President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
George P. Shultz
George Pratt Shultz is an American economist, elder statesman, businessman. He served in various positions under three different Republican presidents. Along with Elliot Richardson, he is one of two individuals to serve in four different Cabinet positions, he played a major policy role in shaping the foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration. In the 2010s, Shultz was a prominent figure in the scandal around biotech firm Theranos, continuing to support it as a board member in the face of mounting evidence of fraud. Born in New York City, he graduated from Princeton University before serving in the United States Marine Corps during World War II. After the war, Shultz earned a PhD in industrial economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he taught at MIT from 1948 to 1957, taking a leave of absence in 1955 to take a position on President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers. After serving as dean of the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, he accepted President Richard Nixon's appointment as United States Secretary of Labor.
In that position, he imposed the Philadelphia Plan on construction contractors who refused to accept black members, marking the first use of racial quotas by the federal government. In 1970, he became the first Director of the Office of Management and Budget, he served in that position until his appointment as United States Secretary of the Treasury in 1972. In that role, Shultz supported the Nixon shock and presided over the end of the Bretton Woods system. Shultz left the Nixon administration in 1974 to become an executive at Bechtel. After becoming president and director of that company, he accepted President Ronald Reagan's offer to serve as United States Secretary of State, he held that office from 1982 to 1989. Shultz pushed for Reagan to establish relations with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, which led to a thaw between the United States and the Soviet Union, he opposed the U. S. aid to rebels trying to overthrow the Sandinistas using funds from an illegal sale of weapons to Iran that led to the Iran–Contra affair.
Shultz remained active in business and politics. He served as an informal adviser to George W. Bush and helped formulate the Bush Doctrine of preemptive war, he served on the Global Commission on Drug Policy, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's Economic Recovery Council, on the boards of Bechtel and the Charles Schwab Corporation. Since 2013, he has advocated for a revenue-neutral carbon tax as the most economically sound means of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, he is a member of the Hoover Institution, the Institute for International Economics, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, other groups. Since the death of William Thaddeus Coleman Jr. Shultz is the oldest living former U. S. Cabinet member. Shultz was born December 13, 1920, in New York City, the only child of Margaret Lennox and Birl Earl Shultz, grew up in Englewood, New Jersey, his great-grandfather was an immigrant from Germany who arrived in the United States in the middle of the 19th century. Contrary to common assumption, Shultz is not a member of the Pratt family associated with John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Trust.
After attending the local public school, he transferred to the Engelwood School for Boys, through his second year of high school. In 1938, Shultz graduated from the elite private preparatory boarding high school, Loomis Chaffee School in Windsor, Connecticut, he earned a bachelor's degree, cum laude, at Princeton University, New Jersey, in economics with a minor in public and international affairs. His senior thesis examined the Tennessee Valley Authority's effect on local agriculture, for which he conducted on-site research, he graduated with honors in 1942. From 1942 to 1945, Shultz was on active duty in the U. S. Marine Corps, he was an artillery officer. He was detached to the U. S. Army 81st Infantry Division during the Battle of Angaur. In 1949, Shultz earned a Ph. D. in industrial economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1948 to 1957, he taught in the MIT Department of Economics and the MIT Sloan School of Management, with a leave of absence in 1955 to serve on President Dwight Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers as a Senior Staff Economist.
In 1957, Shultz left MIT and joined the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business as a professor of industrial relations, he served as the Graduate School of Business Dean from 1962 to 1968. During his time in Chicago, he was influenced by Nobel Laureates Milton Friedman and George Stigler, who reinforced Shultz's view of the importance of a free-market economy, he left the University of Chicago to serve for President Richard Nixon in 1969. Shultz was President Richard Nixon's Secretary of Labor from 1969 to 1970, he soon faced the crisis of the Longshoremen's Union strike. The Lyndon B. Johnson Administration had delayed it with a Taft Hartley injunction that expired, the press pressed him to describe his approach, he applied the theory he had developed in academia: he let the parties work it out, which they did quickly. He imposed the Philadelphia Plan requiring Pennsylvania construction unions, which refused to accept black members, to admit a certain number of blacks by an enforced deadline.
