click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gargantuavis

Gargantuavis is an extinct genus of large, primitive bird containing the single species Gargantuavis philoinos. It is the only member of the monotypic family Gargantuaviidae, its fossils were discovered in several formations dating to 73.5 and 71.5 million years ago in what is now northern Spain, southern France, Romania. Gargantuavis is the largest known bird of the Mesozoic, a size ranging between the cassowary and the ostrich, a mass of 140 kg like modern ostriches, exemplifying the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs was not a necessary condition for the emergence of giant terrestrial birds, it was once thought to be related to modern birds, but the 2019 discovery of a pelvis from what was Hateg Island shows several primitive features. Its femur shows, not adapted for running. Due to fragmentary remains, many aspects of its biology and ecology are unknown, such as its diet, it coexisted with large predators like abelisaurid theropods, herbivores such as ankylosaurians and titanosaurian sauropods, as well as pterosaurs, turtles and various archaic birds.

The first Gargantuavis fossil was found in 1995 in Var, southeastern France. This first specimen, a fragmentary set of pelvic vertebrae, was uncovered near the village of Fox-Amphoux in a paleontological excavation and described by French paleontologists Eric Buffetaut and Jean Le Loeuff, who noted the synsacrum's similarity to that of modern birds. Several other specimens were found further west, near the villages of Villespassans and Campagne-sur-Aude, providing enough fossil material to describe and name the species in 1998; the genus name refers to Gargantua, the giant and protagonist of the 16th-century French novel The Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel by Francois Rabelais, the Latin avis. The species name philoinos, meaning "one who likes wine", was chosen because several of the first Gargantuavis bones were found in and around vineyards and wineries. Gargantuavis specimens are known from six localities in Europe: The Bastide-Neuve locality, near Fox-Amphoux, yielded the initial specimen reported in 1995, two other partial pelvic fragments described in 2015, a possible rib fragment found in association with BN 763.

The Bellevue locality, near Campagne-sur-Aude, yielded another partial pelvis, deemed the holotype in the 1998 description of the genus. This site has been dated to the early Maastrichtian, about 71.5 million years ago. The Combebelle locality, near Villespassans, yielded a large femur lacking the distal end, referred to the genus in its initial 1998 description; the Montplo-Nord locality, near Cruzy, yielded a single neck vertebra, referred to the genus in 2013. A synsacrum fragment and an incomplete left illium, both described in 2016, were found at this locality. More this site has yielded a complete femur of 23 cm, belonging to an individual of about 50 kg. A quarry near the village of Laño in northern Spain yielded a partial syncranum described in 2017, the only specimen known outside of France; this locality has been dated to the late Campanian age of the late Cretaceous, about 72 to 73.5 million years ago. The Sânpetru Formation of Romania–what was Hateg Island–yielded a pelvis in 2019.

Its discovery here revises earlier ideas of the bird being endemic to the Ibero-Armorican Island. Though Gargantuavis is only known from a few isolated fossil bones, some information about its life appearance and ecology have been inferred by studying their details. Gargantuavis is known from several specimens representing a few limited parts of the skeleton: synsacra, illia, at least one cervical vertebra, two femora, referred to the species based on the fact that it seems to fit well with the hip. No cranial remains have been found, so the shape of the head is unknown. However, the only known cervical vertebra suggests that Gargantuavis had a rather long and slender neck, which seems to preclude the presence of a massive skull. Other than its large size, the most unusual feature of Gargantuavis was its pelvis, it was reported to be wide, like that of a moa, though a better preserved specimen described in 2015 showed that this interpretation was due to crushing in the original. The hips of Gargantuavis, while still broad, were narrower and more bird-like than thought.

In addition to their unusual width, which prevented the two ilia from meeting at the front of the pelvis, the hip socket was set close to the front rather than to the middle of the pelvis. The rather broad pelvis shows. During the Late Cretaceous, Europe was an archipelago. Southern France and north-western Spain where its fossils are found was part of the large Ibero-Armorican island in the prehistoric Tethys Sea; the rock formations that have yielded Gargantuavis fossils have produced abundant remains of fish, crocodylomorphs, various titanosaurian sauropods, ankylosaurians and theropods, including other early avialans, like enantiornithes. The association of abundant fossils of the ornithopod Rhabdodon, the lack of any hadrosaurid fossils, have been used as index fossils to date these formations to the late Campanian-early Maastrichtian inteval. An age confirmed by magnetostratigraphic evidence in two localities; the type locality of Gargantuavis, the Bellevue site in the Marnes Rouges Inferieures Formation, is 71.5 million years old

