Stephen IV of Hungary
Stephen IV was King of Hungary and Croatia, ascending to the throne between 1163 and 1165, when he usurped the crown of his nephew, Stephen III. He was the third son of Béla II of Hungary, when his conspiracy against his brother failed, Géza II, he was exiled from Hungary in the summer of 1157, he first sought refuge in the Holy Roman Empire, but received no support from Emperor Frederick I. Shortly afterwards he moved to the Byzantine Empire, where he married a niece of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, Maria Komnene, converted to the Orthodox Church. After Géza II died on 31 May 1162, Emperor Manuel attempted to assist Stephen against his nephew and namesake, Stephen III, in seizing the crown. Although the Hungarian lords were willing to leave their young monarch, they opposed Stephen and elected his brother, Ladislaus II, king. Ladislaus II granted the duchy, which included one-third of the kingdom, to Stephen. Ladislaus II died on 14 January 1163, Stephen succeeded him. Lucas, Archbishop of Esztergom, who remained a staunch supporter of the expelled young Stephen III, denied to crown him and excommunicated him.
Stephen IV remained unpopular among the Hungarian lords. In the decisive battle, fought at Székesfehérvár on 19 June 1163, the younger Stephen routed his uncle, forcing him once again to flee Hungary. Stephen attempted to regain his crown with the assistance of Manuel I and Frederick I, but both emperors abandoned him. Emperor Manuel settled him in Syrmium, a province acquired from Hungary, he died of poisoning by his nephew's partisans during the siege of Zimony. Stephen was the third son of King Béla the Blind and his wife, Helena of Rascia, born about 1133; the earliest recorded event of Stephen's life occurred during the reign of his oldest brother, Géza II, who succeeded their father on 13 February 1141. King Géza "granted ducal revenues to his brothers", Ladislaus and Stephen, according to the Illuminated Chronicle. While the chronicle does not specify the date of this event, historian Bálint Hóman wrote that it happened in 1146. However, scholars Ferenc Makk and Gyula Kristó claim it was in about 1152, at the same time Géza II appointed his son, Stephen, as his heir.
According to the contemporaneous Rahewin, Stephen was "accused before the king of aspiring to royal power", along with Stephen's friends, their uncle, Beloš. In fear of being seized and executed by his brother, Stephen sought refuge in the Holy Roman Empire in summer 1157. Held a diet at Regensburg, with a great attendance of princes, on the octave of Epiphany. Among the many present there were ambassadors of. For his brother, by name, had by certain men been accused before the king of aspiring to royal power. In this he was thought to have been instigated by Duke, an uncle of them both, a shrewd and scheming man, who seemed to be feeding the pride of a young man accustomed to too much honor, but the king, suspicious of the great attention paid to his brother, fearing worse things from him than was needful, now accused not the man himself so much as his friends and those of his household, turned all that they said or did against him. After many accusations had been aired and many persons induced to bear false witness, the king was said to be planning to have his brother killed.
The latter, having learned that the Roman empire is an asylum for the whole world, escaped by fleeing to the emperor and tearfully bewailed his fate and his brother's bitter cruelty toward him. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, was willing to arbitrate the conflict between Géza II and Stephen, dispatched his envoys to Hungary. In response, Géza sent delegates to the Emperor. Frederick I contemplated that "the dispute must be terminated either by a division of the realm or by the condemnation of one or the other", but "decided to defer to a more suitable time the settlement of this quarrel", because he was planning to invade Italy; as a result, with Frederick I's consent, Stephen left for Constantinople, as documented by Niketas Choniates, a contemporary historian, who wrote that Stephen fled "from the murderous clutches of his brother". The Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos welcomed him and arranged Stephen's marriage with his niece Maria Komnene. According to Gerhoh of Reichersberg, Stephen converted to the Orthodox Church on this occasion.
Stephen's brother, Ladislaus arrived in Constantinople around 1160, but he refused to marry a relative of the Emperor. Manuel I, whose main concern was the insecurity of his empire's eastern frontier at that time, would not assist Stephen, therefore Stephen set out and again visited Emperor Frederick I in Parma, at some point near the end of 1160 or the beginning of 1161, he promised Frederick I "to pay him 3,000 marks every year" if the Emperor assisted him in obtaining Hungary. When Frederick, making preparations for the siege of Milan, did not promise any assistance to Stephen, he soon returned to Constantinople. Géza II died on 31 May 1162. Within days, his 15-year-old son, Stephen III, was crowned king by Archbishop of Esztergom. Emperor Manuel I sent envoys to Hungary to promote the elder Stephen's claim to the crown against the young King, the Hungarian lords opposed him, because "they deemed it disadvantageous to join with a man, related to the emperor by marriage and feared that as Hungarians they would be governed by him as king while he was ruled" by Emperor Manuel.
