The Ethiopian National Defense Force is the military of Ethiopia. Civil direction of the military is carried out through the Ministry of Defense, which oversees the ground forces, air force, as well as the Defense Industry Sector; the current minister of defense is Lemma Megersa. The size of the ENDF has fluctuated since the end of the Ethiopia-Eritrea war in 2000. In 2002 the Ethiopian Defense Forces had a strength of 400,000 troops; this was the same number maintained during the Derg regime that fell to the rebel forces in 1991. However, that number was reduced, in January 2007, during the War in Somalia, Ethiopian forces were said to comprise about 300,000 troops. In 2012, the IISS estimated that the ground forces had 135,000 personnel and the air force 3,000; as of 2012, the ENDF consists of two separate branches: the Ground Forces and the Ethiopian Air Force. Ethiopia has several defense industrial organisations that produce and overhaul different weapons systems. Most of these were built under the Derg regime.
The ENDF relies on voluntary military service of people above 18 years of age. Although there is no compulsory military service, armed forces may conduct call-ups when necessary and compliance is compulsory. Being a landlocked country, Ethiopia today has no navy. Ethiopia reacquired a coastline on the Red Sea in 1950 and created the Ethiopian Navy in 1955. Eritrea's independence in 1991 left Ethiopia landlocked again, but the Ethiopian Navy continued to operate from foreign ports until it was disbanded in 1996; the Ethiopian army's origins and military traditions date back to the earliest history of Ethiopia. Due to Ethiopia's location between the Middle East and Africa, it has long been in the middle of Eastern and Western politics, has been subject to foreign invasion and aggression. In 1579, the Ottoman Empire's attempt to expand from a coastal base at Massawa was defeated; the Army of the Ethiopian Empire was able to defeat the Egyptians in 1876 at Gura, led by Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV.
Clapham wrote in the 1980s that the "Abyssinians from a'superiority complex' which may be traced to Gundet and Adwa". In accordance with the order of the emperor of Ethiopia, Directly Nikolay Leontiev organized the first battalion of the regular Ethiopian army in February 1899. Leontiev formed the first regular battalion, the kernel of which became the company of volunteers from the former Senegal shooters, which he chose and invited from Western Africa, with training of the Russian and French officers; the first Ethiopian military orchestra was organized at the same time. The Battle of Adowa is the best known victory of Ethiopian forces over invaders, it maintained Ethiopia's existence as an independent state. Fought on 1 March 1896 against the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, it was the decisive battle of the First Italo–Ethiopian War. Assisted by all of the major nobles of Ethiopia including, Alula Abanega, Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam, Sebhat Aregawi, Ras Makonnen, Ras Mengesha Yohannes, Ras Mikael of Wollo, Emperor Menelek II of Ethiopia struck a powerful blow against the Italians.
The Ethiopian army had been able to execute the strategic plan of Menelik's headquarters, despite a feudal system of organization and adverse circumstances. A special role was played by the volunteers of Leontiev's mission; the first problem was the quality of its arms, as the Italian and British colonial authorities were able to sabotage the transportation of 60,000 to 100,000 modern Berdan rifles from Russia into landlocked Ethiopia. Secondly, the Ethiopian army was based on a feudal system of organization, as a result, nearly the entire army was a peasant militia. Russian military experts advising Menelik II suggested trying to achieve full battle collision with Italians, to neutralize the superior firepower of their opponent and nullify their problems with arms and organization, rather than engaging in a campaign of harassment. In the battle that ensued wave upon wave of Menelik's warriors attacked the Italians. After the successful colonial capture of the Sudan and Uganda, the British expansion against Ethiopia became a real danger, which diminished only after the start of the Second Boer War in 1899.
The Ethiopian army became more effective against British colonial forces. The numerous expeditions of Ethiopian forces stopped colonial expansion; as the Russian Alexander Bulatovich, one of the Russian military advisers and a participant in the expedition of the legendary army of Ras Wolde Giyorgis, wrote: "Many consider the Abyssinian army to be undisciplined. They think that it is not in any condition to withstand a serious fight with a well-organized European army, claiming that the recent war with Italy doesn't prove anything. I will not begin to guess the future, will say only this. Over the course of four months, I watched this army closely, it is unique in the world. And I can bear witness to the fact that it is not quite so chaotic as it seems at first glance, that on the contrary, it is profoundly disciplined, though in its own unique way. For every Abyssinian, war is normal business, military skills and rules of army life in the field enter in the flesh and blood of each of them, just as do the main principles of tactics.