Julio Carabias Salcedo

Julio Carabias Salcedo was a Spanish banker, the first Governor of the Bank of Spain during the Second Spanish Republic. Julio Carabias Salcedo was born on 17 September 1885 in Spain, his parents were Casimiro Carabias and Carolina Salcedo. He attended the Educated Escuela Superior de Comercio and the Escuela de Altos Estudios Mercantiles in Bilbao, he married Amalia Calonge. Their children were Amalia, Ramón and Rafael. Carabias became an expert in banking economics, he was appointed Managing Director of the Banco Vasco Manager of the Banco Español del Rio de la Plata. At the start of the Second Spanish Republic in April 1931 Carabias was appointed Governor of the Bank of Spain in place of Federico Carlos Bas Vassallo; the appointment was made by decree of 17 April 1931. He was appointed by Indalecio Prieto. One of Prieto's main objectives was to sustain the foreign exchange rate. Carabias proposed to improve efficiency by merging the two bodies charged with intervening in the international currency market, the Exchange Operations Regulatory Centre and the Official Currency Trading Centre.

Carabias prepared to open negotiations with foreign banks to obtain credits that would finance a stronger peseta and would avoid speculations that threatened to destabilize the currency, which he viewed as an extreme danger. The foreign banks objected to granting loans to the Bank of Spain or the Government of Spain, arguing that this would be counterproductive unless there was a monetary stabilization plan and the bank was prepared to take measures such as raising the discount rate, transfer of gold abroad to buy pesetas and reduction of banknotes in circulation; the board of the bank opposed export of gold, arguing that this would be futile unless the budgetary policy was changed, since this was the root cause of the decline in the peseta. Since budgetary tightening would cause economic pain, Carabias found himself in conflict with politicians during the summer of 1931; as the peseta's value dropped the Official Currency Trading Center intervened with all its means to shore up the currency, exhausted all its metallic reserves and consumed a short-term loan of 500,000 pounds sterling.

Carabias pointed out that allowing unlimited inflation would have the effect of ruining the rich, so the Bank's advisers were in favour of stabilizing the peseta. If this could be done, the Bank would profit, Carabias felt this profit should be shared with the state. In June 1931 the Bank of France granted a credit of 6 million pounds in exchange for a guarantee of 5 million gold pounds deposited in London and another 6 million pounds that the Bank of Spain sent to Mont-de-Marsan. Relations between the Bank of Spain and the government eased when the gold standard was suspended in Great Britain on 21 September 1931 and the Spanish monetary authorities abandoned the policy of maintaining the peseta at all costs. In fact, the peseta rose in value against the pound, although it continued to fall against other currencies. After Prieto left office Carabias served under Jaime Carner from 16 December 1931 and Agustín Viñuales from 12 June 1933. In an interview in 1933 Carabias said that the situation of the Spanish currency in the international market was satisfactory.

He praised the results achieved by the Official Currency Trading Center in 1931 and 1932. Carabias left office in September 1933, replaced by Manuel Marraco Ramón. In 1936 Carabias was appointed President of the Consejo Superior Bancario. Carabias was deputy governor of the Bank of Spain during the Spanish Civil War. On 14 September 1936 he and the Director General of the Treasury, Francisco Méndez Aspe, supervised transfer of about 560 tons of gold to the Cartagena naval base. From there, on 25 October 1936, four Soviet merchant ships left with the gold for Odessa, from where it was taken to Moscow. From August to December 1938 Carabias, First Deputy Governor of the Bank of Spain, was acting Governor of the bank in the Republican zone, he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Spanish Republic. After the Spanish Civil War Carabias was exiled. In November 1939 he travelled from New York to Mexico City, entering Mexico through Nuevo Laredo on 23 November 1939, his occupation was given as Professor.

In March 1940 the Hispano-Mexican Cabinet of Industrial Studies was established to study industrial investment plans submitted by the Ministry of Economy. Carabias became a member of this group of Spanish experts, which included engineers and jurists, he was an adviser to Financiera Hispano-Mexicana, Mexico City, in 1942. In 1944 he was Assistant at the Superintendencia de Bancos, Chile, he died in Santiago de Chile on May 11, 1963, where he is buried

Paulo Henrique Carneiro Filho

Paulo Henrique Carneiro Filho is a Brazilian professional footballer who most played as a striker for Süper Lig club Akhisar Belediyespor. Paulo Henrique made his professional debut and scored his first professional goal for Atlético Mineiro in a 1–0 away win against São Paulo in the Campeonato Brasileiro on June 10, 2007. On August 21, 2007, Paulo Henrique signed a 3+2-year deal with SC Heerenveen, in the Dutch Eredivisie, he scored on his debut for SC Heerenveen, scoring two goals in the 5–1 away victory at NAC Breda on December 15, 2007. In February 2009 he scored the first two Heerenveen goals in a 2–3 win at PSV Eindhoven, he was released by Heerenveen at the end of March 2010 because of conflict on terms to re-new his contract. Paulo Henrique was signed by third-party owner Traffic Group in a four-year contract, via a proxy subsidiary club Desportivo Brasil, he joined Brazilian Série A club Palmeiras in a temporary deal until 31 December 2011. In August 2010 he returned to Europe for Belgian side Westerlo in another loan.

