Fenugreek is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop, its seeds and leaves are common ingredients in dishes from Central Asia. Fenugreek is believed to have been brought into cultivation in the Near East, it is uncertain which wild strain of the genus Trigonella gave rise to domesticated fenugreek, charred fenugreek seeds have been recovered from Tell Halal and Bronze Age levels of Lachish and desiccated seeds from the tomb of Tutankhamen. Cato the Elder lists fenugreek with vetch as crops grown to feed cattle. In one first-century A. D. recipe, the Romans flavoured wine with fenugreek. In the 1st century AD, in Galilee, it was grown as a staple food, as Josephus mentions it in his book, the Wars of the Jews; the English name derives via Middle French fenugrec from Latin faenugraecum, faenum Graecum meaning "Greek hay". India is a major producer, with fenugreek production in India derived from numerous states.
Rajasthan accounts for over 80% of India's output. Fenugreek is used as a herb and vegetable. Sotolon is the chemical responsible for the distinctive maple syrup smell of fenugreek. Cuboid-shaped, yellow- to amber-coloured fenugreek seeds are encountered in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, used both whole and powdered in the preparation of pickles, vegetable dishes and spice mixes such as panch phoron and sambar powder, they are roasted to reduce bitterness and enhance flavour. Fresh fenugreek leaves are an ingredient in some curries, such as with potatoes in cuisines of the Indian subcontinent to make "aloo methi" curry. Sprouted seeds and fenugreek greens are used in salads; when harvested as greens, fenugreek is known as samudra methi in Maharashtra in and around Mumbai, where it is grown in sandy tracts near the sea, hence the name samudra, "ocean" in Sanskrit. Samudra methi is grown in dry river beds in the Gangetic plains; when sold as a vegetable, the young plants are harvested with their roots still attached and sold in small bundles in the markets and bazaars.
Any remaining soil is washed off to extend their shelf life. In Turkish cuisine, fenugreek seeds are used for making a paste known as çemen. Cumin, black pepper, other spices are added into it to make pastırma. In Persian cuisine, fenugreek leaves are called shanbalile, they are the key ingredient and one of several greens incorporated into ghormeh sabzi and eshkeneh as common Iranian dishes. In Egyptian cuisine, peasants in Upper Egypt add fenugreek seeds and maize to their pita bread to produce aish merahrah, a staple of their diet. Fenugreek is used in Ethiopian cuisine; the word for fenugreek in Amharic is abesh, the seed is used in Ethiopia as a natural herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes. Yemenite Jews following the interpretation of Rabbi Shelomo Yitzchak believe fenugreek, which they call hilbeh, helba, or halba "חילבה", to be the Talmudic rubia "רוביא"; when the seed kernels are ground and mixed with water they expand. The relish is called hilbeh, it is eaten daily and ceremonially during the meal of the first and/or second night of the Jewish New Year, Rosh Hashana.
In a 100 g amount, fenugreek seeds provide 1,350 kilojoules of food energy and contain 9% water, 58% carbohydrates, 23% protein and 6% fat, with calcium at 40% of the Daily Value. Fenugreek seeds are a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, dietary minerals manganese and iron. Fenugreek sprouts, cultivated from a single specific batch of seeds imported from Egypt into Germany in 2009, were implicated as the source of the 2011 outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Germany and France. Identification of a common producer and a single batch of fenugreek seeds supports the epidemiologic evidence implicating them as the source of the outbreaks; some people are allergic to fenugreek, people who have peanut allergies or chickpea allergies may have a reaction to fenugreek. Fenugreek seeds can cause diarrhea, abdominal distention, perspiration, a maple-like smell to urine or breast milk. There is a risk of hypoglycemia in people with diabetes; because of the high content of coumarin-like compounds in fenugreek, it may interfere with the activity and dosing of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.
