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The euphonium is a medium-sized, 3 or 4-valve compensating, conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument that derives its name from the Ancient Greek word εὔφωνος euphōnos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced". The euphonium is a valved instrument. Nearly all current models have piston valves; the euphonium may be played in bass clef as a non-transposing instrument or in treble clef as a transposing instrument. In British brass bands, it is treated as a treble-clef instrument, while in American band music, parts may be written in either treble clef or bass clef, or both; the euphonium is in the family of brass instruments, more low-brass instruments with many relatives. It is similar to a baritone horn; the difference is that the bore size of the baritone horn is smaller than that of the euphonium, the baritone is a cylindrical bore, whereas the euphonium is predominantly conical bore. It is controversial. In the trombone family large and small bore trombones are both called trombones, while the cylindrical trumpet and the conical flugelhorn are given different names.

As with the trumpet and flugelhorn, the two instruments are doubled by one player, with some modification of breath and embouchure, since the two have identical range and identical fingering. The cylindrical baritone offers a brighter sound and the conical euphonium offers a more mellow sound; the American baritone, featuring three valves on the front of the instrument and a curved, forward-pointing bell, was dominant in American school bands throughout most of the 20th century, its weight and configuration conforming to the needs of the marching band. While this instrument is a conical-cylindrical bore hybrid, somewhere between the classic baritone horn and euphonium, it was universally labelled a "baritone" by both band directors and composers, thus contributing to the confusion of terminology in the United States. Several late 19th century music catalogs sold a euphonium-like instrument called the "B♭ bass". In these catalog drawings, the B♭ Bass had thicker tubing than the baritone. Along the same lines and bugle corps introduced the "Bass-baritone", distinguished it from the baritone.

The thicker tubing of the three-valve B♭ bass allowed for production of strong false-tones, providing chromatic access to the pedal register. Ferdinand Sommer's original name for the instrument was the euphonion, it is sometimes called the tenor tuba in B♭, although this can refer to other varieties of tuba. Names in other languages, as included in scores, can be ambiguous as well, they include French basse, saxhorn basse, tuba basse. The most common German name, may have influenced Americans to adopt the name "baritone" for the instrument, due to the influx of German musicians to the United States in the nineteenth century; as a baritone-voiced brass instrument, the euphonium traces its ancestry to the ophicleide and back to the serpent. The search for a satisfactory foundational wind instrument that could support massed sound above its pitch took many years. While the serpent was used for over two centuries dating back to the late Renaissance, it was notoriously difficult to control its pitch and tone quality due to its disproportionately small open finger holes.

The ophicleide, used in bands and orchestras for a few decades in the early to mid-19th century, used a system of keys and was an improvement over the serpent but was still unreliable in the high register. With the invention of the piston valve system c. 1818, the construction of brass instruments with an sound and facility of playing in all registers became possible. The euphonium is said to have been invented, as a "wide-bore, valved bugle of baritone range", by Ferdinand Sommer of Weimar in 1843, though Carl Moritz in 1838 and Adolphe Sax in 1843 have been credited. While Sax's family of saxhorns were invented at about the same time and the bass saxhorn is similar to a euphonium, there are differences—such as the bass saxhorn being narrower throughout the length of the instrument; the "British-style" compensating euphonium was developed by David Blaikley in 1874, has been in use in Britain with the basic construction little changed since then. Modern day euphonium makers have been working to further enhance the construction of the euphonium.

Companies such as Adams and Besson have been leading the way in perfecting the instrument. Adams euphoniums have developed an adjustable lead pipe receiver which allows players to change the timbre of the instrument to whatever they find preferable. Besson has been credited with the adjustable main tuning slide trigger, which allows players more flexibility with intonation; the euphonium, like the tenor trombone, is pitched in concert B♭. For a valved brass instrument like the euphonium, this means that when no valves are in use the instrument will produce partials of the B♭ harmonic series, it is orchestrated as a non-transposing instrument like the trombone, written at concert pitch in the bass clef with higher passages in the tenor clef. Treble clef euphonium parts transposing down a major ninth are included in much concert band music: in the British-style brass band tradition, euphonium music is always written this way. In continental European band music, parts for the euphonium may be written in the bass clef as a B♭ transposing in


Laubuka is a genus of cyprinid fish found in South and Southeast Asia. There are 12 recognized species in this genus: Laubuka brahmaputraensis Kulabtong, Suksri & Nonpayom, 2012 Laubuka caeruleostigmata H. M. Smith, 1931 Laubuka dadiburjori Menon, 1952 Laubuka fasciata Laubuka insularis Pethiyagoda, Anjana Silva, Maduwage & Meegaskumbura, 2008 Laubuka lankensis Laubuka latens Knight, 2015 Laubuka laubuca Laubuka ruhuna Pethiyagoda, Anjana Silva, Maduwage & Meegaskumbura, 2008 Laubuka siamensis Fowler, 1939 Laubuka tenella Kullander, Norén, Mollah, 2018 Laubuka trevori Knight, 2015 Laubuka varuna Pethiyagoda, Anjana Silva, Maduwage & Meegaskumbura, 2008

