Eucratides I

Eucratides I, sometimes called Eucratides the Great, was one of the most important Greco-Bactrian kings, descendants of dignitaries of Alexander the Great. He replaced it with his own lineage, he fought against the Indo-Greek kings, the easternmost Hellenistic rulers in northwestern India, temporarily holding territory as far as the Indus, until he was defeated and pushed back to Bactria. Eucratides had a prestigious coinage, suggesting a rule of considerable importance. Eucratides came to the throne by overthrowing the dynasty of Euthydemus I in Bactria, whose son Demetrius was conquering northwestern India; the king whom Eucratides dethroned in Bactria was Antimachus I. It is unclear whether Eucratides was a Bactrian official who raised a rebellion, or, according to some scholars, a cousin of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, trying to regain the Bactrian territory. Justin explains that Eucratides acceded to the throne at about the same time as Mithridates, whose rule is known to have started in 171 BC, thereby giving an approximate date for the accession of Eucratides: "Around the same time, two great men started to rule: Mithridates among the Parthians, Eucratides among the Bactrians" Justin XLI,6Some of the coins of Eucratides represent his parents, where his father is named Heliocles, his mother, thought to be Laodice, is wearing a royal diadem.

Laodice may have been a member of the Seleucid imperial house. Having become master of Bactria, Eucratides conquered the western parts of the Indo-Greek kingdom. According to the single remaining source, Roman historian Justin, Eucratides defeated Demetrius of India, but the identity of this king is uncertain: he could be either Demetrius I, or Demetrius II. "Eucratides led many wars with great courage, while weakened by them, was put under siege by Demetrius, king of the Indians. He made numerous sorties, managed to vanquish 60,000 enemies with 300 soldiers, thus liberated after four months, he put India under his rule" Justin XLI,6Numismatic evidence suggests that Eucratides I was a contemporary of the Indo-Greek kings Apollodotus I, Antimachus II and Menander I. In any case, Eucratides' advances into India are proved by his abundant bilingual coinage. In the west the Parthian king Mithradates I attacked Eucratides. Eucratides I is most the founder of Eucratideia. Justin ends his account of Eucratides' life by claiming that the warlike king was murdered on his way back from India by his own son, who hated his father so much that he dragged his dead body after his chariot: "As Eucratides returned from India, he was killed on the way back by his son, whom he had associated to his rule, who, without hiding his patricide, as if he didn't kill a father but an enemy, ran with his chariot over the blood of his father, ordered the corpse to be left without a sepulture" Justin XLI,6The murder of Eucratides brought about a civil war amongst the members of the dynasty.

The successors to Eucratides were Eucratides II and Heliocles I, the last Greek king to reign in Bactria. Once the Yuezhi tribes overpowered Heliocles, the Greco-Bactrians lost control of the provinces north of the Hindu Kush. Two other members of the dynasty were Plato of Bactria and Demetrius II, who in that case was not identical with the king Justin claimed was the enemy of Eucratides I; the rule of the Greco-Bactrians soon crumbled following these numerous wars: "The Bactrians, involved in various wars, lost not only their rule but their freedom, as, exhausted by their wars against the Sogdians, the Arachotes, the Dranges, the Arians and the Indians, they were crushed, as if drawn of all their blood, by an enemy weaker than them, the Parthians." Justin, XLI,6However, the rule of the Indo-Greeks over territories south of the Hindu Kush lasted for a further 150 years collapsing under the pressure of the Yüeh-chih and Scythian invasions in around 10 BC, with the last Indo-Greek ruler Strato II.

Full account of Justin on Eucratides: "Almost at the same time that Mithridates ascended the throne among the Parthians, Eucratides began to reign among the Bactrians. But the fortune of the Parthians, being the more successful, raised them, under this prince, to the highest degree of power. Eucratides, carried on several wars with great spirit, though much reduced by his losses in them, when he was besieged by Demetrius king of the Indians, with a garrison of only three hundred soldiers, he repulsed, by continual sallies, a force of sixty thousand enemies. Having accordingly escaped, after a five months’ siege, he reduced India under his power, but as he was returning from the country, he was killed on his march by his son, with whom he had shared his throne, and, so far from concealing the murder, that, as if he had killed an enemy, not his father, he drove his chariot through his blood, ordered his body to be cast out unburied." Da Afghanistan Bank, the central bank of Afghanistan, in its seal has a Eucratides I-era coin having the Greek text, "ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ"

Donald Duck Weekblad

Donald Duck is the Netherlands' flagship weekly Disney comics magazine, first published on October 25, 1952. The magazine was published by the staff of the women's magazine Margriet, every Margriet subscriber received the first issue for free; the comic is aimed at younger children, includes a letters page from readers. In 2019, the magazine reached its 3,500th issue. A 2014 study by Nationaal Onderzoek Multimedia of comic book reading among Dutch children ages 6–12 during the past year, placed Donald Duck as most read comic book, Donald Duck Extra as second place, before Kidsweek, Nickelodeon magazine and National Geographic junior. In 2014 it was read by 1.6 million Dutch citizens above the age of 13, out of which 940.000 men and 660.000 women. In 2008 it was the most read magazine among Dutch students. In 2012, Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte appeared in Donald Duck. Rutte said. In 2013, Donald Duck became a museum guard and was chased down canals, in honor of the reopening of the Rijksmuseum and the 400 year anniversary of the Canals of Amsterdam.

Weekblad Donald Duck at Duckipedia

J-14 (magazine)

J-14 is a monthly teenage magazine marketed at preteen and teenage girls around age 11-19. It is one of the earliest teen celebrity magazines; the magazine was among the top children's magazines in the 2012 list of Forbes. J-14 was founded in 1998; the first issue of the magazine was released in January 1999. It was started by Bauer Publishing, the United States division of the German firm Bauer Verlagsgruppe; the contents of these magazines include features like teen gossip, fashion and information on celebrities that pertain to the readers. The name of the publication is a sound-alike abbreviation of its tagline "Just For Teens"; the headquarters of J-14 is in New Jersey. In April 2015, the Spanish language online edition of J-14 was launched. American Media, Inc. acquired Bauer's US children's magazines in 2018. An annual survey in 2007 by Experian Simmons Research of Fort Lauderdale, Florida found that J-14 tied Nickelodeon Magazine among American girls 8–14 for familiarity, with nearly one in three girls in that age group surveyed saying they had read or looked at the magazine.

Circulation was 217,183 copies in 2006. J-14 Official Web Site J-14 Official Spanish Web Site