seymour, book publisher, author Joe Frisco, jazz dancer and comic Therese Anne Fowler, television producer Official Website
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Pete Newell Big Man Award
The Pete Newell Big Man Award has been awarded by the National Association of Basketball Coaches since 2000. It is presented to the top low-post player each season; the award is named after Pete Newell, the coach who ran the Pete Newell Big Man Camp for low-post players from 1976 until his death in 2008. So far, no player has won the award more than once. Only three schools, Duke and Purdue have produced more than one winner. Utah's winners are the only two to have been born outside the U. S.—Andrew Bogut in Australia and Jakob Pöltl in Austria. Official site
Sporting News is a digital sports media owned by Perform Group, a global sports content and media company. Sporting News The Sporting News, was established in 1886 as a weekly U. S. magazine. It became the dominant American publication covering baseball, acquiring the nickname "The Bible of Baseball." It is now a digital-only publication providing essential coverage of all major sports, with editions in the U. S. Canada and Japan. March 17, 1886: The Sporting News, founded in St. Louis by Alfred H. Spink, a director of the St. Louis Browns baseball team, publishes its first edition; the weekly newspaper sells for 5 cents. Baseball, horse racing and professional wrestling received the most coverage in the first issue. Meanwhile, the sporting weeklies Clipper and Sporting Life were based in New Philadelphia. By World War I, TSN would be the only national baseball newspaper. 1901: The American League, another rival to baseball's National League, begins play. TSN was its founder, Ban Johnson. Both parties advocated cleaning up the sport, in particular ridding it of liquor sales and assaults on umpires.
1903: TSN editor Arthur Flanner helps draft the National Agreement, a document that brought a truce between the AL and NL and helped bring about the modern World Series. 1904: New York photographer Charles Conlon begins taking portraits of major league players as they passed through the city's three ballparks: the Polo Grounds, Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field. His images, many of which were featured in TSN have become treasured symbols of baseball's past. 1936: TSN names its first major league Sporting News Player of the Year Award, Carl Hubbell of the New York Giants. It is the oldest and most prestigious award given to the single player in MLB who had the most outstanding season. To this day, it remains voted on by MLB players. 1942: After decades of being intertwined with baseball, in-season football coverage is added. 1946: TSN expands its football coverage with an eight-page tabloid publication titled The Quarterback. The tab is renamed the All-Sports News as coverage of other sports is added, including professional and college basketball and hockey.
1962: J. G. Taylor Spink dies, his son C. C. Johnson Spink takes over the publication. 1967: TSN publishes its first full-color photo, a cover image of Orioles star Frank Robinson. 1977: The Spink family sells TSN to Times Mirror in 1977.1981: C. C. Johnson Spink sells TSN to Tribune Co; that year, the Baseball Hall of Fame inaugurates the annual J. G. Taylor Spink Award, given to a media member. 1991: The Sporting News transitions to a glossy, full-color all-sports magazine. 1996: The Sporting News comes online, serving as a sports content provider for AOL. The following year, it launches sportingnews.com. 2000: Tribune Co. sells TSN to Vulcan Inc. headed by tech billionaire Paul Allen. The following year, the company acquired the One on One Sports radio network, renaming it Sporting News Radio. 2002: The Sporting News drops the The and becomes just Sporting News. Subsequent magazine covers reflect the change. 2006: Vulcan sells SN to Advance Media, which places the publication under the supervision of American City Business Journals.
2007: Sporting News begins its move from St. Louis, where it had been based since its founding, to ACBJ's headquarters in Charlotte, N. C; the publication leaves St. Louis for good in 2008, when it became a bi-weekly publication. 2012: After 126 years of printing ink on paper with weekly, biweekly or monthly frequency, SN publishes its final print edition and moves to digitally only publishing.2013: ACBJ enters into a joint venture with Perform Group. Perform, which owns Goal.com, Opta Sports and other international sports data properties, buys a 65 percent stake in the company. 2015: Perform buys ACBJ's 35 percent stake and assumes 100 percent ownership of SN. 2015-17: SN expands into international markets, establishing editions in Australia and Japan. In 1962, after J. G. Taylor Spink's death, Baseball Writers' Association of America instituted the J. G. Taylor Spink Award as the highest award given to its members. Spink was the first recipient. From 1968 to 2008, the magazine selected one or more individuals as Sportsman of the Year.
On four occasions, the award was shared by two recipients. Twice, in 1993 and 2000, the award went to a pair of sportsmen within the same organization. In 1999, the honor was given to a whole team. No winner was chosen in 1987. On December 18, 2007, the magazine announced New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady as 2007 Sportsman of the Year, making Brady the first to repeat as a recipient of individual honors. Mark McGwire of the St. Louis Cardinals was honored twice, but shared his second award with Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs. In 2009, the award was replaced by two awards: "Pro Athlete of the Year" and "College Athlete of the Year"; these in turn were replaced by a singular "Athlete of the Year" award starting in 2011. 2009 – Mariano Rivera, New York Yankees 2010 – Roy Halladay, Philadelphia Phillies 2009 – Colt McCoy, Texas football 2010 – Kyle Singler, Duke men's basketball Beginning in 2011, the awards were merged back into a singular selection, Athlete of the Year. 2011 – Aaron Rodgers, Green Bay Packers 2012 – LeBron James, Miami Heat SN sponsors its own annual Team, Pitcher, Reliever, Comeback Player and Executive of the Year awards.
