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Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus is a genus of over seven hundred species of flowering trees, shrubs or mallees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Along with other genera in the tribe Eucalypteae, they are known as eucalypts. Plants in the genus Eucalyptus have bark, either smooth, hard or stringy, leaves with oil glands, sepals and petals that are fused to form a "cap" or operculum over the stamens; the fruit is a woody capsule referred to as a "gumnut". Most species of Eucalyptus are native to Australia, every state and territory has representative species. About three-quarters of Australian forests are eucalypt forests. Wildfire is a feature of the Australian landscape and many eucalypt species are adapted to fire, resprout after fire or have seeds which survive fire. A few species are native to islands north of Australia and a smaller number are only found outside the continent. Eucalypts have been grown in plantations in many other countries because they are fast growing and have valuable timber, or can be used for pulpwood, for honey production or essential oils.

In some countries, they have been removed because they are flammable. Eucalypts vary in habit from shrubs to tall trees. Trees have a single main stem or trunk but many eucalypts are mallees that are multistemmed from ground level and taller than 10 metres. There is no clear distinction between a mallee and a shrub but in eucalypts, a shrub is a mature plant less than 1 metre tall and growing in an extreme environment. E. vernicosa in the Tasmanian highlands, E. yalatensis on the Nullarbor and E. surgens growing on coastal cliffs in Western Australia are examples of eucalypt shrubs. The terms "mallet" and "marlock" are only applied to Western Australian eucalypts. A mallet is a tree with a single thin trunk with a steeply branching habit but lacks both a lignotuber and epicormic buds. E. astringens is an example of a mallet. A marlock is a shrub or small tree with a single, short trunk, that lacks a lignotuber and has spreading, densely leafy branches that reach to the ground. E. platypus is an example of a marlock.

Eucalyptus trees, including mallees and marlocks, are single-stemmed and include Eucalyptus regnans, the tallest known flowering plant on Earth. The term "morrell" is somewhat obscure in origin and appears to apply to trees of the western Australian wheatbelt and goldfields which have a long, straight trunk rough-barked, it is now used for E. longicornis and E. melanoxylon. Tree sizes follow the convention of: Small: to 10 m in height Medium-sized: 10–30 m Tall: 30–60 m Very tall: over 60 m All eucalypts add a layer of bark every year and the outermost layer dies. In about half of the species, the dead bark is shed exposing a new layer of living bark; the dead bark may be shed in ribbons or in small flakes. These species are known as "smooth barks" and include E. sheathiana, E. diversicolor, E. cosmophylla and E. cladocalyx. The remaining species retain the dead bark which accumulates. In some of these species, the fibres in the bark are loosely intertwined or more adherent. In some species the rough bark is infused with gum resin.

Many species are ‘half-barks’ or ‘blackbutts’ in which the dead bark is retained in the lower half of the trunks or stems — for example, E. brachycalyx, E. ochrophloia, E. occidentalis — or only in a thick, black accumulation at the base, as in E. clelandii. In some species in this category, for example E. youngiana and E. viminalis, the rough basal bark is ribbony at the top, where it gives way to the smooth upper stems. The smooth upper bark of the half-barks and that of the smooth-barked trees and mallees can produce remarkable colour and interest, for example E. deglupta. E. Globulus bark cells are able to photosynthesize in the absence of foliage, conferring an "increased capacity to re-fix internal CO2 following partial defoliation"; this allows the tree to grow in less-than-ideal climates, in addition to providing a better chance of recovery from damage sustained to its leaves in an event such as a fire. Different recognised types of bark include: Stringybark — consists of long fibres and can be pulled off in long pieces.

It is thick with a spongy texture. Ironbark — is hard and furrowed, it is impregnated with dried kino which gives a dark red or black colour. Tessellated — bark is broken up into many distinct flakes, they can flake off. Box — has short fibres; some show tessellation. Ribbon -- is still loosely attached in some places, they can be firmer strips, or twisted curls. Nearly all eucalyptus are evergreen, but some tropical species lose their leaves at the end of the dry season; as in other members of the myrtle family, eucalyptus leaves are covered with oil glands. The copious oils produced are an important feature of the genus. Although mature eucalyptus trees may be towering and leafed, their shade is characteristically patchy because the leaves hang downwards; the leaves on a mature eucalyptus plant are lanceolate, petiolate alternate and waxy or glossy green. In contrast, the leaves of seedlings are opposite and glaucous, but many exceptions to this pattern exist. Many species such as E. melanophloia and E. setosa retain the juvenile leaf form when the plant is reproductively mature.

