Etiquette is the set of conventional rules of personal behaviour in polite society in the form of an ethical code that delineates the expected and accepted social behaviors that accord with the conventions and norms observed by a society, a social class, or a social group. In modern English usage, the French word étiquette dates from the year 1750. In the 3rd millennium BC, the Ancient Egyptian vizier Ptahhotep wrote The Maxims of Ptahhotep, a book of didactic precepts extolling civil virtues, such as truthfulness, self-control, kindness towards other people. Recurrent thematic motifs in the maxims include learning by listening to other people, that being mindful of the imperfection of human knowledge, avoiding open conflict, wherever possible, should not be considered weakness; some maxims indicate a person's correct behaviours in the presence of great personages. Instructions on how to choose the right master and how to serve him. Other maxims teach the correct way to be a leader, through openness and kindness, that greed is the base of all evil, should be guarded against, that generosity towards family and friends is praiseworthy.

Confucius was the Chinese intellectual and philosopher whose works emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, the pursuit of justice in a personal dealings, sincerity in all personal relations. Baldassare Castiglione, count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier and diplomat and author of The Book of the Courtier, an exemplar courtesy book dealing with questions of the etiquette and morality of the courtier during the Italian Renaissance. Louis XIV, King of France, used a codified etiquette to tame the French nobility and assert his supremacy as the absolute monarch of France. In consequence, the ceremonious royal court favourably impressed foreign dignitaries whom the king received at the seat of French government, the Palace of Versailles, to the south-west of Paris. In the 18th century, during the Age of Enlightenment, the adoption of etiquette was a self-conscious process for acquiring the conventions of politeness and the normative behaviours which symbolically identified the person as a genteel member of the upper class.

To identify with the social élite, the upwardly mobile middle class and the bourgeoisie adopted the behaviours and the artistic preferences of the upper class. To that end ambitious people of the middle classes occupied themselves with learning and practising the rules of social etiquette, such as the arts of elegant dress and gracious conversation, when to show emotion, courtesy with and towards women. In the early 18th century, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, wrote influential essays that defined politeness as the art of being pleasing in company. Periodicals, such as The Spectator, a daily publication founded in 1711 by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele advised their readers on the etiquette required of a gentleman, a man of good and courteous conduct. Conceptually allied to etiquette is the notion of civility which for ambitious men and women became an important personal quality to possess for social advancement. In the event, gentlemen's clubs, such as Harrington's Rota Club, published an in-house etiquette that codified the civility expected of the members.

Besides The Spectator, other periodicals sought to infuse politeness into English coffeehouse conversation, the editors of The Tatler were explicit that their purpose was the reformation of English manners and morals. In the mid-18th century, the first, modern English usage of etiquette was by Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, in the book Letters to His Son on the Art of Becoming a Man of the World and a Gentleman, a correspondence of more than 400 letters written from 1737 until the death of his son, in 1768; the letters were first published in 1774, by Eugenia Stanhope, the widow of the diplomat Philip Stanhope, Chesterfield's bastard son. Throughout the correspondence, Chesterfield endeavoured to decouple the matter of social manners from conventional morality, with perceptive observations that pragmatically argue to Philip that mastery of etiquette was an important means for social advancement, for a man such as he. Chesterfield's elegant, literary style of writing epitomised the emotional restraint characteristic of polite social intercourse in 18th-century society: I would heartily wish that you may be seen to smile, but never heard to laugh while you live.

Frequent and loud laug

Education economics

Education economics or the economics of education is the study of economic issues relating to education, including the demand for education, the financing and provision of education, the comparative efficiency of various educational programs and policies. From early works on the relationship between schooling and labor market outcomes for individuals, the field of the economics of education has grown to cover all areas with linkages to education. Economics distinguishes in addition to physical capital another form of capital, no less critical as a means of production – human capital. With investments in human capital, such as education, three major economic effects can be expected: increased expenses as the accumulation of human capital requires investments just as physical capital does, increased productivity as people gain characteristics that enable them to produce more output and hence return on investment in the form of higher incomes. Investments in human capital entail an investment cost.