Fenugreek may affect uterine contractions and may be unsafe for women with hormone-sensitive cancers. It causes birth defects in animals and there are reports that it causes birth defects in humans, that it can pass through the placenta. In traditional medicine, fenugreek is thought to promote digestion, induce labour, reduce blood sugar levels in diabetics, although the evidence that fenugreek has any therapeutic worth is lacking. In herbalism, fenugreek is thought to increase breast milk supply in nursing mothers; this is not supported by good medical evidence and fenugreek intake is not recommended for this purpose. Fenugreek is sometimes used as animal feed, it provides a green fodder palatable to ruminants. The seeds are used to feed fish, domestic rabbits and ruminants. Fenugreek seeds and leaves contain the molecule sotolone, which imparts the aroma of fenugreek and
Ajwain, ajowan, or Trachyspermum ammi—also known as ajowan caraway, bishop's weed, or carom—is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Both the leaves and the seed‑like fruit of the plant are consumed by humans; the name "bishop's weed" is a common name for other plants. The "seed" is confused with lovage "seed". Ajwain's small, oval-shaped, seed-like fruits are pale brown schizocarps, which resemble the seeds of other plants in the Apiaceae family such as caraway and fennel, they have a pungent taste, with a flavor similar to anise and oregano. They smell exactly like thyme because they contain thymol, but they are more aromatic and less subtle in taste, as well as being somewhat bitter and pungent. A small number of fruits tends to dominate the flavor of a dish; the plant is cultivated in Iran and India. Rajasthan produced about 55% of India's total output in 2006; the fruits are eaten raw. This allows the spice to develop a more complex aroma. In Indian cuisine, it is part of a chaunk, a mixture of spices fried in oil or butter, used to flavor lentil dishes.
It is used in South Asian cuisines like Indian and Pakistani cuisine as well, it is an important ingredient for herbal medicine practiced there. In Afghanistan, the fruits are sprinkled over bread and biscuits; the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, sometimes called "Indian borage", are occasionally called "ajwain leaves", with the plant itself sometimes called the ajwain plant. It should not be confused with the true ajwain plant, used for its fruits and whose leaves may or may not be edible. Ajwain is used in traditional Ayurveda for stomach disorders such as indigestion, fatigue, abdominal pain, flatulence and colic. along with respiratory distress and loss of appetite. In Siddha medicine, the crushed fruits are applied externally as a poultice. Hydrodistillation of ajwain fruits yields an essential oil consisting of thymol, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, more than 20 trace compounds which are predominantly terpenoids. Ajwain from The Encyclopedia of Spices
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. It is the most consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon and sausage are examples of preserved pork. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most popular meat in Eastern and Southeastern Asia, is very common in the Western world in Central Europe, it is prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish and Rastafarian dietary law, for religious reasons, with several suggested possible causes. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, sausage, galantines, pâtés, confit from pig. Intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavors that are derived from the preservation processes.
In 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers; the members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only "raw" meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard; the charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, sausages, bacon and head cheese. Before the mass production and re-engineering of pigs in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, apples have been a staple pairing to fresh pork; the year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates. Pigs are the most eaten animal in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide.
Consumption varies from place to place. The meat is taboo to eat in the Middle East and most of the Muslim world because of Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal dietary restrictions. But, pork is consumed in East and Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; as the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Jamón is the most famous Spanish inlay, made with the front legs of a pig. Feijoada for example, the national dish of Brazil, is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears and feet. According to the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006. Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, a further 5% increase projected in 2007. In 2015 recorded total 109.905 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide. By 2017, half the world's pork was consumed in China. Pork is popular throughout eastern Asia and the Pacific, where whole roast pig is a popular item in Pacific Island cuisine.
It is consumed in a great many ways and esteemed in Chinese cuisine. China is the world's largest pork consumer, with pork consumption expected to total 53 million tons in 2012, which accounts for more than half of global pork consumption. In China, pork is preferred over beef for aesthetic reasons. Domestic pigs feed on human waste, thus reducing cost of feeding and helping in recycling; the colours of the meat and the fat of pork are regarded as more appetizing, while the taste and smell are described as sweeter and cleaner. It is considered easier to digest. In rural tradition, pork is shared to form bonding. In China, pork is so important that the nation maintains a "strategic pork reserve". Red braised pork, a delicacy from Hunan Province, inspired Mao Zedong. Other popular Chinese pork dishes are sweet and sour pork and charsiu. In the Philippines, due to 300 years of Spanish colonization and influence, an entire roasted suckling pig, is the national delicacy. Pork may be cured over time. Cured meat products include bacon.