Many fans once held the newspaper's baseball awards at equal or higher esteem than those of the Baseball Writers' Association of America. Prior to 2005, the SN Comeback Player Award was recognized as the principal award of its type, as MLB did not give such an award until that year; the Sporting News Most Valuable Player Award (
2016–17 Big Ten Conference men's basketball season
The 2016–17 Big Ten men's basketball season began with practices in October 2016, followed by the start of the 2016–17 NCAA Division I men's basketball season in November. The Conference held its preseason media day on October 13 in Washington, D. C; the season began on November 11 and conference play started on December 27. With a win over Indiana on February 28, 2017, Purdue clinched at least a share of the Big Ten regular season championship. With Wisconsin's loss on March 2, Purdue clinched an outright championship, their 23rd championship, the most in Big Ten history; the Big Ten Tournament was held from March 8 through March 12 at the Verizon Center in Washington, D. C, it was the first Big Ten Conference Tournament not held in Chicago. Michigan won the Big Ten Tournament over Wisconsin, becoming the first eight seed and lowest seeded team to win the conference tournament and marking their first win since their vacated win in the inaugural tournament; as a result, Michigan received the conference's automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament.
Purdue forward Caleb Swanigan was named Big Ten Player of the Year and a second team Academic All-America. Minnesota coach Richard Pitino was named Big Ten Coach of the Year. Swanigan earned consensus first team All-American recognition and Wisconsin forward Ethan Happ was a third team All-American by multiple media outlets. Seven Big Ten schools were invited to the NCAA Tournament, marking the seventh consecutive year the Big Ten had at least six teams in the Tournament. Northwestern received a bid for the first time in school history. Illinois and Iowa represented the conference in the National Invitation Tournament; the conference achieved an 8–7 record in the NCAA Tournament and a 3–3 record in the NIT, highlighted by Michigan and Wisconsin reaching the NCAA Sweet Sixteen and Illinois making the NIT quarterfinals. On December 15, 2015, Wisconsin coach Bo Ryan announced he would retire effective leaving associate head coach Greg Gard as interim head coach. Shortly after the regular season, Greg Gard had the interim tag removed as he was announced as the permanent head coach.
On March 20, 2016, the school fired head coach Eddie Jordan after three years at Rutgers. On March 19, the school hired former head coach at Stony Brook, as head coach. Notes: Year at school includes 2016–17 season. Overall and Big Ten records are from time at current school and are through the end the 2016–17 season. Turgeon's ACC conference record excluded since Maryland began Big Ten Conference play in 2014–15. Following the conclusion of the Big Ten Tournament, Illinois fired head coach John Groce. Assistant coach Jamall Walker will coach the team in the NIT. On October 11, 2016, a panel of conference media selected a 10-member preseason All-Big Ten Team and Player of the Year. Below is a table of notable preseason watch lists. Throughout the conference regular season, the Big Ten offices named one or two players of the week and one or two freshmen of the week each Monday; this table summarizes the head-to-head results between teams in conference play. Each team played 18 conference games, at least 1 against each opponent.
Caleb Swanigan was a unanimous first team All-American selection by Associated Press, USBWA, NABC and Sporting News. Ethan Happ was a third team selection by all but the NABC. On March 6, the Big Ten announced most of its conference awards. On March 7, the U. S. Basketball Writers Association released its 2016–17 Men's All-District Teams, based upon voting from its national membership. There were nine regions from coast to coast, a player and coach of the year were selected in each; the following lists all the Big Ten representatives selected within their respective regions. The National Association of Basketball Coaches announced their Division I All‐District teams on March 22, recognizing the nation’s best men’s collegiate basketball student-athletes. Selected and voted on by member coaches of the NABC, the selections on this list were eligible for NABC Coaches' All-America Honors; the following list represented the District 7 players chosen to the list. Nicolas Baer, Zak Irvin, Sanjay Lumpkin, Keita Bates-Diop, Payton Banks, Isaac Haas and Vitto Brown were nominees for the Allstate Good Works Team in honor of their volunteerism and civic involvement.
On January 6, 2017, Malcolm Hill, Peter Jok, Derrick Walton, Nigel Hayes and Bronson Koenig were included on the 30-man Senior CLASS Award candidate list. Melo Trimble was the only returning selection among the January 11 Wooden Award top 25, he was joined by Nigel Hayes and Caleb Swanigan. Happ and Swanigan were on the Robertson midseason 19-man watchlist. Trimble was named to the Cousy Award Final 10 on January 30. Swanigan and Miles Bridges were named Malone Award top 10 finalists on February 2. Happ was named as a Jabbar Award top 10 finalist the following day. Swanigan and Happ were named to both the February 9 Wooden Top 20 and the February 9 Naismith Top 30 lists. Swanigan and Moritz Wagner were named to the February 9, 2016–17 NCAA Division I Academic All-District Men's Basketball Team for District 5, placing them among the 40 finalists for the Academic All-American 15-man team. Hayes and Jok were named to the 10-man Senior CLASS Award finalist list. Swanigan was named a second team Academic All-America selection on March 2.