In European countries most education expenditure takes the form of government consumption, although some costs are borne by individuals. These investments can be rather costly. EU governments spent between 3% and 8% of GDP on education in 2005, the average being 5%. However, measuring the spending this way alone underestimates the costs because a more subtle form of costs is overlooked: the opportunity cost of forgone wages as students cannot work while they study, it has been estimated that the total costs, including opportunity costs, of education are as much as double the direct costs. Including opportunity costs investments in education can be estimated to have been around 10% of GDP in the EU countries in 2005. In comparison, investments in physical capital were 20% of GDP, thus the two are of similar magnitude. Human capital in the form of education shares many characteristics with physical capital. Both require an investment to create and, once created, both have economic value. Physical capital earns a return because people are willing to pay to use a piece of physical capital in work as it allows them to produce more output.

To measure the productive value of physical capital, we can measure how much of a return it commands in the market. In the case of human capital calculating returns is more complicated – after all, we cannot separate education from the person to see how much it rents for. To get around this problem, the returns to human capital are inferred from differences in wages among people with different levels of education. Hall and Jones have calculated from international data that on average that the returns on education are 13.4% per year for first four years of schooling, 10.1% per year for the next four years and 6.8% for each year beyond eight years. Thus someone with 12 years of schooling can be expected to earn, on average, 1.1344 × 1.1014 × 1.0684 = 3.161 times as much as someone with no schooling at all. Economy-wide, the effect of human capital on incomes has been estimated to be rather significant: 65% of wages paid in developed countries is payments to human capital and only 35% to raw labor.

The higher productivity of well-educated workers is one of the factors that explain higher GDPs and, higher incomes in developed countries. A strong correlation between GDP and education is visible among the countries of the world, as is shown by the upper left figure, it is less clear, how much of a high GDP is explained by education. After all, it is possible that rich countries can afford more education. To distinguish the part of GDP explained with education from other causes, Weil has calculated how much one would expect each country's GDP to be higher based on the data on average schooling; this was based on the above-mentioned calculations of Jones on the returns on education. GDPs predicted by Weil's calculations can be plotted against actual GDPs, as is done in the figure on the left, demonstrating that the variation in education explains some, but not all, of the variation in GDP; the matter of externalities should be considered. When speaking of externalities one thinks of the negative effects of economic activities that are not included in market prices, such as pollution.

These are negative externalities. However, there are positive externalities – that is, positive effects of which someone can benefit without having to pay for it. Education bears with it major positive externalities: giving one person more education raises not only his or her output but the output of those around him or her. Educated workers can bring new technologies and information to the consideration of others, they can act as an example. The positive externalities of education include the effects of personal networks and the roles educated workers play in them. Positive externalities from human capital are one explanation for why governments are involved in education. If people were left on their own, they would not take into account the full social benefit of education – in other words the rise in the output and wages of others – so the amount they would choose to obtain would be lower than the social optimum; the dominant model of the demand for education is based on human capital theory.

The central idea is that undertaking education is investment in the acquisition of skills and knowledge which will increase earnings, or provide long-term benefits such as an appreciation of literature. An increase in human capital can follow technological progress as knowledgeable employees are in demand due to the need for their skills, whether it be in understanding the production process or in operating machines. St

Geraldine Roman

Geraldine Batista Roman is a Filipino journalist and politician. She was elected as the Representative of the 1st District of Bataan following the 2016 Philippine elections, becoming the first transgender woman elected to the Congress of the Philippines, she was named as one of the 100 Leading Global Thinkers of 2016 by US-based Foreign Policy magazine. Geraldine Roman, born in 1967, was the second of four children born into the family of politicians Herminia Roman and Antonino Roman, Jr, she spent her early childhood in Bataan. She was teased by her classmates but her father taught her to be confident. Roman attended the basic education unit of Ateneo de Manila University for her elementary and high school studies. For her collegiate studies, she attended the University of the Philippines Diliman, she managed to secure a scholarship to pursue journalism at the University of the Basque Country in Spain and attained two Master's degrees. She worked in Spain as a senior editor for the Spanish News Agency before returning to the Philippines in 2012 to take care of her father, ill by that time.