The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh meat cuts, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide. Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a suckling pig, the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Danish roast pork or flæskesteg, prepared with crispy crackling is a national favourite as the traditional Christmas dinner. Pork is common as an ingredient in sausages. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including chorizo, Cumberland sausage and salami. Many brands of American hot dogs and most breakfast sausages are made from pork. Processing of pork into sausages and other products in France is described as charcuterie. Ham and bacon are made from fresh pork by curing with smoking. Shoulders and legs are most cured in this manner for Picnic shoulder and ham, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side. Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, their consumption has increased with industrialisation.
Non-western cuisines use preserved meat produc
The Guraghe people are an Ethiopian Semitic-speaking ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia. The Gurage people traditionally inhabit a fertile, semi-mountainous region in southwest Ethiopia, about 125 kilometers southwest of Addis Ababa, bordering the Awash River in the north, the Gibe River to the southwest, Lake Zway in the east. In addition, according to the 2007 Ethiopian national census the Gurage can be found in large numbers in Addis Ababa, Oromia Region, Dire Dawa, Harari Region, Somali Region, Amhara Region, Gambela Region, Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Tigray Region; the languages spoken by the Guraghe are collectively known as the Gurage languages. The variations among these languages are used to group the Guraghe people into three varied subgroups: Northern and Western. There is no general agreement on how many languages or dialects there are, in particular within the West Gurage grouping; the linguistic status of Gurage, the internal and external relations of the Gurage tongues, have given rise to a good deal of discussion and debate in the literature.
The languages are referred to collectively as " Guraginya " by other Ethiopians. The Gurage speak about 20 languages or Dialects: Soddo, Masqan, Muher, Ezha, Gumer, Gura, mekorikor, Eaner, Zway, Azernet-Berbere and Wuriro; such heavy fragmentation in such a small linguistic enclave is unique in the Semitic world. Guraghe languages is Related with Ge'ez. Guraghe is written left-to-right using a system. According to the historian Paul B. Henze, their origins are explained by traditions of a military expedition to the south during the last years of the Kingdom of Aksum, which left military colonies that became isolated from both northern Ethiopia and each other; however other historians have raised the issue of the complexity of Gurage Peoples if viewed as a singular group, for example Ulrich Braukhamper states that the Gurage East people may have been an extension of the ancient Harla people. Indeed, there is evidence that Harla architecture may have influenced old buildings found near Harar, the Gurage East group cite kinship with Harare peoples in the distant past.
Braukhamper states King Amda Seyon ordered Eritrean troops to be sent to mountainous regions in Gurage, which became a permanent settlement. In addition to Amda Seyon's military settlement there, the permanence of Abyssinian presence in Gurage is documented during his descendants Zara Yacob and Dawit II's reigns. Braukhamper notes that some Amhara troops and their families fled areas in modern-day Gondar and Gojjam into the Gurage region during the Ethiopian-Adal War of the 1530s, since Abyssinia was drastically outgunned by the Adal troops which received supplies and arms from the Ottoman Empire, thus Gurage peoples may be a complex mixture of Abyssinian and other groups which migrated and settled in that region for differing reasons. The majority of the inhabitants of the Gurage Zone were reported as Muslim, with 51.02% of the population reporting that belief, while 41.91% practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 5.79% were Protestants, 1.12% Catholic. According to the 1994 Ethiopian census, self-identifying Gurage comprise about 4.3% of Ethiopia's population, or about 3 million people.
The populations of Gurage people are not known because half of the population live outside of the Gurage zone and many believe that the Gurage people may have the third largest populations, next to the Oromo's and the Amhara's. The Gurage live a sedentary life based on agriculture, involving a complex system of crop rotation and transplanting. Gurage people are known as a model of good work culture in the whole Ethiopia. Ensete is the main staple food, but other cash crops are grown, which include coffee and khat, both traditional stimulants. Animal husbandry is practiced, but for milk supply and dung. Other foods consumed include green cabbage, cheese and roasted grains, with meat consumption being limited; the Gurage, the writer Nega Mezlekia notes, "have earned a reputation as skilled traders". One example of an enterprising Gurage is Tekke, who Nathaniel T. Kenney described as "an Ethiopian Horatio Alger, Jr.": "He began his career selling old bottles and tin cans. The principal crop of the Gurage is ensete.
