Soldering is a process in which two or more items are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Unlike welding, soldering does not involve melting the work pieces. In brazing, the work piece metal does not melt, but the filler metal is one that melts at a higher temperature than in soldering. In the past, nearly all solders contained lead, but environmental and health concerns have dictated use of lead-free alloys for electronics and plumbing purposes. There is evidence. Soldering and brazing are thought to have originated early in the history of metal-working before 4000 BC. Sumerian swords from c. 3000 BC were assembled using hard soldering. Soldering was used to make jewelry items, cooking ware and tools, as well as other uses such as in assembling stained glass. Soldering is used in plumbing and metalwork from flashing to jewellery and musical instruments. Soldering provides reasonably permanent but reversible connections between copper pipes in plumbing systems as well as joints in sheet metal objects such as food cans, roof flashing, rain gutters and automobile radiators.

Jewelry components, machine tools and some refrigeration and plumbing components are assembled and repaired by the higher temperature silver soldering process. Small mechanical parts are soldered or brazed as well. Soldering is used to join lead came and copper foil in stained glass work. Electronic soldering connects electrical wiring and electronic components to printed circuit boards by utilizing a metallic alloy substance called solder; this special alloy is melted by using a soldering iron, a wave bath, or a specialized oven, as it joins conductors to PCBs, wires. Musical instruments brass and woodwind instruments, use a combination of soldering and brazing in their assembly. Brass bodies are soldered together, while keywork and braces are most brazed. Soldering filler materials are available in many different alloys for differing applications. In electronics assembly, the eutectic alloy with 63% tin and 37% lead has been the alloy of choice. Other alloys are used for plumbing, mechanical assembly, other applications.

Some examples of soft-solder are tin-lead for general purposes, tin-zinc for joining aluminium, lead-silver for strength at higher than room temperature, cadmium-silver for strength at high temperatures, zinc-aluminium for aluminium and corrosion resistance, tin-silver and tin-bismuth for electronics. A eutectic formulation has advantages when applied to soldering: the liquidus and solidus temperatures are the same, so there is no plastic phase, it has the lowest possible melting point. Having the lowest possible melting point minimizes heat stress on electronic components during soldering. And, having no plastic phase allows for quicker wetting as the solder heats up, quicker setup as the solder cools. A non-eutectic formulation must remain still as the temperature drops through the liquidus and solidus temperatures. Any movement during the plastic phase may result in cracks. Common solder formulations based on tin and lead are listed below; the fraction represent percentage of tin first lead, totaling 100%: 63/37: melts at 183 °C 60/40: melts between 183–190 °C 50/50: melts between 183–215 °C For environmental reasons, lead-free solders are becoming more used.

They are suggested anywhere young children may come into contact with, or for outdoor use where rain and other precipitation may wash the lead into the groundwater. Most lead-free solders are not eutectic formulations, melting at around 250 °C, making it more difficult to create reliable joints with them. Other common solders include low-temperature formulations, which are used to join previously-soldered assemblies without unsoldering earlier connections, high-temperature formulations which are used for high-temperature operation or for first assembly of items which must not become unsoldered during subsequent operations. Alloying silver with other metals changes the melting point and wetting characteristics, tensile strength. Of all the brazing alloys, silver solders have the broadest applications. Specialty alloys are available with properties such as higher strength, the ability to solder aluminum, better electrical conductivity, higher corrosion resistance; the purpose of flux is to facilitate the soldering process.

One of the obstacles to a successful solder joint is an impurity at the site of the joint, for example, oil or oxidation. The impurities can be removed by mechanical cleaning or by chemical means, but the elevated temperatures required to melt the filler metal encourages the work piece to re-oxidize; this effect is accelerated as the soldering temperatures increase and can prevent the solder from joining to the workpiece. One of the earliest forms of flux was charcoal, which acts as a reducing agent and helps prevent oxidation during the soldering process; some fluxes go beyond the simple prevention of oxidation and provide some form of chemical cleaning. Many fluxes act as a wetting agent in the soldering proc


Akadema is a owned sporting goods manufacturing company located in Hawthorne, New Jersey. The company was founded by brothers and Lawrence Gilligan of Ringwood, New Jersey Lawrence was a former Minor League player for the St. Louis Cardinals; the company specializes in manufacturing baseball gloves. The first series of gloves were released in 1998 under the name "Academy." In 2000 the company experienced rapid growth when it changed its name to Akadema, moved into the old Yoo-hoo factory in Garfield, NJ, released the patented Reptilian Glove. Akadema signed Ozzie Smith as the company spokesman and Anthony Telford and Clay Bellinger became the first Major League Players endorsing Akadema. Kris Totten (a former Minor League player for the Seattle Mariners joined the firm to head up sales; the company would follow up the Reptilian with the Claw, The Funnel and Spiral Lock, Tacktion Grip, The Hot Hands and the UFO Mitt to continue the companies first decade in creative sports design. The most popular of the patented glove however has been the Praying Mantis Mitt, created with input from Gary Carter.

The company crossed over into popular culture when their products appeared in Adam Sandler films such as Click and the Billy Bob Thornton remake of Bad News Bears. Akadema has been a sponsor of Spike TV programs "Pros vs Joes" and "DEA" second season. Akadema's most important and visible endorsement deals have been the signing of Manny Ramirez from 2004-2011 and a five-year deal with future star Bryce Harper. Shane Victorino has won three Gold Glove Award trophies since signing on with Akadema. Akadema's other current endorsements are with: Bobby Jenks, Brandon Moss, Jose Veras, Tim Redding, Mark Melancon, Vin Mazzaro, Ross Ohlendorf, Vicente Padilla, Brandon McCarthy, Darnell McDonald, Derek Holland, Willie Eyre, Cameron Maybin, Craig Breslow. Akadema became strong within the women's fast pitch market, they have sponsored Crystl Bustos 2000-2010 and Monica Abbott of Team USA 2008-2010 and are an official supplier to USA softball Olympic team and the National Pro Fast Pitch League. As the pro ranks grew, the Akadema brand spread and became popular among Minor League and college level players.

In addition to modern gloves, Akadema introduced the Hoboken Collection, a vintage line of equipment, used by Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Bob Feller, Dazzy Vance, Mickey Cochrane and Yogi Berra. Akadema gained rights to Ken-Wel and Reach companies trademarks. Akadema started manufacturing through suppliers overseas but unlike most manufacturers of the day, Akadema has brought some manufacturing in house to the USA. Akadema can customize a bat. Two years the company opened its own embroidery shop; this year the company started its own baseball glove shop making it one of the few companies that still makes wood bats, metal bats and gloves in the USA. In 2008 the company purchased an industrial building and consolidated its operations under one roof in Hawthorne, NJ. According to Inc. magazine, 2007 sales were 4.8 million Current sales are said to be around seven million. Company website Akadema at