* denotes overtime period The winner of the Big Ten Tournament, received the conference's automatic bid to the 2017 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. Six other conference school received at-large bids to the Tournament: Purdue, Maryland, Northwestern and Michigan State. Three Big Ten teams received invitations to the National Invitation Tourna
Big Ten Conference
The Big Ten Conference is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States, based in suburban Chicago, Illinois. Despite its name, the conference consists of 14 members, they compete in the NCAA Division I. The conference includes the flagship public university in each of 11 states stretching from New Jersey to Nebraska, as well as two additional public land grant schools and a private university; the Big Ten Conference was established in 1895 when Purdue University president James H. Smart and representatives from the University of Chicago, University of Illinois, University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, Northwestern University, University of Wisconsin gathered at Chicago's Palmer House Hotel to set policies aimed at regulating intercollegiate athletics. In 1905, the conference was incorporated as the "Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives"; the conference is one of the nation's oldest, predating the founding of the NCAA by a decade, was one of the first collegiate conferences to sponsor men's basketball.
Big Ten member institutions are predominantly major flagship research universities with large financial endowments and strong academic reputations. Large student enrollment is a hallmark of Big Ten Universities, as 13 of the 14 members feature enrollments of 20,000 or more students. Northwestern University, the only full member with a total enrollment of fewer than 30,000 students, is the lone private university among Big Ten membership. Collectively, Big Ten universities educate more than 520,000 total students and have 5.7 million living alumni. Big Ten universities engage in $9.3 billion in funded research each year. Though the Big Ten existed for nearly a century as an assemblage of universities located in the Midwest, the conference's geographic footprint now stretches east to the Atlantic Ocean. Big Ten universities are members of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, an academic consortium. In 2014–2015, members generated more than $10 billion in research expenditures. Despite the conference's name, the Big Ten has grown to fourteen members, with the following universities accepting invitations to join: Pennsylvania State University in 1990, the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in 2011, both the University of Maryland and Rutgers University in 2014.
Johns Hopkins University was invited in 2012 to join the Big Ten as an associate member participating in men's lacrosse, in 2015, it was accepted as an associate member in women's lacrosse. Notre Dame joined the Big Ten on July 2017 as an associate member in men's ice hockey. Notes Notes The University of Chicago was a co-founder of the conference. Lake Forest College attended the original 1895 meeting that led to the formation of the conference, but never participated in athletics or any other activities. Full members Full members Sport Affiliate Other Conference Other Conference The Big Ten Conference sponsors championship competition in 14 men's and 14 women's NCAA sanctioned sports. Notes: * Notre Dame joined the Big Ten in the 2017–18 school year as an affiliate member in men's ice hockey, it continues to field its other sports in the ACC except in football where it will continue to compete as an independent. ° Johns Hopkins joined the Big Ten in 2014 as an affiliate member in men's lacrosse, with women's lacrosse to follow in 2016.
It continues to field its other sports in the NCAA Division III Centennial ConferenceMen's varsity sports not sponsored by the Big Ten Conference that are played by Big Ten schools: Notes: 1: Fencing is a coeducational team sport, although a few schools field only a women's team. Ohio State and Penn State, like most NCAA fencing schools, have coed teams. 2: Men's rowing, whether heavyweight or lightweight, is not governed by the NCAA, but instead by the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. Rutgers Men's Rowing was downgraded to Club status in 2008, but remains a member of the EARC. 3: Unlike rifle, pistol is not an NCAA-governed sport. It is coeducational. 4: Rifle is technically a men's sport, but men's, women's, coed teams all compete against each other. Ohio State fields a coed team. Women's varsity sports not sponsored by the Big Ten Conference that are played by Big Ten schools: Initiated and led by Purdue University President James Henry Smart, the presidents of University of Chicago, University of Illinois, University of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin, Northwestern University, Purdue University and Lake Forest College met in Chicago on January 11, 1895 to discuss the regulation and control of intercollegiate athletics.
The eligibility of student-athletes was one of the main topics of discussion. The Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives was founded at a second meeting on February 8, 1896. Lake Forest was not at the 1896 meeting that established the conference and was replaced by the University of Michigan. At the time, the organization was more known as the Western Conference, consisting of Illinois, Wisconsin, Chicago and Northwestern; the first reference to the conference as the Big Nine was in 1899 after Indiana had joined. Nebraska first petitioned to join the league in 1900 and again in 1911, but was turned away both times. In April 1907, Michigan was voted out of the conference for failing to adhere to league rules. Ohio State was added to the conference in 1912; the first known references to the conference as the Big Ten were in December 1916, when Michigan sought to rejoin th