This has a massive stem, involved in every aspect of Gurage life. It has a place in everyday interactions among community members as well as specific roles in rituals. For example: the ritual uses of Ensete include wrapping a corpse after death with the fronds and tying off the umbilical cord after birth with an ensete fiber. Ensete is exchanged as part of a variety of social interactions, used as a recompense for services rendered. Ensete is involved in every aspect of the daily social and ritual life of the Gurage, with several others tribes in Southwest Ethiopia, form what has been termed the Ensete Culture Complex area... the life of the Gurage is enmeshed with various uses of ensete, not the least of, nutritional. Ensete can be prepared in a variety of ways. A normal Gurage diet consists of kocho, a thick bread made from ensete, is supplemented by cabbage, cheese and grains. Meat is not consumed on a regular basis, but eaten
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods and traditional foods; the aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents, including eugenol. The term "cinnamon" is used to describe its mid-brown colour. Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species referred to as "cassia". In 2016, Indonesia and China produced 75% of the world's supply of cinnamon; the English word "cinnamon", attested in English since the fifteenth century, derives from the Greek κιννάμωμον kinnámōmon, via Latin and medieval French intermediate forms.
The Greek was borrowed from a Phoenician word, similar to the related Hebrew קינמון. The name "cassia", first recorded in late Old English from Latin, derives from Hebrew q'tsīʿāh, a form of the verb qātsaʿ, "to strip off bark". Early Modern English used the names canel and canella, similar to the current names of cinnamon in several other European languages, which are derived from the Latin word cannella, a diminutive of canna, "tube", from the way the bark curls up as it dries. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity, it was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who reported that it had come from China had confused it with cinnamon cassia, a related species. Cinnamon was so prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and for a deity, its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by those in the spice trade to protect their monopoly as suppliers. Cinnamomum verum, which translates as'true cinnamon', is native to India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.
Cinnamomum cassia is native to China. Related species, all harvested and sold in the modern era as cinnamon, are native to Vietnam and other southeast Asian countries with warm climates; the first Greek reference to kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the seventh century BC. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense and labdanum, were guarded by winged serpents. In Ancient Egypt, cinnamon was used to embalm mummies. From Hellenistic times onward, Ancient Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia; the gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cinnamon. Cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on "rafts without rudders or sails or oars", taking advantage of the winter trade winds. Pliny the Elder mentions cassia as a flavouring agent for wine. According to Pliny the Elder, a Roman pound of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 1500 denarii, the wage of fifty months' labour. Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day.
Cinnamon was too expensive to be used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65. Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon remained a mystery to the Western world. From reading Latin writers who quoted Herodotus, Europeans had learned that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but where it came from was less than clear; when the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported – and believed – what he had been told: that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Marco Polo avoided precision on the topic. Herodotus and other authors named Arabia as the source of cinnamon: they recounted that giant "cinnamon birds" collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests, that the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.
Pliny the Elder wrote in the first century that traders had made this up to charge more, but the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310. The first mention that the spice grew in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad about 1270; this was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino in a letter of about 1292. Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, where local traders carried it north to Alexandria in Egypt. Venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria; the disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more for other routes to Asia. During the 1500s, Ferdinand Magellan was searching for spices on behalf of Spain, in the Philippines found Cinnamomum mindanaense, related to C. zeylanicum, the cinnamon found in Sri Lanka.
