Sofia Carmina Coppola is an American screenwriter, director and former actress. The daughter of filmmakers Eleanor and Francis Ford Coppola, she made her film debut as an infant in her father's acclaimed crime drama film, The Godfather, she appeared in a supporting role in Peggy Sue Got Married and portrayed Mary Corleone, the daughter of Michael Corleone, in The Godfather: Part III. Her performance in the latter was criticised, she turned her attention to filmmaking, she made her feature-length debut with the coming-of-age drama The Virgin Suicides, based on the novel of the same name by Jeffery Eugenides. It was the first of her collaborations with actress Kirsten Dunst. In 2004, she received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the comedy-drama Lost in Translation and became the third woman to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Director. In 2006, Coppola directed the historical drama Marie Antoinette, starring Dunst as the ill-fated French queen. In 2010, with the drama Somewhere, Coppola became the first American woman to win the Golden Lion, the top prize at the Venice Film Festival.
In 2013, she directed the satirical crime film The Bling Ring, based on the crime ring of the same name. At the 2017 Cannes Film Festival, Coppola became the second woman in the festival's history to win the Best Director award, for the drama film The Beguiled. Sofia Carmina Coppola was born in New York City on May 14, 1971, the youngest child and only daughter of documentarian Eleanor Coppola and filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola, she was raised on her parents' farm in Rutherford, California. She graduated from St. Helena High School in 1989, she attended Mills College and the California Institute of the Arts. At 15, she interned with Chanel. After dropping out of college, Coppola started a clothing line called Milkfed, now sold in Japan. Among her extensive Hollywood family are her aunt Talia Shire, her first cousins Nicolas Cage and Jason Schwartzman. Coppola's acting career, marked by frequent criticisms of nepotism and negative reviews, began while she was an infant, as she made background appearances in seven of her father's films.
The best known of these is her appearance in The Godfather as the infant Michael Francis Rizzi, in the baptism scene. Coppola returned to her father's trilogy in both the second and third Godfather films, playing an immigrant child in The Godfather Part II and Michael Corleone's daughter in The Godfather Part III, after the cast actress, Winona Ryder, discontinued her involvement with the film. Coppola responded to a question about her role in The Godfather Part III in a 2013 interview:Let's see. Did I not wanna do it? Um. I was game. I was trying different things, it sounded better than college. I didn't think about the public aspect of it; that took me by surprise. The whole reaction. People felt attached to the Godfather films. I grew up with them and it's no big deal. I mean, I understand they're great films but... I dunno. I'm not surprised, it makes sense that people would have an opinion about it but I got a lot of attention I wasn't expecting. I was going to art school, it was before the Internet so magazines would come out but the next month they were gone.
There wasn't as much paparazzi around back then. It has been suggested that the situation further damaged Francis Ford Coppola's career and ruined Sofia's before it had begun. Coppola has said that she never wanted to act and only did it to help out when her father asked her to. After shooting, she confirmed, it has been suggested that Sofia's role in the film may have contributed to its box office performance, which started strong and began to decline. Coppola has said that her father based a lot of her character on her while writing the script, before she was cast into the role. Sofia had herself worried that she had only been given the role because she was the director's daughter, the role placed a strain on her during the time of shooting that her mother observed in a series of diaries she wrote for Vogue during the filming. Coppola acted in her father's films The Outsiders, in a scene where Matt Dillon, Tommy Howell, Ralph Macchio are eating at a Dairy Queen. Frankenweenie was the first film she performed in, not associated with her father.
The short film, titled Life Without Zoe and released as part of a tripartite anthology film New York Stories, was co-written by a teenage Coppola with her father, who directed the film. After she was critically panned for her performance in The Godfather Part III, for which she was named "Worst Supporting Actress" and "Worst New Star" at the 1990 Golden Raspberry Awards, Coppola ended her acting career, although she appeared in the independent film Inside Monkey Zetterland, as well as in the backgrounds of films by her friends and family: for example, she appeared as Saché, one of Queen Padmé Amidala's five handmaidens in George Lucas' Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, she has since been quoted as saying that she was not hurt by the criticism from her role in The Godfather Part III, because she never wanted an acting career. Coppola appears in several music videos from the 1990s: The Black Crowes' "Sometim
Prospect Park (Brooklyn)
Prospect Park is a 526-acre public park in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Prospect Park is run and operated by the Prospect Park Alliance and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation; the park is situated between the neighborhoods of Park Slope, Prospect Heights, Prospect Lefferts Gardens and Windsor Terrace, is adjacent to the Brooklyn Museum, Grand Army Plaza, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. It is part of the Brooklyn-Queens Greenway, is the second largest public park in Brooklyn, behind Marine Park. First proposed in legislation passed in 1859, Prospect Park opened in 1867 after various changes to its design, it was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux after their completion of Manhattan's Central Park. The park subsequently underwent numerous expansions to its facilities. Several additions to the park were completed in the 1890s, in the City Beautiful architectural movement, further restorations were conducted in the mid- and late 20th centuries. Prospect Park was made a New York City Historic Landmark on November 25, 1975, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on September 17, 1980.