This marked the first use of racial quotas in the federal government. Shultz was Nixon's unofficial ambassador to the AFL-CIO. Shultz became the first director of the Office of Management and Budget, the renamed and reorganized Bureau of the Budget, on July 1, 1970, he was the agency's 19th director. Shultz was United States Secretary o
Knox College (Illinois)
Knox College is a private liberal arts college in Galesburg, Illinois. It is one of 40 schools featured in Loren Pope's influential book Colleges. Knox College was founded in 1837 by anti-slavery social reformers, led by George Washington Gale. Many of the founders, including the Rev. Samuel Wright supported the Underground Railroad; the original name for the school was Knox Manual Labor College, but it has been known by its present name since 1857. The college's name came about through a compromise among its founders. Though founded by a colony of Presbyterians and Congregationalists, the county in which the college is located was named Knox County, after Henry Knox, the first United States Secretary of War. Arguments have been made that the college was named for Calvinist leader John Knox, but it is not certain for which Knox it was named. George Candee Gale, a great-great-grandson of two of the founders, explains that contrary to general belief, Knox was not named for either General Knox or the Scottish Presbyterian Knox, according to my father...
Some wanted the college named for some for the other. Most of them were pious enough to want the churchman and fighters enough to want the soldier as well." The presidency of Jonathan Blanchard led the school out of debt, but ignited a controversy about whether the school was loyal to the Congregational church or the Presbyterians. Both Gale and Blanchard were forced out of the school as a result. Knox was the site of the fifth debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in 1858; the Old Main building is the only site from the debates. Two years after the debates, during his presidential campaign, Lincoln was awarded the first honorary doctorate conferred by Knox College—a Doctor of Laws degree, announced at the commencement exercises of 5 July 1860. Knox College was ranked 71st among liberal arts colleges by the 2011 edition of America's Best Colleges in U. S. News & World Report. In August 2010, Knox was listed as one of the "Best-Kept Secrets: 10 Colleges You Should Know About" by the Huffington Post, based on a Unigo survey completed by over 30,000 students.
In the August 11, 2010 issue of Forbes magazine, Knox was ranked among the Top 100 liberal arts colleges listed and over 600 evaluated. The Princeton Review cites Knox on its "Best of" lists, most in 2010 as one of the Best 371 Schools, one of the Best Midwestern Colleges; the Kiplinger private colleges rankings for 2010 placed Knox 47th on its list of 50 best values in liberal arts, measuring academic quality and affordability. And in 2010 Washington Monthly named Knox among the Top 50 best liberal arts colleges, calling their list "a guide not just to what colleges can do for you, but what colleges are doing for the country." Knox College is one of 40 schools featured in the book Colleges That Change Lives by former New York Times Education Editor Loren Pope. In the 2009–2010 academic year, The Chronicle of Higher Education noted Knox as one of nine bachelor-level institutions to produce two or more Fulbright Awards for U. S. Scholars. In 2009, a Knox study of itself found that the college ranks in the top 3% of colleges based upon graduates who go on to earn a Ph.
D. Knox employs a 3–3 academic calendar rather than a traditional semester-based approach. In each of the three 10-week terms, students take only three courses. Faculty members teach only two courses each term. No matter what course of study students decide to pursue, education at Knox contains common elements, including an educational plan that students design. Knox College introduced the school's honor code in 1951. All students are held responsible for the integrity of their own work, students are required to abide by the code; because of this policy, tests are not proctored, in many cases students may take their exams in any open, public place within the same building. Any cases of students caught disobeying the system are evaluated by their peers through the Honor Board, a committee consisting of three seniors, three juniors, three sophomores, three faculty members. With the implementation of Renewed Knox, the 2003 curriculum overhaul, the school expanded its academic offerings to meet the needs of a liberal arts education in the 21st century.
In 2003, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute awarded the school a $1 million grant to create a new major in neuroscience. Knox is known for its Green Oaks term, an interdisciplinary program at the 700-acre Green Oaks Biological Field Station, during which students and faculty spend an entire term conducting research and creative projects and participating in courses in biology, anthropology-sociology, English, as well as workshops in outdoor skills, first aid, photography. Knox promotes top-notch undergraduate research, annually awarding students more than $250,000 in grants to support research and creative projects. Among the programs are the Ford Foundation Research Fellows Program, which funds the scientific and creative projects of 20 s
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Sandra Day O'Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, who served from her appointment in 1981 by President Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006. She was the first woman to serve on the Court. Prior to O'Connor's tenure on the Court, she was a judge and an elected official in Arizona serving as the first female Majority Leader of a state senate as the Republican leader in the Arizona Senate. Upon her nomination to the Court, O'Connor was confirmed unanimously by the Senate. On July 1, 2005, she announced her intention to retire effective upon the confirmation of a successor. Samuel Alito was nominated to take her seat in October 2005, joined the Court on January 31, 2006; as a moderate Republican, O'Connor tended to approach each case narrowly without arguing for sweeping precedents. She most sided with the Court's conservative bloc, she wrote concurring opinions that limited the reach of the majority holding. Her majority opinions in landmark cases include Hamdi v. Rumsfeld.