This cinnamon competed with Sri Lankan cinnamon, controlled by the Portuguese. In 1638, Dutch traders established a trading post in Sri Lanka, took control of the manufactories
Eragrostis tef known as teff, Williams' lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to the Horn of Africa, notably what is today modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. It is cultivated for its edible seeds known as teff. Eragrostis tef is an annual cereal grass belonging to the family of the Poaceae. Teff is an intermediate between a tropical and temperate grass; the name teff is thought to originate from the Amharic word teffa, which means “lost”. This refers to its tiny seeds, which have a diameter smaller than 1 mm. Teff is a fine-stemmed, tufted grass with large crowns and many tillers, its roots develop a massive fibrous rooting system. The plant height varies depending on the environmental conditions; as for many ancient crops, teff can grow in various environmental conditions. Teff originates from the Horn of Africa, corresponding to what is today modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea, where it is one of the most important cereals, it is grown for its tiny seeds and for its straw to feed the cattle.
The small seeds reach a 1000 seed weight of 0.3 to 0.4 grams and can have a color from a white to a deep reddish brown. It is similar to millet and quinoa in cooking, but the seed is much smaller and cooks faster, thus using less fuel. Teff is cultivated in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where it originates, it is one of the most important staple crops in these two countries, where it is used to make injera or keyta. It is now marginally cultivated in India, Germany, the Netherlands, the US in Idaho, South Dakota, Nevada; because of its small seeds, a handful is enough to sow a large area. This property makes teff suited to a seminomadic lifestyle. Teff was one of the earliest plants domesticated. Teff is believed to have originated in Ethiopia between 4000 BC and 1000 BC. Genetic evidence points to E. pilosa as the most wild ancestor. A 19th-century identification of teff seeds from an ancient Egyptian site is now considered doubtful. In Ethiopia, teff is the most important commodity for both consumption.
The flat pancakes injera provide livelihood for around 6.5 million small farmers in the country. In 2006, the Ethiopian government outlawed the export of raw teff, from fear of suffering the same fate as South American countries after the explosion of quinoa consumption in Europe and the US; the Ethiopian government feared that, if exports were allowed, farmers would not be able to provide enough teff to supply the domestic demand anymore. Processed teff, namely the pancake injera, could still be exported and was bought by the Ethiopian diaspora living in northern Europe, the Middle East and North America. After a few years, fears of a domestic shortage of teff in the scenario of an international market opening decreased. Teff yields had been increasing by 40 to 50% over the five previous years while prices had remained stable in Ethiopia; this led the government to lift the export ban in 2015. To ensure that the domestic production would not be minimized, the export licenses have only been granted to 48 commercial farmers which had not cultivated the plant before.
Lack of mechanization is a barrier to potential increases in teff exports. Yet the increasing demand, rising by 7-10% per year, the subsequent increase in exports is encouraging the country to speed up the modernization of agriculture and is boosting research; because of its important potential as a economic success, a few other countries such as the US, the UK, the Netherlands and Spain are cultivating teff and selling it on domestic markets. Teff is a multipurpose crop which has a high importance for the Ethiopian culture. In Ethiopia, teff provides two-thirds of the daily protein intake, it is not only important for human nutrition, but as fodder for livestock, or as building material. Teff is the main ingredient to prepare injera, a sourdough-risen flatbread. During meals, it is eaten with meat or ground pulses. Sometimes it is eaten as porridge. Moreover, teff can be used to prepare different alcoholic drinks, such as beers. Due to its high mineral content, teff is mixed with soybeans, chickpeas or other grains to manufacture baby foods.
According to a study in Ethiopia, farmers indicated a preference among consumers for white teff over darker colored varieties. As a nutritious fodder, teff is used to feed horses in the United States, it is a source of animal feed during the dry season, it is preferred over straw of other cereals. Teff grass can be used as a construction material when mixed with mud to plaster the walls of local grain storage facilities. Teff is adaptable and it can grow in various environments, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 3,200 metres. However, it does not tolerate frost. Highest yields are obtained when teff is grown between 1,800 to 2,100 m, with an annual rainfall of 450 to 550 mm, daily temperatures range from 15 to 27 °C. Yields decrease when annual rainfall falls below 250 mm and when the average temperature during pollination exceeds 22°C. Despite its superficial root system, teff is quite drought-resistant thanks to its ability to regenerate after a moderate water stress and to produce fruits in a short time span.
It is flowers best with 12 hours of daylight. Teff is cultivated on pH neutral soils, but it was no