Stephen returned to Hungary accompanied by a Byzantine army under the command of
Mstislav I of Kiev
Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great (Russian: Мстислав Владимирович Великий, was the Grand Prince of Kiev, the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex. He is figured prominently in the Norse Sagas under the name Harald, to allude to his grandfather, Harold II of England. Mstislav's Christian name was Theodore; as his father's future successor, Mstislav reigned in Novgorod the Great from 1088–93 and from 1095–1117. Thereafter he was Monomakh's co-ruler in Belgorod Kievsky, inherited the Kievan throne after his death, he built numerous churches in Novgorod, of which St. Nicholas Cathedral and the cathedral of St Anthony Cloister survive to the present day, he would erect important churches in Kiev, notably his family sepulchre at Berestovo and the church of Our Lady at Podil. Mstislav's life was spent in constant warfare with Cumans, Estonians and the princedom of Polotsk. In 1096, he defeated his uncle Oleg of Chernigov on the Koloksha River, thereby laying foundation for the centuries of enmity between his and Oleg's descendants.
Mstislav was the last ruler of united Rus, upon his death, as the chronicler put it, "the land of Rus was torn apart". In 1095, Mstislav wedded Princess Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden, daughter of King Inge I of Sweden, they had many children: Ingeborg of Kiev, married Canute Lavard of Jutland, was mother to Valdemar I of Denmark Malmfred, married Sigurd I of Norway. Their children were: Vladimir III Mstislavich Euphrosyne of Kiev, married King Géza II of Hungary in 1146. Through Euphrosyne, Mstislav is an ancestor of both Philippa of Hainault and King Edward III of England, hence of all subsequent English and British monarchs. Through his mother Gytha, he is part of a link between Harold II of England and the modern line of English kings founded by William the Conqueror, who deposed him. List of Russian rulers List of people known as The Great His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley
Manuel I Komnenos
Manuel I Komnenos was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. His reign saw the last flowering of the Komnenian restoration, during which the Byzantine Empire had seen a resurgence of its military and economic power, had enjoyed a cultural revival. Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the resurgent West, he invaded the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, although unsuccessfully, being the last Eastern Roman Emperor to attempt reconquests in the western Mediterranean. The passage of the dangerous Second Crusade was adroitly managed through his empire. Manuel established a Byzantine protectorate over the Crusader states of Outremer. Facing Muslim advances in the Holy Land, he made common cause with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and participated in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt.
Manuel reshaped the political maps of the Balkans and the eastern Mediterranean, placing the kingdoms of Hungary and Outremer under Byzantine hegemony and campaigning aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east. However, towards the end of his reign Manuel's achievements in the east were compromised by a serious defeat at Myriokephalon, which in large part resulted from his arrogance in attacking a well-defended Seljuk position. Although the Byzantines recovered and Manuel concluded an advantageous peace with Sultan Kilij Arslan II, Myriokephalon proved to be the final, unsuccessful effort by the empire to recover the interior of Anatolia from the Turks. Called ho Megas by the Greeks, Manuel is known to have inspired intense loyalty in those who served him, he appears as the hero of a history written by his secretary, John Kinnamos, in which every virtue is attributed to him. Manuel, influenced by his contact with western Crusaders, enjoyed the reputation of "the most blessed emperor of Constantinople" in parts of the Latin world as well.
Modern historians, have been less enthusiastic about him. Some of them assert that the great power he wielded was not his own personal achievement, but that of the dynasty he represented. Manuel Komnenos was the fourth son of John II Komnenos and Piroska of Hungary, so it seemed unlikely that he would succeed his father, his maternal grandfather was St. Ladislaus. Having distinguished himself in his father's war against the Seljuk Turks, in 1143 Manuel was chosen as his successor by John, in preference to his elder surviving brother Isaac. After John died on 8 April 1143, his son, was acclaimed emperor by the armies, yet his succession was by no means assured: At his father's deathbed in the wilds of Cilicia far from Constantinople, he recognised that it was vital he should return to the capital as soon as possible. He still had to take care of his father's funeral, tradition demanded he organise the foundation of a monastery on the spot where his father died. Swiftly, he dispatched the megas domestikos John Axouch ahead of him, with orders to arrest his most dangerous potential rival, his brother Isaac, living in the Great Palace with instant access to the imperial treasure and regalia.