Charlie Dooley

Charlie A. Dooley is an American politician, he served as the County Executive of St. Louis County, Missouri until January 1, 2015. Dooley was the first African American, he is a Democrat. Dooley grew up in St. Louis, attending the St. Louis Public Schools and graduated from Wellston School District, he served in the United States Army during the Vietnam War and was honorably discharged in 1968. After his military service, Dooley went to work for McDonnell Douglas and retired after 30 years of service in 1999. Dooley's political career began with part-time positions in the village of Northwoods, where he and his family reside. Dooley was elected as an Alderman in Northwoods in 1978, in 1983 he was elected mayor, he served as mayor until he was elected to the St. Louis County Council in 1994, he was the first African-American elected to the council, was re-elected in 1998 and 2002. In 2000, Dooley was an unsuccessful candidate for election to Congress, he lost the Democratic primary to Lacy Clay in a race to succeed Bill Clay.

In 2003, Dooley was appointed County Executive, following the death of County Executive Buzz Westfall. In November 2004, a special election was held to fill the remainder of Westfall's term. Dooley won the election defeating the Republican nominee, former County Executive Gene McNary. In 2006, Dooley was reelected to a full term as County Executive, defeating the Republican nominee, Joe Passanise, by gaining 67% of the vote. In a difficult mid-term election season for Democrats, Dooley was elected to serve a second full term as County Executive in 2010, defeating the Republican nominee, Bill Corrigan, 51.1% to 46.7%, with the Libertarian candidate receiving 2.2% of the vote. On August 5, 2014, Dooley lost his bid to be the Democratic Party candidate in the County Executive election to primary challenger Steve Stenger. Dooley's biography at St. Louis County's website


Polyosma is a genus of about 60 species of trees native to south-east Asia. They occur from China south through south-east Asia to the east coast of Australia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia, its taxonomic placement has long been uncertain: it was traditionally placed in Grossulariaceae, but in the APG II system it was given its own family, unplaced as to order within the euasterids II clade. More recent research found Polyosmaceae to be a sister to the Escalloniaceae, so for simplicity's sake the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website now recommends the latter family be expanded to include this genus. Species include: Polyosma alangiacea F. Muell. – white alder Polyosma brachyandrum Domin Polyosma brachystachys Schltr. Polyosma cambodiana Gagnepain – dou xian mu Polyosma comptonii Baker f. Polyosma cunninghamii Benn. Polyosma discolor Baill. Polyosma hirsuta C. T. White – Alder Polyosma integrifolia Blume Polyosma kouaouana Pillon Polyosma leratii Guillaumin Polyosma pancheriana Baill. Polyosma podophylla Schltr.

Polyosma reducta F. Muell. Polyosma rhytophloia C. T. White & W. D. Francis Polyosma rigidiuscula F. Muell. & F. M. Bailey Polyosma spicata Baill. Polyosma subintegrifolia Pillon

Slifer House

Slifer House known as Administration Building-Evangelical Home, is a historic home located at Kelly Township, Union County, Pennsylvania. It was designed by noted Philadelphia architect Samuel Sloan and built in 1861, as a country home for Lewisburg merchant Eli Slifer, it has a 2 1/2-story, square main section, with two rectangular rear wings. The main section has a hipped roof with cross gables in a Victorian style, it features a four-story square tower. It has housed elder care facilities since 1916, when it was purchased by the Evangelical Association, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. The house is now owned by Albright Care Services and opened as a Victorian-era historic house museum, it includes artifacts from its use over the years as a home for seniors and community hospital. Slifer House Museum - official site


Christian Daniel Mojica Blanco, known as Cauty, is a Puerto Rican reggaeton singer and producer born in Caguas, Puerto Rico, raised San Lorenzo. Cauty garnered fame thanks to songs such as “Lola” “Lloras,” and “Ta To Gucci,” which received a remix with Darell, Rafa Pabön, Chencho Corleone, Cosculluela; the song garnered over 100 million views in YouTube. He has collaborated with artist such as Maximus Wel, Jowell & Randy, Ñejo. Cauty was inspired by artist such as Don Omar, Arcángel, Daddy Yankee, Héctor el Father and Héctor Lavoe, he has preferred not to talk about themes like drugs or crime and says he makes music to “hang out”