She wrote in part the per curiam majority opinion in Bush v. Gore, was one of three co-authors of the lead opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey. Several publications have named her among the most powerful women in the world. On August 12, 2009, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor of the United States, by President Barack Obama. Sandra Day was born in El Paso, the daughter of Harry Alfred Day, a rancher, Ada Mae, she grew up on a 198,000-acre cattle ranch near Arizona. The ranch was nine miles from the nearest paved road; the family home did not have running electricity until Sandra was seven years old. She hunted from a young age, she began driving as soon as she could see over the dashboard and had to learn to change flat automobile tires herself. Sandra had two younger siblings, a sister and a brother eight and ten years her junior, her sister was Ann Day. She wrote a book with her brother, H. Alan Day, Lazy B: Growing up on a Cattle Ranch in the American West, about her childhood experiences on the ranch.
For most of her early schooling, O'Connor lived in El Paso with her maternal grandmother, attended school at the Radford School for Girls, a private school. The family cattle ranch was too far from schools, although O'Connor was able to return to the ranch for holidays and the summer. O'Connor spent her eighth-grade year riding a bus 32 miles to school, she graduated sixth in her class at Austin High School in El Paso in 1946. Sandra Day attended Stanford University, where she received her B. A. in Economics in 1950. She continued at the Stanford Law School for her law degree in 1952. There, she served on the Stanford Law Review with its presiding editor-in-chief, future Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist, the class valedictorian and whom she dated during law school, she has stated that she graduated third in her law school class, though Stanford's official position is that the law school did not rank students in 1952. On December 20, 1952, six months after graduating from law school, she married John Jay O'Connor III, whom she had met at Stanford Law School.
Upon graduation from law school, while her classmate Rehnquist went on to clerk for the Supreme Court, O'Connor had difficulty finding a paying job as an attorney because of her gender. O'Connor found employment as a deputy county attorney in San Mateo, after she offered to work for no salary and without an office, sharing space with a secretary, she worked with San Mateo County district attorney Louis Dematteis and deputy district attorney Keith Sorensen. When her husband was drafted, O'Connor decided to pick up and go with him to work in Germany as a civilian attorney for the Army's Quartermaster Corps, they remained there for three years before returning to the states where they settled in Maricopa County, Arizona, to begin their family. They had three sons: Scott and Jay. Following Brian's birth, O'Connor took a five-year hiatus from the practice of law, she volunteered in various political organizations, such as the Maricopa County Young Republicans, served on the presidential campaign for Arizona Senator Barry M. Goldwater in 1964.
O'Connor served as assistant Attorney General of Arizona from 1965 to 1969. In 1969, the governor of Arizona appointed O'Connor to fill a vacancy in the Arizona Senate, she won the election for the seat the following year. By 1973, she became the first woman to serve as Arizona's or any state's Majority Leader, she developed a reputation as a moderate. After serving two full terms, O'Connor decided to leave the Senate. In 1974, O'Connor was elected to the Maricopa County Superior Court serving from 1975 to 1979 when she was elevated to the Arizona State Court of Appeals, she served on the Court of Appeals-Division One until 1981 when she was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Ronald Reagan. On July 7, 1981, Reagan – who had pledged during his 1980 presidential campaign to appoint the first woman to the Court – announced he would nominate O'Connor as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court to replace the retiring Potter Stewart. O'Connor received notification from President Reagan of her nomination on the day prior to the announcement and did not know that she was a finalist for the position.
Reagan wrote in his diary on July 6, 1981: "Called Judge O'Connor and told her she was my nominee for supreme court. The flak is starting and from my own supporters. Right to Life people say. Sh
James Addison Baker III is an American attorney and political figure. He served as White House Chief of Staff and United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Ronald Reagan, as U. S. Secretary of State and White House Chief of Staff under President George H. W. Bush. Born in Houston, Baker attended The Hill School and Princeton University before serving in the United States Marine Corps. After graduating from the University of Texas School of Law, he pursued a legal career, he became a close friend of George H. W. Bush and worked for Bush's unsuccessful 1970 campaign for the United States Senate. After the campaign, he served in various positions for President Richard Nixon. In 1975, he was appointed Undersecretary of Commerce for Gerald Ford, he served until May 1976, ran Ford's 1976 presidential campaign, unsuccessfully sought election as the Attorney General of Texas. Baker ran Bush's unsuccessful campaign for the 1980 Republican presidential nomination, but made a favorable impression on the Republican nominee, Ronald Reagan.