Some species, such as E. macrocarpa, E. rhodantha, E. crucis, are soug

North Church (Alania)

North Church, is an early 10th-century Alanian church located in Arkhyz, a mountainous region of Karachay-Cherkessia. North Church served as the Cathedral of the Alanian Empire during the 10th -13th centuries; the church was constructed using sandstone. The plan has the shape of a cross; the length of the church without narthex is 21 meters. Some of the frescoes of the late 19th century were painted by DM Strukov. Fragments of ancient plaster without the paint layer, have been preserved during the restoration of the walls of the church. According to v. a. Kuznetsov North Church was constructed from 914-916 and was dedicated to St. Nicholas the miracle worker. Inside the church are an ancient baptistery and cemetery near the south wall. Zelenchuksky Churches Senty Church Shoana Church

Out of Doors (Bartók)

Out of Doors is a set of five piano solo pieces, Sz.. 81, BB 89, written by Béla Bartók in 1926. Out of Doors is among the few instrumental compositions by Bartók with programmatic titles. Out of Doors contains the following five pieces with approximate duration based on metronome markings: "With Drums and Pipes" – Pesante. 1 min 45s "Barcarolla" – Andante. 2 min 17 s "Musettes" – Moderato. 2 min 35 s "The Night's Music" – Lento – più andante. 4 min 40 s "The Chase" – Presto. 2 min – 2 min 12 s After World War I, Bartók was prevented from continuing his folk music field research outside Hungary. This increased the development of his own personal style, marked by a sublimation of folk music into art music. Bartók composed Out of Doors in the'piano year' of 1926, together with his Piano Sonata, his First Piano Concerto, Nine Little Pieces; this fruitful year followed a period of little compositional activity. The main trigger to start composing again was Bartók's attendance on 15 March 1926 of a performance of Stravinsky's Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments in Budapest with the composer as pianist.

This piece and Bartók's compositions of 1926 are marked by the treatment of the piano as a percussion instrument. Bartók wrote in early 1927: It seems to me that the inherent nature becomes expressive only by means of the present tendency to use the piano as a percussion instrument. Another influence on the style of his piano compositions of 1926 was his study and editing of French and Italian -Baroque keyboard music in the early 1920s, he wrote the work for his new wife, the pianist Ditta Pásztory-Bartók, whom he had married in 1923 shortly after divorcing his first wife, who had given him his second son in 1924. Although the set is referred to as a suite, Bartók did not play the set in its entirety, he premièred the first and fifth pieces on the Hungarian radio on 8 December 1926, played the fourth piece separately on numerous occasions. He referred to the set in a letter to his publisher as "five difficult piano pieces", i.e. not as a suite. An arch form in the set has been proposed, with successive tonal centers of E-G-A-G-E, but different tonal centers have been suggested, e.g. D-G-D-G-F.

Nissman shows how individual pieces' motives and endings lead logically into the following piece within the set. Out of Doors was published in two volumes: one contained the first three pieces and the other the last two; the compositional process sheds some light on the interrelation of the five pieces. Bartók's first sketches show pieces 1 and 2 as published; the third piece was added based on unused material for the third movement of the Piano Sonata. Notably, the two final pieces, 4 and 5, form one continuous piece, numbered "3" in the sketches. Bartók applied this juxtaposition of "The Night's Music" in a slow tempo with a presto section in a single piece/movement in the second movement of his Second Piano Concerto; this is the only piece in the set which can be traced to a specific folk song, Gólya, gólya, gilice. Bartók called his piece in Hungarian Síppal, dobbal... translated With a whistle, with a drum... which for Hungarians is up to this day an obvious quote from this folk song. The main motive of Bartók's piece is found in bars 9 and 10.

This motive is taken from bars 6 of the folk song. The only change Bartók made was to accommodate the syncopation; the song text in literal translation: Stork, what made your leg bloody? A Turkish child cut a Hungarian child cured it. With a whistle, with a drum, with a reed violin. Károly Viski quotes this song in reference to the shamanistic origin of the text: If we remember that the Hungarians, like many other people, were adherents of Shamanism in a certain period of their ancient history, these remnants can be understood, but the Shaman, the priest of the pagan Shamanism, is not only a fortune teller, he is a doctor and magician, who drives away illnesses and cures them not with medicines, but with magic spells and songs. And if “he wants to hide”-that is in modern parlance- if he wants to fall into trance, besides other things, he prepares himself by dancing, singing and by performing to the accompaniment of drums ceremonial exercises Traces of this can be found to this day in Hungarian folklore.

The quotation from the folk song that Bartók used contains only the trichord on the second degree of the tonal center in the song: E, F♯, G. In Bartók's piece, this motive makes the tonal center E. Yet, just like the folk song, the piece comes home to the first degree: the tonal center D appears in the piece at the end of the legato B section and the repeat of the A section; the piece is in ternary form with a coda. The opening and coda sections consist of imitations of drums and lower wind instruments—"pipes". A less percussive, legato treatment of the piano is called for in the middle section in the middle and higher register, imitating gentler wind instruments. Bartók made a sketch of an orchestration for this piece in 1931, using for the opening section timpani and gran cassa and -bassoons and trombones; the title refers to a type of small bagpipe. Bartók's was inspired by Couperin; the piece consists of imitating the sound effects of a poorly tuned pair of musettes. There is little