Paulo Henrique signed for Turkish club Trabzonspor from Desportivo Brasil in July 2011 for €4 million transfer fee. He signed a four-year contract worth an average of €900,000 a season. On 2 July 2014, Paulo Henrique transferred to Chinese Super League side Shanghai Greenland Shenhua for €4 million transfer fee. On 16 July 2015, Henrique was loaned to fellow Chinese Super League side Liaoning Whowin until 31 December 2015. On 15 July 2016, Henrique was loaned to Primeira Liga club Estoril. On 20 January 2017, he was loaned to Sport Recife. On 21 July 2017, Paulo Henrique returned to Turkey and joined another Süper Lig side Akhisar Belediyespor on free transfer. On 10 May 2018, Henrique helped Akhisar Belediyespor win their first professional trophy, the 2017–18 Turkish Cup; as of match played on 4 March 2018 HeerenvenKNVB Cup: 2008-2009AkhisarsporTurkish Cup: 2017-18 Paulo Henrique Carneiro Filho at Soccerway Paulo Henrique Carneiro Filho – UEFA competition record zerozero.pt Official website

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. John's, Newfoundland

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. John's, Newfoundland is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church based in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, it is the Metropolitan see of the Ecclesiastical Province of St. John's, which includes the suffragan dioceses of Grand Falls, Corner Brook and Labrador; the current Archbishop is Peter Hundt. The future Archdiocese of St. John's was established 30 May 1784 as Catholics in Newfoundland gained religious liberty, made explicit by a public declaration by Governor John Campbell. After a request from Irish merchants in St. John's to Bishop William Egan, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, James Louis O'Donel was appointed Prefect Apostolic of Newfoundland, as a pre-diocesan jurisdiction entitled to a titular bishop and exempt, i.e. directly subject to the Holy See, not part of any ecclesiastical province. In addition to O'Donel's personal popularity, one of his qualifications for the position was an ability to preach in Gaelic, it was promoted to a Vicariate Apostolic on 5 January 1796 and on 4 June 1847 was elevated to diocese.

In 1904, St. John's was elevated to an archdiocese and presently contains 40 parishes, 39 active diocesan priests, 33 religious priests, 120,135 Catholics, it has 220 Women Religious, 42 Religious Brothers. Patrick Lambert, O. F. M. Ref. as Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic Thomas Scallan, O. F. M. Ref. as Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic Michael Anthony Fleming, O. F. M. Ref. as Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic John Thomas Mullock, O. F. M. Ref. Thomas John Flynn, did not succeed to the see Thomas Francis Brennan Patrick James Skinner, C. I. M. Appointed Archbishop here Michael Fintan Power, appointed Bishop of Saint George’s, Newfoundland in 1911 Henry Thomas Renouf, appointed Bishop of Saint George’s, Newfoundland in 1920 Raymond John Lahey, appointed Bishop of Saint George’s, Newfoundland in 1986 Archdiocese of St. John's, Newfoundland page at catholichierarchy.org retrieved July 14, 2006 Newfoundland Biographies - Newfoundland History retrieved November 30, 2007 Official website Basilica Heritage Foundation website

6 Feet Underground

"6 Feet Underground" is the third single of Ja Rule's second studio album Rule 3:36. The song peaked # 25 on the Hot Rap Songs chart. In this song, Ja Rule raps about confronting his demons and his enemies who would love to see him dead; the song samples "A New Argentina" by Madonna from the 1996 film Evita. The official music video for "6 Feet Underground" was released in 2000, was done in circa 2000 video game style animation; the music video is set at night. Ja Rule, while sitting on a park bench daps up three men, who sit at a park table nearby; when Ja Rule gets up, he is approached by the same three men. This time, the three men are ominous shadowy figures with red eyes. Like a true video game hero, a long samurai sword manifests into his hand, he slays the malicious figures. Intermittently, he is shown posing on a park bench as two small devils drinking beer dance around him. In the next scene, Ja Rule stands a top of the Apollo Theater, search lights announcing his presence as he performs.

While performing, more shadowy figures with red eyes appear. Ja Rule jumps in the back of a blue Cadillac, driven by the same two small devils earlier in the video. In the next scene, the small devils and Ja Rule are riding around when the car comes to a stop and a police officer approaches the vehicle, flapping his arms as he rants and raves at Ja Rule, smoking marijuana, his head and body start to become misshapen and he begins to turn the same color as the small devils driving the car. The Cadillac drives away after Ja Rule throws his blunt at the police officer, the police officer spontaneously combusts in an explosion of red gore. Ja Rule returns to the dark park from the beginning of the video and the shadowy figures do as well. However, the shadowy figures run away. Ja Rule walks back to the park bench, sits down, disappears in a yellow flash of light. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics