Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil and wrong, virtue and vice and crime; as a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, value theory. Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are: Meta-ethics, concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, how their truth values can be determined Normative ethics, concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of action Applied ethics, concerning what a person is obligated to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action; the English word "ethics" is derived from the Ancient Greek word ēthikós, meaning "relating to one's character", which itself comes from the root word êthos meaning "character, moral nature".
This word was transferred into Latin as ethica and into French as éthique, from which it was transferred into English. Rushworth Kidder states that "standard definitions of ethics have included such phrases as'the science of the ideal human character' or'the science of moral duty'". Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as "a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures"; the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with'morality'... and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group or individual." Paul and Elder state that most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs and the law and don't treat ethics as a stand-alone concept. The word ethics in English refers to several things, it can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy—a project that attempts to use reason to answer various kinds of ethical questions.
As the English philosopher Bernard Williams writes, attempting to explain moral philosophy: "What makes an inquiry a philosophical one is reflective generality and a style of argument that claims to be rationally persuasive." Williams describes the content of this area of inquiry as addressing the broad question, "how one should live". Ethics can refer to a common human ability to think about ethical problems, not particular to philosophy; as bioethicist Larry Churchill has written: "Ethics, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values and direct our actions in terms of such values, is a generic human capacity." Ethics can be used to describe a particular person's own idiosyncratic principles or habits. For example: "Joe has strange ethics." Meta-ethics is the branch of philosophical ethics that asks how we understand, know about, what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. An ethical question pertaining to a particular practical situation—such as, "Should I eat this particular piece of chocolate cake?"—cannot be a meta-ethical question.
A meta-ethical question is abstract and relates to a wide range of more specific practical questions. For example, "Is it possible to have secure knowledge of what is right and wrong?" is a meta-ethical question. Meta-ethics has always accompanied philosophical ethics. For example, Aristotle implies that less precise knowledge is possible in ethics than in other spheres of inquiry, he regards ethical knowledge as depending upon habit and acculturation in a way that makes it distinctive from other kinds of knowledge. Meta-ethics is important in G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica from 1903. In it he first wrote about. Moore was seen to reject naturalism in his Open Question Argument; this made. Earlier, the Scottish philosopher David Hume had put forward a similar view on the difference between facts and values. Studies of how we know in ethics divide into non-cognitivism. Non-cognitivism is the view that when we judge something as morally right or wrong, this is neither true nor false. We may, for example, be only expressing our emotional feelings about these things.
Cognitivism can be seen as the claim that when we talk about right and wrong, we are talking about matters of fact. The ontology of ethics is about value-bearing things or properties, i.e. the kind of things or stuff referred to by ethical propositions. Non-descriptivists and non-cognitivists believe that ethics does not need a specific ontology since ethical propositions do not refer; this is known as an anti-realist position. Realists, on the other hand, must explain what kind of entities, properties or states are relevant for ethics, how they have value, why they guide and motivate our actions. Moral skepticism is a class of metaethical theories all members of which entail that no one has any moral knowledge. Many moral skeptics make the stronger, modal claim that moral knowledge is impossible. Moral skepticism is opposed to moral realism: the view that there are knowable and objective moral truths; some proponents of moral skepticism include Pyrrho, Sextus Empiricus, David Hume, Max Stirner, Friedrich Nietzsche.
Moral skepticism divides into three subclasses: moral error theory, epistemological moral skepticism, noncognitivism. All three of t
The Ironton Norfolk and Western Depot is a former train station in downtown Ironton, United States. Constructed at the beginning of the twentieth century, it served the transportation needs of its community for more than half a century, it has been named a historic site because of its place in local history. Ironton and the surrounding Hanging Rock region were once among Ohio's most prominent industrial regions, due to extensive deposits of iron ore that were worked in the region's numerous charcoal-fired blast furnaces. For part of this period, land transportation in the region was served by the Scioto Valley Railroad, which enabled the Norfolk and Western Railway to gain access to the area in 1881 by purchasing the smaller railroad. By this time, industry was transitioning away from traditional iron smelting toward more modern methods of steel manufacturing, requiring the construction of improved trackside facilities in Ironton; as a result, the N&W erected the present station, beginning in 1906 and finishing construction in the following year.
While it was built to furnish transportation for industrial purposes, the station served the city's ordinary freight and passenger traffic needs. Trains ceased using the station when it closed in 1969. Since that time, the depot has been purchased by Ironton's city government, which leases it for commercial purposes. In preparation for one such occupant, extensive renovations were performed in 2007, including refinishing of the hardwood floors, repairs to the roof, replacement of older windows. Built of brick on a brick foundation, the depot is a single-story building with a simple plan: shorter wings radiate out from both sides of the taller central structure. Separate hip roofs cover the central and side sections, except for the section above the main entrance, at which the roofline deviates to provide shelter as far as the edge of the street. Covered with a gabled roof, this extension features a four-pillar facade topped with a pediment and entablature. Smaller and simpler entrances are located to the sides of the building, which has a total area of 5,000 square feet.
Elements such as the main entrance combine to make the building a clear example of the Neoclassical style of architecture. In 1978, the Ironton Norfolk and Western Depot was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, qualifying both because of its place in the area's history and because of its historic architecture. Thirty-one years much of downtown Ironton was designated a historic district and listed on the National Register.
"Double Trouble" is a song written by Roxanne Seeman, Kine Ludvigsen and Olav Fossheim. It was recorded by Jacky Cheung for his Private Corner album; the song and album are produced by Andrew Tuason. The lyrics for "Double Trouble" were adapted into Cantonese by Hong Kong songwriter Kenny So. "Double Trouble" reached number 1 on the HMVHK sales chart April 2010. Cheung's "Private Corner" album remained at number 1 on the HMVHK sales chart for 13 weeks. With sales for Jacky Cheung's Private Corner album reaching 200,000 copies in Asia alone, a celebration gathering was held by Universal Music, where Cheung debuted the MV for "Double Trouble", which he invested HKD$500,000 of his own money to make; the MV was directed by Xia Yong Kang and features mainland China model Du Juan. Cheung performed "Double Trouble" at his "Private Corner" mini-concert at the Hong Kong Jockey Club on April 30; the show was taped, with the "Private Corner" Mini-Concert DVD releasing July 23, 2010. The Jacky Cheung 1/2 Century Tour, kicked off in Shanghai, New Year's Eve 2011.
“Double Trouble” is a highlight song in the concert. Cheung performs the song and dancing, with 25 musicians and 18 dancers. At the end of the song, Jacky Cheung makes his getaway in a helicopter built for the set; the tour finale was in May 2012. There were 146 shows. Live in Hong Kong/2012 performance of "Double Trouble" is included in Jacky Cheung's 1/2 Century concert Live CD & DVD, released July 19, 2013. Double Trouble was the opening production number of TVB's Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation 2012, performed live by the cast of Hong Kong hit artists appearing on the show. A live band played a version of Double Trouble during the Miss Universe China Pageant September 28, 2013, Shanghai. Https://web.archive.org/web/20160304001933/http://www.56.com/u22/v_NjU3ODcxMzk.html