Main attractions of the park include the 90-acre Long Meadow. The park has sports facilities, including seven baseball fields in the Long Meadow, the Prospect Park Tennis Center, basketball courts, baseball fields, soccer fields, the New York Pétanque Club in the Parade Ground. There is a private Society of Friends cemetery on Quaker Hill near the ball fields. 17,000 years ago the terminal moraine of the receding Wisconsin Glacier that formed Long Island established a string of hills and kettles in the northern part of the park and a lower lying outwash plain in the southern part. Mount Prospect, near the intersection of Flatbush Avenue and Eastern Parkway, is one of the tallest hills in Brooklyn, rising 200 feet above sea level, it is the highest among a string of hills that extends into the park, including Sullivan and Lookout hills. The area was forested, but became open pasture after two centuries of European colonization. Significant stands of trees remained only in the peat bogs centered south of Ninth and Flatbush Avenues, as well as in a large bog north of Ninth Street, contained chestnut, white poplar, oak.
Some of these stands were preserved in the modern-day Prospect Park Ravine and nicknamed "The Last Forest of Brooklyn". During the American Revolutionary War, the park was a site of the Battle of Long Island. American forces attempted to hold Battle Pass, an opening in the terminal moraine where the old Flatbush Road passed from the villages of Brooklyn to Flatbush, it fell after some of the heaviest fighting in the engagement, its loss contributed to George Washington's decision to retreat. Though the Continental Army lost the battle, they were able to hold the British back long enough for Washington's army to escape across the East River to Manhattan. Plaques north of the zoo, as well as the Maryland Monument at Lookout Hill's foot, honor this event; the City of Brooklyn built a reservoir on Prospect Hill in 1856. The need to keep the lots around the reservoir free of development, as well as the preservation of the Battle Pass area, were cited as two reasons for establishing a large park nearby.
The original impetus to build Prospect Park stemmed from an April 18, 1859, act of the New York State Legislature, empowering a twelve-member commission to recommend sites for parks in the City of Brooklyn. At the time, Brooklyn was the world's first commuter suburb, it became the third largest city in the country after New York and Philadelphia. During this time, concepts concerning public parks gained popularity. In 1858, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux had created Central Park in Manhattan, which became the first landscaped park in the United States. James S. T. Stranahan President of the Brooklyn Board of Park Commissioners, believed that a park in Brooklyn "would become a favorite resort for all classes of our community, enabling thousands to enjoy pure air, with healthful exercise, at all seasons of the year..." He thought a public park would attract wealthy residents. In February 1860. A group of fifteen commissioners submitted suggestions for locations of four large parks and three small parks in Brooklyn, as well as a series of boulevards to connect said parks.
The largest of these proposed parks was a 320-acre plot centered on Mount Prospect and bounded by Warren Street to the north. Egbert Viele began drawing plans for "Mount Prospect Park", as the space was called, published his proposal in 1861; the park was to straddle Flatbush Avenue and include Prospect Hill, as well as the land now occupied by the Brooklyn Public Library, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn Museum. By late 1860, land had been purchased for Viele's plan. However, the onset of the Civil War stopped further activity, the boulevards and smaller parks were pushed back; the delay prompted some reflection. Vaux took issue with Flatbush Avenue's division of the park, thought that the park should have a lake, urged for southward expansion beyond the city limits and into the then-independent town of Flatbush. Vaux's February 1865 proposal reflected the present layout of the park: three distinctive regions, meadow in the north
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
Private schools known to many as independent schools, non-governmental funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments. Children who attend private schools may be there because they are dissatisfied with public schools in their area, they may be selected for their academic prowess, or prowess in other fields, or sometimes their religious background. Private schools retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students for tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public funding; some private schools are associated with a particular religion, such as Judaism, Roman Catholicism, or Lutheranism. For the past century one in 10 U. S families has chosen to enroll their children in private school. In the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth countries including Australia and Canada, the use of the term is restricted to primary and secondary educational levels. Private education in North America covers the whole gamut of educational activity, ranging from pre-school to tertiary level institutions.
Annual tuition fees at K-12 schools range from nothing at so called'tuition-free' schools to more than $45,000 at several New England preparatory schools. The secondary level includes schools offering years 7 through 12 and year 13; this category includes university-preparatory schools or "prep schools", boarding schools and day schools. Tuition at private secondary schools varies from school to school and depends on many factors, including the location of the school, the willingness of parents to pay, peer tuitions and the school's financial endowment. High tuition, schools claim, is used to pay higher salaries for the best teachers and used to provide enriched learning environments, including a low student-to-teacher ratio, small class sizes and services, such as libraries, science laboratories and computers; some private schools are boarding schools and many military academies are owned or operated as well. Religiously affiliated and denominational schools form a subcategory of private schools.
