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University of Illinois Institute of Aviation

The University of Illinois Institute of Aviation was an aviation institute affiliated with the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Founded in 1945, it was located at the university-owned Willard Airport in Savoy, United States; the institute was the first school in the U. S. to be certified by the Federal Aviation Administration to conduct all tests leading to the issuance of civilian pilot certificates. It had a long history of providing flight training, was well known for conducting research into aviation-related human factors. For training purposes, the institute maintained a fleet of 18 Piper Archers, 7 Piper Arrows, 3 twin-engine Piper Seminoles and two Cessna 152s; the Institute of Aviation was placed under review by the University of Illinois in the spring of 2010. The university faced a major budget shortfall, was owed $431 million by the state of Illinois. Closing the institute was proposed as a means of cutting costs. On July 21, 2011 university trustees voted 6–2 to close the institute by the 2013–14 academic year, allowing current students to finish.

This vote marked the end of over 60 years on campus for the institute. In the year prior to the institute's closure, there were fewer than 160 students, 34 of those were freshmen, it was said to be the smallest degree granting unit with "some of the highest costs" on campus. However, in September 2013, the university entered a three-year agreement with Parkland College in Champaign to transfer ownership of the institute to the community college for continued flight training; the Parkland College Institute of Aviation at the University of Illinois will allow students to earn a two-year associate degree in aviation or take courses to earn FAA-approved pilot certification to various levels. Leasing the university's aircraft and facilities at Willard Airport in Savoy, Parkland’s flight institute planned to open for the fall 2014 academic semester and began accepting applications at the end of March 2014; the Institute of Aviation offered a B. S. in Aviation Human Factors. This program of study focused on aircraft safety, accident prevention, human factors psychology.

Through the flight courses, students could earn their private pilot certificate, commercial pilot certificate, instrument rating, multi-engine rating. The psychology courses provided the students with an understanding of operator and machine interaction; some university students were interested in flight training, but would prefer to pursue a degree in another field. For these students, the Professional Pilot program was an option. In this program, the students were able to earn their private pilot's certificate and instrument rating while still pursuing a non aviation degree. Students transferred to a different college at the University of Illinois in order to complete their bachelor's degree; the following is a list of both flight and non-flight course options that were offered by the institute for the 2009–10 school year. For the current course options, they are listed in the Parkland College catalog excerpt as well as in the previous paragraph regarding the transfer of the institute and the new program.

Official website Parkland College Institute of Aviation at the University of Illinois

Body shopping

Body shopping is the practice of consultancy firms recruiting workers in order to contract their services out on tactical short to mid-term basis. IT services companies that practice body shopping assert that they provide real services rather than the "sham" of farming out professionals to overseas companies. Body shopping in IT originated during the mid-1990s when there was a huge demand for people with mainframe, COBOL and related technology skills to prevent systems being affected by the Y2K bug. Most specialist Y2K consulting companies operating in the US, the Middle East and Australia outsourced their technical manpower requirements to companies operating in India. During the period of 1996-97, such companies operating with India base responded to the heavy demand by recruiting and training local graduates in India for Y2K, their consultants either worked onshore or offshore at high utilization rates generating huge profit margins and cash reserves. The high-profit margin during this period resulted in fast growth and sufficient assets to invest and expand operations to other IT related business segments post-Y2K.

In the modern era of IT off-shoring and cloud computing, it is accepted that IT service companies' strategy still continue to focus on similar lines. The companies that do body shopping are renowned for training and developing technical skills for a wide range of client base, of current demand. Researchers point out that many Indian companies focus on developing a large pool of human resources with technical skills creating a marketplace to'buy' technical skills on an hourly or daily basis; this led to significant market developments in two areas in the early 2000s: Fierce competition amongst IT service companies from India competing on a global level to win'time and material and labor tenders' from multinational giants for their IT needs. Such a strategy, though linked to procurement needs of the end-customer, enables IT companies operating from offshore to forecast demand for technical and managerial competencies based on IT-skills-market trends in order to position themselves competitively.

Technology and consulting companies operating in western markets during the 1990s were forced to open offices in southeast Asia and move their manpower base there to compete with traditional manpower providers operated from India on large global-level IT bids. According to a U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services report to Congress, for fiscal year 2012, 59 percent of H-1B visas went to computer-related occupations; the same report cited that 64 percent of the H-1B visa petitions granted were given to workers originating from India. Body shopping companies recruit off-shore and provide training to their employees using their off-shore facilities. Employment costs are offset by the profitable billing ratio for on-site assignments abroad. Most companies boast a utilization rate of 80%, which takes into account the long'bench period', where an employee is not billable or when their skills are not in demand. In India, traditional body shopping has evolved in its due course post-Y2K era to create strong networking and collaboration between competing Indian body shops working abroad.

All body shops claim to have the ability to place Indian workers in any country using the resources and services of other Indian body shops operating in the target country. In one documented case study deemed as a typical example, a body shop in Hyderabad was able to win a 360 man-month deal with a U. S. company that urgently needed 40 IT workers with a "specific" skill on a 9-month project. Although the Indian body shop company could find lower paid workers in India for the job, the H-1B visa process would take too long to bring them into the United States to work. Thus, the Indian firm forwarded a request to its associates' network to locate 40 Indian temporary workers in the United States. A search was undertaken by the network for available Indian H-1B workers, resulting in a list of laid-off Indian H-1B workers in the US. Sponsorship for the laid-off Indian H-1B workers was reassigned to a body shop and a portion of the newly employed worker's salary was given as commission to the peer body shop that helped to locate the laid off H-1B workers in their associated peer network of Indian body shops.

This process of recruiting available H-1B holders is what is referred to as "body shopping". A similar "offshoring" practice started appearing more and more in the 2010 timeframe and, a practice known as "nearshoring". Nearshoring was the practice of hiring IT professionals from Mexico; the outward appearance being the advantage of "nearshoring" personnel being within a 2 hour or less time difference to continental U. S. companies opting to use these nearshoring services. L-1 Visa Sweatshop A. Aneesh. Virtual Migration: the Programming of Globalization. Durham: Duke University Press. R. Heeks. India's Software Industry: State Policy and Industrial Development. New Delhi: Sage Publications. Xiang Biao. Global "body Shopping": An Indian Labor System in the Information Technology Industry. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691118529. Nagesh Kumar. "Moving Away from Body-Shopping". In Ashwani Saith. ICTS and Indian Economic Development. SAGE. p. 96. ISBN 9780761933397