Reagan appointed Baker as his White House Chief of Staff, Baker remained in that position until 1985, when he became the Secretary of the Treasury. As Treasury Secretary, he arranged the Baker Plan, he resigned. After the election, Bush appointed Baker to the position of Secretary of State; as Secretary of State, he helped oversee U. S. foreign policy during the end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union, as well as during the Gulf War. After the Gulf War, Baker served another stint as White House Chief of Staff from 1992 to 1993. Baker remained active in business and public affairs after Bush's defeat in the 1992 presidential election, he served as a United Nations envoy as a consultant to Enron. During the Florida recount following the 2000 Presidential election, he managed George W. Bush's legal team in the state, he served as the co-chairman of the Iraq Study Group, which Congress formed to study Iraq and the Iraq War. He serves on the Climate Leadership Council. Baker is the namesake of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University.
James Addison Baker was born in Houston at 1216 Bissonnet, the son of James A. Baker, Jr. and Ethel Bonner Baker. His father was a partner of Houston law firm Baker Botts. Baker has Bonner Baker Moffitt, his grandfather was attorney and banker Captain James A. Baker, his great-grandfather was jurist and politician Judge James A. Baker. Baker attended a boarding school in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, he graduated from Princeton University in 1952 with an A. B. in history cum laude. He was a member of Phi Delta Theta. Baker was a member of the United States Marine Corps from 1952 to 1954, attaining the rank of first lieutenant as a naval gunfire officer serving in the Mediterranean Sea aboard the USS Monrovia, he remained in the Marine Corps Reserve until 1958, rose to the rank of captain. He earned a bachelor of laws from the University of Texas School of Law and began to practice law in Texas. From 1957 to 1969, from 1973 to 1975, he practiced law at Andrews & Kurth. Baker's first wife, the former Mary Stuart McHenry, was active in the Republican Party, working on the Congressional campaigns of George H. W. Bush.
Baker had been a Democrat but too busy trying to succeed in a competitive law firm to worry about politics, considered himself apolitical. His wife's influence led Baker to the Republican Party, he was a regular tennis partner of George H. W. Bush at the Houston Country Club in the late 1950s; when Bush Sr. decided to vacate his Congressional seat and run for the U. S. Senate in 1970, he supported Baker's decision to run for the Congressional seat. However, Baker changed his mind about running for Congress when his wife was diagnosed with breast cancer. Bush Sr. encouraged Baker to become active in politics to help deal with the grief of his wife's death, something that Bush Sr. himself had done when his daughter, Pauline Robinson, died of leukemia. Baker became chairman of Bush's Senate campaign in Texas. Though Bush lost to Lloyd Bentsen in the election, Baker continued in politics, becoming the Finance Chairman of the Texas Republican Party in 1971; the following year, he was selected as Gulf Coast Regional Chairman for the Richard Nixon presidential campaign.
In 1973 and 1974, in the wake of the Nixon Administration's implosion, Baker returned to full-time law practice at Andrews & Kurth. Baker's time away from politics was brief, however. In August 1975, he was appointed Undersecretary of Commerce by President Gerald Ford, succeeding John K. Tabor, he served until May 1976, was succeeded by Edward O. Vetter. Baker resigned to serve as campaign manager of Ford's unsuccessful 1976 election campaign. In 1978, with George H. W. Bush as his campaign manager, Baker ran unsuccessfully for Attorney General of Texas, losing to future Texas governor Mark White. In 1981, Baker was named White House Chief of Staff by President Ronald Reagan, in spite of the fact that Baker managed the presidential campaigns of Gerald Ford in 1976 and of George Bush in 1980 opposing Reagan, he served in that capacity until 1985. Baker is considered to have had a high degree of influence over the first Reagan administration in domestic policy. In 1982, conservative activists Howard Phillips, founder of the Conservative Caucus, Clymer Wright of Houston joined in an unsuccessful effort to convince Reagan to dismiss Baker as Chief of Staff.
They claimed that Baker, a former Democrat and a B