During the 2016 Philippine elections, Roman ran under the Liberal Party banner for the position of 1st District Representative for Bataan in the House of Representatives. She competed against Hermosa mayor Danilo Malana of Aksyon Demokratiko and won with more than 62% of the total votes and became the first transgender congresswoman in the Congress of the Philippines. Roman succeeded her mother Hermina Roman, who had a limited term. She, along with other elected lawmakers, launched the passage of the anti-discrimination bill on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity through a speech in the House of Representatives that garnered international support for LGBT rights in the Philippines, she filed bills regarding eco-tourism, livelihood enhancements, agriculture advancements and education, which were the advocacies of her family, were focused on the first district of Bataan. She was named as one of the "13 Inspiring Women of 2016" by Time magazine in October 2016, she left the Liberal Party in May 2017 and transferred to PDP–Laban, the current ruling political party of the Philippines, to hasten the House passage of the bills that she supported.

In September 2017, the SOGIE Equality Bill passed unanimously in the House of Representatives, after 17 years of political limbo, with no lawmakers voting against it. In January 2018, along with the House Speaker, filed House Bill 6595, which seeks to legalize civil unions, regardless of gender. In February, Roman became the first transgender official of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. In August 2018, she filed the Regional Investment and Infrastructure Council Act, which sought to create special economic zones in Luzon. In September, Roman became the first committee chair of the newly-created House Committee on Disaster Management. In October, she again pushed for the same-sex civil union bill, adding that the "sky will not fall" if the bill is passed. During the same month, she filed her certificate of candidacy for reelection in her district. In November 2018, during the first meeting of the House Committee on Disaster Management which she chairs, Roman prioritized the rehabilitation of the war-torn Islamic City of Marawi.

In the 2019 Philippine elections, Roman ran under the PDP–Laban banner for the position of 1st District Representative for Bataan in the House of Representatives. She competed against Emelita Justo Lubag of Katipunan ng Demokratikong Pilipino and won with 91% of the total votes. Veterans Affairs and Welfare, Chairperson Women and Gender Equality, Vice Chairperson Appropriations, Member of the Majority Climate Change, Member of the Majority Poverty Alleviation, Member of the Majority Sustainable Development Goals, Member of the Majority HB05225AN ACT MANDATING THE PROVISION OF FREE WI-FI INTERNET ACCESS IN PUBLIC AREAS Status: Republic Act RA10929 enacted on 2017-08-02 HB05563AN ACT DECLARING APRIL 21 OF EVERY YEAR A SPECIAL NONWORKING HOLIDAY IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ORANI, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS FOUNDING ANNIVERSARY, TO BE KNOWN AS "ORANI FOUNDATION DAY" Status: Republic Act RA11145 enacted on 2018-11-09 HB06178AN ACT DECLARING JANUARY 11 OF EVERY YEAR A SPECIAL NONWORKING HOLIDAY IN THE PROVINCE OF BATAAN IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS FOUNDING ANNIVERSARY, TO BE KNOWN AS " BATAAN FOUNDATION DAY " Status: Republic Act RA11138 enacted on 2018-11-09 HB07525AN ACT INCREASING THE MONTHLY PENSION OF SENIOR VETERANS THEREBY AMENDING RA 6948, AS AMENDED Status: Republic Act RA11164 enacted on 2018-12-20 HB08636AN ACT INSTITUTIONALIZING A NATIONAL INTEGRATED CANCER CONTROL PROGRAM AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR Status: Republic Act RA11215 enacted on 2019-02-14 HB08794AN ACT DEFINING GENDER-BASED SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN STREETS, PUBLIC SPACES, ONLINE, WORKPLACES, AND EDUCATIONAL OR TRAINING INSTITUTIONS, PROVIDING PROTECTIVE MEASURES AND PRESCRIBING PENALTIES THEREFOR Status: Republic Act RA11313 enacted on 2019-04-17 Roman expressed her support for a federal form of government in the Philippines, but stated that she will introduce a clause that aims to guarantee the country's territorial integrity as she perceives that a federal system without such clause will lead to separatism due to the country's various ethnic groups and regionalism.

She cited the Spanish federal system as a possible reference for the Philippines' federal prospects. Roman voted to approve a bill to reinstate the death penalty in the Philippines during its final reading in March 29, 2017, which met criticism online, she explained that she needed to compromise in order for h