Axouch arrived in the capital before news of the emperor's death had reached it. He secured the loyalty of the city, when Manuel entered the capital in August 1143, he was crowned by the new Patriarch, Michael Kourkouas. A few days with nothing more to fear as his position as emperor was now secure, Manuel ordered the release of Isaac, he ordered 2 golden pieces to be given to every householder in Constantinople and 200 pounds of gold to be given to the Byzantine Church. The empire that Manuel inherited from his father had undergone great changes since the foundation of Constantinople by Constantine I eight centuries before. In the time of his predecessor Justinian I, parts of the former Western Roman Empire had been recovered including Italy and part of Spain. However, the empire had diminished following this, the most obvious change had occurred in the 7th century: the soldiers of Islam had taken Egypt and much of Syria away from the empire irrevocably, they had swept on westwards into what in the time of Constantine had been the western provinces of the Roman Empire, in North Africa and Spain.
In the centuries since, the emperors had ruled over a realm that consisted of Asia Minor in the east, the Balkans in the west. In the late 11th century the Byzantine Empire entered a period of marked military and political decline, arrested and reversed by the leadership of Manuel's grandfather and father, yet the empire that Manuel inherited was a polity facing formidable challenges. At the end of the 11th century, the Normans of Sicily had removed Italy from the control of the Byzantine Emperor; the Seljuk Turks had done the same with central Anatolia. And in the Levant, a new force had appeared – the Crusader states – which presented the Byzantine Empire with new challenges. Now, more than at any time during the preceding centuries, the task facing the emperor was daunting indeed; the first test of Manuel's reign came in 1144, when he was faced with a demand by Raymond, Prince of Antioch for the cession of Cilician territories. However that year the crusader County of Edessa was engulfed by the tide of a resurgent Isl
Anastasia of Kiev
Anastasia of Kiev was Queen of Hungary by marriage to King Andrew the White. She was the eldest daughter of Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev and Ingigerd of Sweden, the older sister of Anne of Kiev, Queen consort of Henry I of France. Around 1039, Anastasia married to Duke Andrew of Hungary, who had settled down in Kiev after his father Vazul took part in a failed assassination attempt aimed at King Stephen I of Hungary. In 1046, her husband returned to Hungary and ascended the throne as King Andrew I after defeating King Peter I. Anastasia followed her husband to the kingdom, it was she who persuaded her husband to set up a lavra in Tihany for hermits who had come to Hungary from the Kievan Rus'. The royal couple did not have a son until 1053. However, Solomon's birth and coronation caused a bitter conflict between King Andrew I and his younger brother Duke Béla, the heir to the throne until the child's birth; when Duke Béla rose in open rebellion against King Andrew in 1060, the king sent his wife and children to the court of Adalbert, Margrave of Austria.
King Andrew was defeated and died shortly afterwards, his brother was crowned King of Hungary on 6 December 1060. Anastasia sought the help of King Henry IV of Germany, whose sister, Judith had been engaged to her child Solomon in 1058. By the time the German troops entered to Hungary to give assistance to Solomon against his uncle, King Béla I had died and his sons, Géza, Ladislaus and Lampert had fled to Poland; the young Solomon was crowned on 27 September 1063. On the occasion of her son's coronation, Anastasia presented what was believed to be the sword of Attila the Hun to Duke Otto II of Bavaria, the leader of the German troops. Between 1060 and 1073 King Solomon governed his kingdom in collaboration with his cousins, Dukes Géza, Ladislaus and Lampert who had returned to Hungary and accepted his rule. However, in 1074 the three brothers rebelled against their cousin, defeated him on 14 March 1074. King Solomon fled to the Western borders of Hungary where he was able to maintain his rule only over the counties of Moson and Pozsony.