On the march, each soldier knows how to arrange necessary comforts for himself and to conserve his strength. You see remarkable expediency in all the skills of this army. Despite such qu
Lambak Kanan, formally known as Lambak Kanan National Housing Scheme, is a public housing estate on the northern outskirts of Bandar Seri Begawan, the capital of Brunei. It consists of five village subdivisions which are under Berakas'B', a mukim of Brunei-Muara District. Lambak Kanan is de facto a suburb of the capital. Lambak Kanan translates as "Lambak Right", it refers to the location as located to the'right' or east of Lambak, a neighbouring settlement and the origin of the place name "Lambak". Lambak Kanan is known as Lambak Kanan National Housing Scheme, it is named after the public housing estate, under the government housing programme National Housing Scheme. Lambak Kanan is sometimes known as Perpindahan Lambak Kanan, as it was considered a housing estate for the former housing programme of the National Resettlement Scheme; this was a programme for the relocation of some Kampong Ayer residents to live on land. It is succeeded by the National Housing Scheme and subsequent resettlement programme is managed under the current scheme.
Lambak Kanan is divided into five areas and they are villages, the third and lowest in the hierarchy of Brunei's administrative divisions. Each area is led by a ketua kampung and is responsible for administrative matters concerning the residents of his area; each area serves for census purposes, as well as has its own postcode. All of the five divisions are under a mukim or subdistrict of Brunei-Muara. While Lambak Kanan is considered a suburb of Bandar Seri Begawan, it is not part the spatial jurisdiction of the city's Municipal Department. All residents of Lambak Kanan live in the houses of Rancangan Perumahan Negara or National Housing Plan, a public housing scheme provided by the government through the Housing Development Department, hence the name Perumahan Negara Lambak Kanan; some of the residents may have been among those relocated from Kampong Ayer under the Rancangan Perpindahan Negara or National Relocation Plan, hence the name Kampong Perpindahan Lambak Kanan. Primary and secondary education are available for the residents of Lambak Kanan.
There are four government primary schools, namely Dato Basir Primary School, Dato Marsal Primary School, Lambak Kanan Jalan 49 Primary School and Perpindahan Lambak Kanan Jalan 10 Primary School. There is only one secondary school in Lambak Kanan, namely Sayyidina Abu Bakar Secondary School; the school may not be able to accommodate the whole of Lambak Kanan, so resident students may study at secondary schools located in the surrounding area. There used to be a girls' secondary school, Pengiran Anak Puteri Hajah Masna Secondary School, but has since relocated to Sungai Akar. Primary religious education is available for the Muslim resident pupils. There are four primary religious schools, namely Dato Basir Religious School, Lambak Kanan Religious School, Lambak Kanan Jalan 49 Religious School and Perpindahan Lambak Kanan Jalan 77 Religious School. However, only Lambak Kanan and Perpindahan Jalan 77 Religious Schools have their own school grounds. Berakas Health Centre is the sole community health centre in Lambak Kanan.
However, it does not only serve the residents of Lambak Kanan but the whole of Berakas'A' and Berakas'B'. Lambak Kanan has a mosque that caters the need of its Muslim residents for congregational prayers the weekly Friday prayers. Perpindahan Lambak Kanan Mosque was inaugurated in 1997 by His Majesty Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, it can accommodate up to 2,400 worshippers at one time. Lambak Kanan has its own fire station, namely Lambak Kanan Rescue Station, it is located close to Perpindahan Lambak Kanan Mosque. There is a public library in Lambak Kanan. Lambak Kanan Library was inaugurated in 2008 by the Minister of Culture and Sports, Mohammad bin Daud, it is managed by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei. Lambak, Brunei Lambak Kiri Rimba National Housing Scheme
The Lava Lake murders refers to a triple-murder that occurred near Little Lava Lake in Central Oregon in January 1924. The victims were Edward Nickols, Roy Wilson, Dewey Morris, all of whom were working as fur trappers in the Deschutes National Forest in late 1923–1924, their bodies were discovered in Big Lava Lake in April 1924, where they had been deposited under the surface ice. Each of the men had been murdered via gunshot and blunt force trauma. Though police identified a potential suspect, Charles Kimzey, a conviction never reached fruition; the crime is one of the oldest unsolved murder cases in Oregon history, was the subject of a 2013 investigative book titled The Trapper Murders by Melany Tupper. Edward Nickols, Roy Wilson, Dewey Morris, residents of Bend, had made plans to spend the winter of 1923–1924 in a log cabin owned by a local logging contractor, Edward Logan, to work as fur trappers in the wilderness; the men moved into the cabin in the fall of 1923, the week before Christmas, Nickols arrived in Bend in a "jovial" mood, sold a sled full of expensive furs.