Some such schools teach religious education, together with the usual academic subjects to impress their particular faith's beliefs and traditions in the students who attend. Others use the denomination as more of a general label to describe on what the founders based their belief, while still maintaining a fine distinction between academics and religion, they include parochial schools, a term, used to denote Roman Catholic schools. Other religious groups represented in the K–12 private education sector include Protestants, Jews and the Orthodox Christians. Many educational alternatives, such as independent schools, are privately financed. Private schools avoid some state regulations, although in the name of educational quality, most comply with regulations relating to the educational content of classes. Religious private schools simply add religious instruction to the courses provided by local public schools. Special assistance schools aim to improve the lives of their students by providing services tailored to specific needs of individual students.
Such schools include tutoring schools to assist the learning of handicapped children. Private schools are one of three types of school in Australia, the other two being government schools and religious. Whilst private schools are sometimes considered "public" schools, the term "public school" is synonymous with a government school. Private schools in Australia may be favored for many reasons: prestige and the social status of the "old school tie"; some schools offer the removal of the purported distractions of co-education. Student uniforms for Australian private schools are stricter and more formal than in government schools – for example, a compulsory blazer. Private schools in Australia are always more expensive than their public counterpartsThere are two main categories of private schools in Australia: Catholic schools and Independent schools. Catholic schools form the second largest sector after government schools, with around 21% of secondary enrollments. Most Australian Catholic schools belong to a system, like government schools, are co-educational and attempt to provide Catholic education evenly across the states.
These schools are known as "systemic". Systemic Catholic schools are funded by state and federal government and have low fees. Catholic schools, both systemic and independent have a strong religious focus, most of their staff and students will be Catholic. Independent schools make up the last sector and are the most popular form of schooling for boarding students. Independent schools are non-government institutions that are not part of a system. Although most are non-aligned, some of the best known independent schools belong to the large, long-established religious foundations, such as the Anglican Church, Uniting Church and Pres
Leon David Black is an American investor and art collector. He specializes in private equity, he founded the private equity firm Apollo Global Management in 1990. Black is a son of Eli M. Black, a prominent Jewish businessman who emigrated from Poland and was best known for owning the United Brands Company, his mother, Shirley Lubell, was an artist. In 1975, his father committed suicide by jumping out of the 44th floor of the Pan Am Building in New York City, it was made public that, at the time, federal regulators were investigating allegations that United Brands was bribing Honduran government officials. Black received a BA in Philosophy and History from Dartmouth College in 1973 and a MBA from Harvard University in 1975, he served on the Board of Trustees of Dartmouth College from 2002 to 2011. In 2012 Black gave US$48 million toward a new visual arts center at Dartmouth College. From 1977 to 1990, Leon Black was employed by investment bank Drexel Burnham Lambert, where he served as managing director, head of the Mergers & Acquisitions Group, co-head of the Corporate Finance Department.
Black was regarded as "junk bond king" Michael Milken's right-hand man at Drexel. In 1990, he co-founded, on the heels of the collapse of Drexel Burnham Lambert, the private equity firm Apollo Global Management. Notable founders included: John Hannan, Drexel's former co-director of international finance. Black is married to Debra Ressler, a Broadway producer and sister of Ares Management co-founder Antony Ressler, they have four children. Black's wife is a melanoma survivor. In 2007, the couple donated $25 million to form the new Melanoma Research Alliance, they have committed to donating another $15 million over the next three years. Leon and Debra both serve on the board of the organization, he has a $43 million home in New York. In 2012 he acquired a fine art books publisher. Apollo Global Management had no role in the purchase, it was an investment. Two months after the May 2012 anonymous purchase of one of four versions of Edvard Munch's The Scream, The Wall Street Journal reported that Black had been the one who had paid $119.9 million for the pastel, the highest price paid for a work of art at auction as of that time.
In September 2012, The Museum of Modern Art announced the painting would go on view for a six-month period starting in October. In June 2013, it was revealed that Leon Black had purchased Head of a Young Apostle, an 11-inch wide work by Raphael for £29 million after a four-party bidding war. On December 22, 2015, it was reported that Leon Black purchased at auction a complete set of the Daniel Bomberg Babylonian Talmud for $9.3 million. According to a press release from the Sotheby's auction house, the sale is "a new world auction record for any piece of Judaica."In June 2016, a lawsuit over the Picasso sculpture Bust of a Woman between the advisory firm Pelham Europe and art gallery owner Larry Gagosian was settled. Pelham Europe, an agent for a member of Qatar’s royal family, Gagosian, who had resold the bust to Leon Black, both claimed ownership; the case was settled by the owner of the sculpture. The settlement included Leon Black getting the sculpture and Widmaier Picasso paying Pelham an undisclosed amount.
