Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait. Behaviourism as a term describes the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour referring to measured responses to stimuli or to trained behavioural responses in a laboratory context, without a particular emphasis on evolutionary adaptivity. Throughout history, different naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour. Ethology has its scientific roots in the work of Charles Darwin and of American and German ornithologists of the late 19th and early 20th century, including Charles O. Whitman, Oskar Heinroth, Wallace Craig; the modern discipline of ethology is considered to have begun during the 1930s with the work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and of Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch, the three recipients of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Ethology combines laboratory and field science, with a strong relation to some other disciplines such as neuroanatomy and evolutionary biology.
Ethologists show interest in a behavioural process rather than in a particular animal group, study one type of behaviour, such as aggression, in a number of unrelated species. Ethology is a growing field. Since the dawn of the 21st century researchers have re-examined and reached new conclusions in many aspects of animal communication, culture and sexuality that the scientific community long thought it understood. New fields, such as neuroethology, have developed. Understanding ethology or animal behaviour can be important in animal training. Considering the natural behaviours of different species or breeds enables trainers to select the individuals best suited to perform the required task, it enables trainers to encourage the performance of occurring behaviours and the discontinuance of undesirable behaviours. The term ethology derives from the Greek language: ἦθος, ethos meaning "character" and -λογία, -logia meaning "the study of"; the term was first popularized by American myrmecologist William Morton Wheeler in 1902.
Because ethology is considered a topic of biology, ethologists have been concerned with the evolution of behaviour and its understanding in terms of natural selection. In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin, whose 1872 book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals influenced many ethologists, he pursued his interest in behaviour by encouraging his protégé George Romanes, who investigated animal learning and intelligence using an anthropomorphic method, anecdotal cognitivism, that did not gain scientific support. Other early ethologists, such as Charles O. Whitman, Oskar Heinroth, Wallace Craig and Julian Huxley, instead concentrated on behaviours that can be called instinctive, or natural, in that they occur in all members of a species under specified circumstances, their beginning for studying the behaviour of a new species was to construct an ethogram. This provided an objective, cumulative database of behaviour, which subsequent researchers could check and supplement.
Due to the work of Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen, ethology developed in continental Europe during the years prior to World War II. After the war, Tinbergen moved to the University of Oxford, ethology became stronger in the UK, with the additional influence of William Thorpe, Robert Hinde, Patrick Bateson at the Sub-department of Animal Behaviour of the University of Cambridge. In this period, ethology began to develop in North America. Lorenz and von Frisch were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 for their work of developing ethology. Ethology is now a well-recognized scientific discipline, has a number of journals covering developments in the subject, such as Animal Behaviour, Animal Welfare, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Animal Cognition, Behavioral Ecology and Journal of Ethology, Ethology. In 1972, the International Society for Human Ethology was founded to promote exchange of knowledge and opinions concerning human behaviour gained by applying ethological principles and methods and published their journal, The Human Ethology Bulletin.
In 2008, in a paper published in the journal Behaviour, ethologist Peter Verbeek introduced the term "Peace Ethology" as a sub-discipline of Human Ethology, concerned with issues of human conflict, conflict resolution, war and peacekeeping behaviour. In 1972, the English ethologist John H. Crook distinguished comparative ethology from social ethology, argued that much of the ethology that had existed so far was comparative ethology—examining animals as individuals—whereas, in the future, ethologists would need to concentrate on the behaviour of social groups of animals and the social structure within them. E. O. Wilson's book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis appeared in 1975, since that time, the study of behaviour has been much more concerned with social aspects, it has been driven by the stronger, but more sophisticated, Darwinism associated with Wilson, Robert Trivers, W. D. Hamilton; the related development of behavioural ecology has helped transform ethology. Furthermore, a substantial rapprochement with comparative psychology has occurred, so the modern scientific study of behaviour offers a more or less seamless spectrum of approaches: from animal cognition to more traditional comparative psychology, ethology and behavioural ecology.
Comparative psychology studies animal
Mountain Park Dam is located just upstream of Snyder Dam, on Otter Creek near Mountain Park, Oklahoma. Snyder Lake was drained to accommodate construction of Mountain Park Dam restored upon completion of construction, performed by O'Neal Construction, Inc. of Ann Arbor, MI. The lake is maintained at sufficient elevation to provide a plunge pool for water released or spilled from the dam. Mountain Park dam impounds the waters of Tom Steed Reservoir. A thin double-curvature concrete arch flanked by concrete thrust blocks, Mountain Park Dam is 535 feet in length with a maximum structural height of 133 feet; this dam and the rolled earth East and West Dike embankments, which extend 10,311 feet and 13,235 feet form the Tom Steed Reservoir. The reservoir has a total capacity of 117,825 acre feet, an active capacity of 109,276 acre feet, a surface area at the top of conservation pool of 6,400 acres; the outlet works for Mountain Park Dam are in the left thrust block and include three outlet pipes, fish screens and operating slide gates, motor-operated gate hoists.
A 42-inch-diameter, joint-use outlet pipe is provided to release water into the aqueduct system. The joint-use outlet to the aqueduct system contains two gated intakes at elevations 1382.0 and 1401.0 to permit selection of the level of the reservoir from which water is to be withdrawn. This outlet is provided with fish screens; the concrete arch portion of Mountain Park Dam functions as an overflow spillway. The crest is at the top of the exclusive flood control pool at elevation 1,414.0, is 320 feet long measured along the axis of the dam. Concrete piers and training walls at each end of the spillway direct floodwater into and over the crest. Floodwaters fall into a plunge pool energy dissipater at the toe of the dam; the spillway is designed for a maximum discharge of 38,300 cubic feet per second with the reservoir at elevation 1,423.6 feet. Mountain Park Project, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation
Brownhills railway station is a disused railway station in Brownhills, West Midlands, Walsall-Lichfield section of the South Staffordshire Line. It was opened in 1849; the station was built and served by the South Staffordshire Railway, which became the London and Scottish Railway. Unlike Wednesbury and Great Bridge further up the line, this station was never assigned another name when a second station was opened by the Midland Railway, it closed as part of the Beeching Axe in January 1965. Goods trains continued to pass through the site until March 1984, when the line was closed, it is preserved in case the railway line between Lichfield reopens. The trackbed is now a leisure greenway from Walsall to Brownhills. Traces of the former station can still be seen and some track remains down north of Brownhills near Angelsea Sidings