He told locals. After Christmas, Allen Wilcoxen, a resort owner, was traveling by snowshoe from his home in Fall River to his resort at Elk Lake. Wilcoxen arrived on January 15, 1924, spent the evening there. On the morning of January 16, he departed the cabin for Elk Lake; this was the last known sighting of Nickols and Morris before their deaths. Having had no correspondence with any of the three men since December 1923, having noticed that mink traps set in the area had been left unmaintained, Innis Owen Morris, a brother of Dewey Morris, Pearl Lynnes, superintendent of the Tumalo Fish Hatchery, became suspicious. In April 1924, a search team found no sign of the men. Inside the cabin, burnt food was in pots on the stove, the dining table had been set for a meal. Outside, the sled used for the transport of goods and equipment was missing, a fox pen behind the cabin that contained five valuable foxes owned by Edward Logan was empty. Upon searching inside, a blood-stained claw hammer was found in the corner of the pen.
The search team checked on the men's trapping lines, discovered the frozen remains of twelve marten, four foxes, one skunk, suggesting that their traps in the surrounding forest had been unattended to. The following day, Clarence A. Adams, the Deschutes County sheriff arrived at the cabin to begin an investigation. Near the shore of Big Lava Lake, the searchers found the men's large sled, marked with dark stains, which were confirmed to be blood. On the edge of the lake, a depression in the ice was detected where a hole had visibly been cut, frozen over. Nearby, on a trail leading to the lake, a searcher discovered pools of blood in the thawing snow, as well as clumps of hair and a human tooth; the coating of ice on the lake having thawed enough that the searchers could explore by boat, Innis Morris and Adams discovered the bodies of all three men, which had floated to the surface of the lake. Autopsies revealed the men had all died of shotgun and pistol wounds, as well as blunt force trauma from a hammer.
Wilson had been shot in the right shoulder and the back of the head, while Nickols' jawbone had been shattered by a shotgun blast. Dewey Morris had been shot in the left forearm, had a skull fracture from a hammer, it was estimated that the murders occurred in late December 1923 or early January 1924. In an official police report, Sheriff Claude McCauley wrote of the scene: Even though the weather was perfect, the clear air was impregnated with the odor of death and decomposition and it was with an undefinable spirit of awe and consternation that the little party of hardy outdoorsmen laid aside their packs, kicked off their snowshoes, prepared to tackle a grim job, little to their liking." According to a published report in April 1924, police believed at least two of the men had not been murdered in close vicinity to the cabin, but had been lured away from it. Police suspected a woodsman and moonshiner named Indian Erickson of the crimes, who maintained a camp at the nearby Cultus Lake. Erickson was dismissed by police, after supplying an alibi.
The owner of the cabin, Edward Logan, provided police with a potential suspect shortly after the men's bodies were discovered—a fellow trapper named Lee Collins, who had at one time quarreled with the men over a purportedly stolen wallet. Collins had threatened to come back and kill Edward Nickols. Lee Collins was discovered in actuality to be a man named Charles Kimzey, arrested in 1923 for robbery and attempted murder in Bend, in which he threw W. O. Harrison, a stagecoach driver, down a well. Harrison survived. A traffic officer in Portland, Oregon recognized Kimzey as a man who had approached him on January 24, 1924, carrying a gunnysack and asking for directions to a fur dealer in the city; the officer directed him to Schumacher Fur Company on Third Street in Northwest Portland, where the man sold the sack of furs for $110. Police issued a reward of $1,500 for Kimzey's arrest and conviction in connection with the murders, but the case went cold. On February 17, 1933, nine years after the murders, Charles Kimzey was spotted in Kalispell and was apprehended by police and returned to Oregon for questioning in the murders.