History of private equity and venture capital General Profile at Forbes.com
Riverdale is a residential neighborhood in the northwest portion of the Bronx, a borough in New York City. Riverdale, which has a population of 47,850 as of the 2000 United States Census, contains the northernmost point in New York City. Riverdale's boundaries are disputed, but it is agreed to be bordered by Yonkers to the north, Van Cortlandt Park and Broadway to the east, the Kingsbridge neighborhood to the southeast, the Harlem River or the Spuyten Duyvil neighborhood to the south, the Hudson River to the west. Riverdale Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through Riverdale; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community District 8, its ZIP Codes include 10463 and 10471. The area is patrolled by the 50th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. In 1642, Anthony Van Corlaer died while attempting to swim across the Hudson from nearby Spuyten Duyvil. A witness to Van Corlaer's death stated that "the devil" in the shape of a giant fish swam up and proceeded to "seize the sturdy Anthony by the leg and drag him beneath the waves."
This may be the earliest recorded shark attack in the New World. In the late 17th century, Frederick Philipse, the lord of Philipse Manor in Westchester County, received permission to construct a bridge across Spuyten Duyvil Creek and charge tolls. "King's Bridge", located south of and parallel to where West 230th Street lies today, opened in 1693. Early in its residential development, Riverdale was a 19th-century estate district where many of Manhattan's moguls built their country estates. At the turn of the century, the new popularity of railroad commute enabled wealthy businessmen to make Riverdale their year-round residence. Fieldston, owned by a private association, is a intact example of a turn-of-the century upper class suburb; the Hudson Hill neighborhood retains many of its historic mansions. Riverdale's elite private schools and historic churches reflect this past. Development of the neighborhood began in the latter half of the 19th century once the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad came through.
The tracks crossed Spuyten Duyvil Creek and into Manhattan on the west side, but Cornelius Vanderbilt wanted to consolidate his railroad operations into one terminal. He had tracks laid along the north side of the Harlem River so that trains coming south from Albany could join with the Harlem and New Haven lines and come into Manhattan down the Park Avenue main line, along modern-day Park Avenue, into his new Grand Central Depot; this is the route still used by the Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line. The Delafield family laid out lots in Fieldston in 1909 – the year after the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line was extended to Van Cortlandt Park–242nd Street, intending to develop the land, which at first was called "Delafield Woods". Rather than use a grid plan, civil engineer Albert E. Wheeler, following the suggestions made by Frederick Law Olmsted and James R. Croes in 1876, designed a street plan which followed the contours of the land and preserved as much of the wooded areas as possible.
The first house was begun in 1910 and finished in 1911. Leland Weintraub, the commissioner who moved for the district's creation, noted that "most of the features associated with the American romantic suburb of the mid-19th century", including "a picturesque site and architecture. In 1928, Genevieve Ludlow Griscom, a member of a small religious group called the Outer Court of the Order of the Living Christ, built a 15,000-square-foot mansion at 360 West 253rd Street – addressed as 5200 Longview Place – for the express purpose of housing Jesus Christ when the Second Coming occurred. After being derelict for a number of years under successive owners, the mansion was bought in 1987 by entrepreneur Jerry Galuten, who renovated it into an more opulent 17 room home. After being on- and off-the market for eight years, with an asking price as high as $15 million, the house sold in January 2017 for $6.25 million. As the 20th century progressed, upscale apartment buildings and smaller houses were added to the neighborhood.
To this day, Riverdale continues to maintain its character as an affluent enclave in the city of New York. The rich history of Riverdale has led to the creation of the Riverdale Historic District. In May 2009, the FBI ran a sting operation to prevent a bombing plot in which two Riverdale synagogues were the suggested targets; this followed a Molotov cocktail attack in 2000 on a different Riverdale synagogue and the 1989 firebombing of the Riverdale Press. On July 26, 2010, the National Weather Service confirmed that an EF1 tornado had hit Riverdale the day before. There were no fatalities. On December 1, 2013, a train derailment near Spuyten Duyvil station resulted in four deaths and over 70 injuries, of which 11 were critical. Riverdale covers about 3 square miles in area, it has one of the highest elevations in New York City, affording it views of the Empire State Building, George Washington Bridge, Hudson River and New Jersey Palisades. It is noted for the numerous parks and expanses of greenery and original forest that complement its hilly landscape.
The neighborhood is bordered on the north by the city of Yonkers in Westchester County, on the west by the Hudson River, but its eastern and southern boundaries are frequently