Anastasia had followed Solomon. So she moved to Admont Abbey, she was buried in the Abbey. C. 1039: King Andrew I of Hungary Adelaide, wife of king Vratislaus II of Bohemia King Solomon of Hungary David of Hungary Raffensperger, Christian. Reimagining Europe:Kievan Rus in the Medieval World, 988-1146. Harvard University Press. Kristó, Gyula – Makk, Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon, főszerkesztő: Kristó, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig, főszerkesztő: Benda, Kálmán
Frederick, Duke of Bohemia
Frederick, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1172 to 1173 and again from 1178 to his death. Frederick was the eldest son of King Vladislav II of Bohemia from his first marriage with Gertrude of Babenberg, a daughter of Margrave Leopold III of Austria, his father had ruled as a Bohemian duke since 1140. His elevation expressed the emperor's gratitude for Vladislav's faithful service, his son Frederick ruled as a Moravian prince of Olomouc from 1164 onwards. King Vladislav's relations with the emperor deteriorated when in 1172 he abdicated in favour of Frederick, trying to implement a line of succession in accordance to the principle of agnatic seniority, but without consulting Barbarossa. While the Prague throne was claimed by Vladislav's cousins, sons of the late Duke Soběslav I, Frederick was unable to hold on to his duchy, as his tenancy was approved by neither the Bohemian diet nor the emperor. Father and son were declared deposed in September 1173 by the emperor at an Imperial Diet in Hermsdorf.
In agreement with the Bohemian nobility, Barbarossa offered the throne to Vladislav's cousin Oldřich. However, Oldřich declined the honour and renounced the rule over Bohemia in favour to his elder brother Soběslav II, sympathetic to the peasantry. While aged Vladislav II left Bohemia and retired to the Thuringian estates of his second wife Judith, Frederick had to serve at the Imperial court. Soběslav II turned out antagonistic to both the Bohemian nobles and the emperor, he was reluctant to support Barbarossa on his Italian campaign against the Lombard League, where the Imperial forces suffered a major defeat in the 1176 Battle of Legnano. Moreover, Duke Soběslav campaigned the Babenberg lands of Austria in the south, whereby Duke Henry Jasomirgott, Barbarossa's uncle, was killed in an accident. While Soběslav ignored a summons to appear at the Imperial court, Frederick was able to forge an alliance with the Moravian prince Conrad III Otto of Znojmo and the Babenberg duke Leopold V of Austria.
Backed by Emperor Barbarossa, they marched against Prague where Frederick was elected duke in 1178. First attacked and defeated by Soběslav's forces at the Battle of Loděnice, he prevailed in a decisive victory outside the Prague city walls, in the area of present-day Nové Město, on 27 January 1179. Soběslav was died in exile the following year; the emperor now recognised Frederick as an Imperial prince. The duke confirmed the drawing of the Bohemian-Austrian border and maintained peace with his Polish and Hungarian neighbours. In 1184 he came to Mainz with a huge retinue to attend the knightly accolade of the emperor's sons Henry VI and Frederick of Swabia. However, his reign remained overshadowed by the internal struggles of the Přemyslid dynasty: when he tried to assert the rule of his younger half-brother Ottokar over Moravia, his former ally Prince Conrad of Znojmo turned against him and temporarily drove him out of Prague. Though re-instated by Barbarossa in 1182, Frederick had to face the elevation of Moravia to an Imperial margraviate under Conrad's rule.
The emperor raised the Prague bishop, Frederick's Přemyslid cousin Henry Bretislaus, to princely status, thus divided the Bohemian lands into three parts all dependent on him. After years of wrangling, Duke Frederick, weakened by the internal struggles, was a puppet of the emperor; when Margrave Conrad was defeated by the forces of Frederick's half brother Ottokar in a bloody battle at Loděnice, the Bohemian and Moravian Přemyslids met at Knín in 1186. To settle the dispute, Conrad acknowledged Frederick's overlordship, while the duke confirmed Conrad's rights and his succession to the Bohemian throne. Frederick died in 1189. According to the Knín agreement, he was succeeded by Conrad who once again united Bohemia and Moravia under his rule. By his marriage to Elizabeth, a daughter of the Árpád king Géza II of Hungary and his consort Euphrosyne of Kiev, he had the following issue: Helena, affianced to Peter, son of Manuel I Komnenos, in 1164 Sophia, married Albert, Margrave of Meissen Ludmilla, married Count Albert III of Bogen in 1184, Louis I, Duke of Bavaria, in 1204 Vratislaus Olga Margaret Medieval Lands Project on Duke Friedrich of Bohemia
Helena of Serbia, Queen of Hungary
Helena of Serbia was Queen of Hungary as the wife of King Béla II, who reigned from 1131 to 1141. A daughter of Prince Uroš I of Serbia, she was arranged to marry Béla II in 1129 by his cousin, King Stephen II. Béla II had been blinded on the order of King Coloman. After her husband's death, she governed Hungary as regent from 1141 to September 1146 together with her brother, Beloš, when her eldest son, Géza II, came of age, her younger sons, Ladislaus II and Stephen IV ruled as kings of Hungary. She had two other brothers Uroš II and Desa besides Beloš. Helena was the daughter of Serbian Grand Prince Uroš I of the Vukanović dynasty, Byzantine princess Anna Diogene, her father had participated in the Byzantine-Hungarian War, on the side of King Stephen II of Hungary. The Hungarian Army had destroyed Byzantine Belgrade and penetrated to Naissos and Philippopolis. Around 1129, King Stephen II arranged her marriage with his cousin Béla, blinded on the order of the king's father, King Coloman of Hungary.