Though police had a circumstantial case against Kimzey, the fur dealer who had p
The 2006–07 Greek Basket League season was the 67th season of the Greek Basket League, the highest tier professional basketball league in Greece. Panathinaikos finished in first place in the regular season, won the championship, via the playoffs. Pts=Points, P=Matches played, W=Matches won, L=Matches lost, F=Points for, A=Points against, D=Points difference Panathinaikos win the series 2-0 Aris win the series 2-0 Olympiacos win the series 2-1 Panionios win the series 2-0 Panathinaikos win the series 3-0 Olympiacos win the series 3-2 Aris win the series 3-2 Panathinaikos win the series 3-2 Game 1 Game 2 Game 3 Game 4 Game 5 Points Rebounds Assists Steals Blocks Source: Galanis Sports Data Points Rebounds Assists Steals Blocks Source: Galanis Sports Data Official HEBA Site Official Hellenic Basketball Federation Site A1 League at Sportime magazine Galanis Sports Data
Love Bug is the second album by American organist Reuben Wilson recorded in 1969 and released on the Blue Note label. The CD reissue added one bonus track; the Allmusic review by Stephen Thomas Erlewine awarded the album 4 stars and stated "Love Bug was an attempt to establish Reuben Wilson as an organist with either the vision of Larry Young or the fiery style of John Patton, while it comes up short on both accounts, it remains quite enjoyable". All compositions by Reuben Wilson except as noted "Hot Rod" - 6:26 "I'm Gonna Make You Love Me" - 5:32 "I Say a Little Prayer" - 8:10 "Love Bug" - 8:11 "Stormy" - 5:46 "Back Out" - 8:12 "Hold On, I'm Comin'" - 7:57 Bonus track on CD reissue Reuben Wilson - organ Lee Morgan - trumpet George Coleman - tenor saxophone Grant Green - guitar Leo Morris - drums
Johann Friedrich Schulze was a German organ builder, from a family of organ builders. The company built major organs in Northern England. Schulze was born in the only child of Johann Andreas Schulze and his wife. In 1806, he joined his father's company, trained by Johann Benjamin Witzmann in Stadtilm, he moved its location in 1826 to Paulinzella. He was known as one of Europe's most famous organ builders, he and Eberhard Friedrich Walcker are regarded as leaders in productivity and progressivity in the trade. Schulze married Johanna Dorothea Sophia from Oberrottenbach in 1820, they had a daughter and six sons, two of whom, Edmund Schulze and Eduard Schulze became organ builders. Among his students were Friedrich Wilhelm Winzer, Friedrich Albert Mehmel, Wilhelm Heerwagen and the brothers Karl-August and Heinrich Louis Witzmann, he died in Paulinzella. His two sons took over the family business, named "J. F. Schulzes Söhne", they were assisted by their brother Oskar Schulze, another brother, Herwart Schulze, who worked as a sculptor.
In 1881, when all brothers had died, the company was dissolved. More than 100 organs by Johann Friedrich Schulze are known, including: 1815 Dorfkirche Horba, his first work 1827 Stadtkirche in Rastenberg, built with Johann Gottlob Töpfer from Weimar 1830 Church in Gräfinau-Angstedt 1831 St. Martin in Heiligenstadt 1843 St. Michaelis in Heringen, Thuringia 1845 St. Jacobi in Berlin 1847 Reformed Church Iserlohn 1850 Bremen Cathedral 1851 Main organ at the Marienkirche in Lübeck 1851 The Crystal Palace, London 1853 Marienkirche in Rügenwalde, Pomerania 1857 St. Nikolai in Hausen 1857 Unserer lieben Frauen Works by his sons included: 1868: St. Bartholomew's Church, Leeds 1868: St. Matthias, Eischleben 1869 Große Kirche Aplerbeck Hans-Christian Tacke: Johann Gottlob Töpfer, Leben - Werk - Wirksamkeit. Kassel 2002, ISBN 3-7618-1577-8. Markus Vette, Rolf Bothe, Albrecht Lobenstein: Zur Restaurierung der Schulze-Orgel in der Coudray-Kirche in Rastenberg. Eugenia-Verlag, Rastenberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-938853-15-3.
Wolfram Hackel: Die Orgelbauerfamilie Schulze. In: Einweihung der restaurierten Schulze-Orgel in der Reformierten Kirche Iserlohn. 40 Jahre Evangelische Kantorei Iserlohn. Iserlohn, 1994. Archiv der ev.-luth. Kirchgemeinde Königsee: Traubuch von Milbitz und Oberrottenbach: entry of 15 June 1820, seen 8 May 2017 Literature by and about Johann Friedrich Schulze in the German National Library catalogue