Uroš I had prior to this suffered to both Hungary and Byzantium, so he befriended the Hungarian king. King Stephen II granted estates near Tolna to the newly wed couple. Following the childless king's death, her husband was crowned King of Hungary on 28 April 1131. Queen Helena had great influence on her husband, the Hungarian state, they had six children: Geza, Ladislaus II, Stephen IV, Álmos and Gertrud. She governed the state during his rule, she was loyal to her husband and state, it was she who persuaded the nobles at an assembly in Arad to execute 68 Hungarian aristocrats who had plotted with King Coloman to blind her husband. According to contemporary sources she was attending the execution with her son Bela, in order to secure the death of her husband's enemies, she settled Serbs in Csepel Island, Ráckeve, where she built a monastery and church which exist still today. When her husband died on 13 February 1141, their eldest son Géza II was still a child, therefore Helena and her brother Beloš Vukanović governed the Kingdom of Hungary until September 1146 when Bela II came of age.
Beloš was Palatine of Hungary, the highest-ranking official, from 1141 to 1161, Ban of Slavonia from 1146 to 1157. Helena continued to hold great influence on the rule and with the help of her brother Hungary had good relations and peace on its southern borders. In the period of Bela's death, the German-Hungarian relations had been shattered and the engagement of Henric and Sophia, Helena's daughter, was canceled. Sophia took monastic became an abbess at Admont, in Styria. During the rule of Géza II, Stephen IV and Ladislaus II were not satisfied with their titles and possessions, so they sought help with the Holy Roman Emperors and Byzantine Emperors; the plots against Géza II had no success, after his death Manuel I Komnenos saw a good opportunity to expand Byzantine influence in Hungary. Manuel helped to dethrone Stephen III and place firstly Ladislaus II and Stephen IV for a short time. Stephen III secured the throne in 1163. Queen Helena is believed to have died in 1161. # c. 1129: King Béla II of Hungary Elisabeth or Gertrud, wife of duke Mieszko III of Poland King Géza II of Hungary King Ladislaus II of Hungary King Stephen IV of Hungary Álmos Sophia, nun at Admont István Soltész.
Árpád-házi királynék: szentek és szeretők. Gabo. ISBN 978-963-9237-40-7. Gyula Kristó. Az Árpád-ház uralkodói. I. P. C. Könyvek. ISBN 978-963-7930-97-3. Magyar Tudományos Akadémia. Magyarország története: Elozmenyek es Magyar tortenet 1242-IG. Akadémiai Kiadó
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, monks or nuns. The term derives via Old French from Latin conventus, perfect participle of the verb convenio, meaning to convene, to come together; the original reference was to the gathering of mendicants. Technically, a “monastery" or "nunnery" is a community of monastics, whereas a "friary" or "convent" is a community of mendicants, a "canonry" a community of canons regular; the terms "abbey" and "priory" can be applied to both canonries. In English usage since about the 19th century the term "convent" invariably refers to a community of women, while "monastery" and "friary" are used for men. In historical usage they are interchangeable, with "convent" likely to be used for a friary; when applied to religious houses in Eastern Orthodoxy and Buddhism, English refers to all houses of male religious as "monasteries" and of female religious "convents". Christian monasticism Enclosed religious orders Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Convent". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Carmelite Monastery of the Sacred Hearts —- an example of a modern-day convent Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Convent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press