Aquitaine, archaic Guyenne/Guienne, is a historical region of France and a former administrative region of the country. Since 1 January 2016 it has been part of the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine, it is situated in the south-western part of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It is composed of the five departments of Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Gironde. In the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably. There are traces of human settlement by prehistoric peoples in the Périgord, but the earliest attested inhabitants in the south-west were the Aquitani, who were not proper Celtic people, but more akin to the Iberians. Although a number of different languages and dialects were in use in the area during ancient times, it is most that the prevailing language of Aquitaine during the late pre-historic to Roman period was an early form of the Basque language; this has been demonstrated by various Aquitanian names and words that were recorded by the Romans, which are easily readable as Basque.
Whether this Aquitanian language was a remnant of a Vasconic language group that once extended much farther, or it was limited to the Aquitaine/Basque region is not known. One reason the language of Aquitaine is important is because Basque is the last surviving non-Indo-European language in western Europe and it has had some effect on the languages around it, including Spanish and, to a lesser extent, French; the original Aquitania at the time of Caesar's conquest of Gaul included the area bounded by the Garonne River, the Pyrenees and the Atlantic Ocean. The name may stem from Latin'aqua', maybe derived from the town "Aquae Augustae", "Aquae Tarbellicae" or just "Aquis" or as a more general geographical feature. Under Augustus' Roman rule, since 27 BC the province of Aquitania was further stretched to the north to the River Loire, thus including proper Gaul tribes along with old Aquitani south of the Garonne within the same region. In 392, the Roman imperial provinces were restructured as Aquitania Prima, Aquitania Secunda and Aquitania Tertia, better known as Novempopulania in the south-west.
Accounts of Aquitania during the Early Middle Ages are a blur, lacking precision, but there was much unrest. The Visigoths were called into Gaul as foederati, they established themselves as the de facto rulers in south-west Gaul as central Roman rule collapsed. Visigoths established their capital in Toulouse. In 507, they were expelled south to Hispania after their defeat in the Battle of Vouillé by the Franks, who became the new rulers in the area to the south of the Loire; the Roman Aquitania Tertia remained in place as Novempopulania, where a duke was appointed to hold a grip over the Basques. These dukes were quite detached from central Frankish overlordship, sometimes governing as independent rulers with strong ties to their kinsmen south of the Pyrenees; as of 660, the foundations for an independent Aquitaine/Vasconia polity were established by the duke Felix of Aquitaine, a magnate from Toulouse of Gallo-Roman stock. Despite its nominal submission to the Merovingians, the ethnic make-up of new realm Aquitaine wasn't Frankish, but Gallo-Roman north of the Garonne and main towns and Basque south of the Garonne.
A united Basque-Aquitanian realm reached its heyday under Odo the Great's rule. In 721, the Aquitanian duke fended Umayyad troops off at Toulouse, but in 732, an Umayyad expedition commanded by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi defeated Odo next to Bordeaux, went on to loot its way up to Poitiers. Odo was required to pledge allegiance to the Frankish Charles Martel in exchange for help against the advancing Arabic forces. Basque-Aquitanian self-rule temporarily came to a halt in 768 after the assassination of Waifer. In 781, Charlemagne decided to proclaim his son Louis King of Aquitaine within the Carolingian Empire, ruling over a realm comprising the Duchy of Aquitaine and the Duchy of Vasconia He suppressed various Basque uprisings venturing into the lands of Pamplona past the Pyrenees after ravaging Gascony, with a view to imposing his authority in the Vasconia to south of Pyrenees. According to his biography, he achieved everything he wanted and after staying overnight in Pamplona, on his way back his army was attacked in Roncevaux in 812, but narrowly escaped an engagement at the Pyrenean passes.
Seguin, count of Bordeaux and Duke of Vasconia, seemed to have attempted a detachment from the Frankish central authority on Charlemagne's death. The new emperor Louis the Pious reacted by removing him from his capacity, which stirred the Basques into rebellion; the king in turn sent his troops to the territory, obtaining their submission in two campaigns and killing the duke, while his family crossed the Pyrenees and continued to foment risings against Frankish power. In 824, the 2nd Battle of Roncevaux took place, in which counts Aeblus and Aznar, Frankish vassals from the Duchy of Vasconia sent by the new King of Aquitaine, were captured by the joint forces of Iñigo Arista and the Banu Qasi. Before Pepin's death, emperor Louis had appointed a new king in 832, his son Charles the Bald, while the Aquitanian lords elected Pepin II as king; this struggle for control of the kingdom led to
Julius Nepos was Western Roman Emperor de facto from 474 to 475 and de jure until his death in 480. He was the ruler of Roman Dalmatia from 468 to 480; some historians consider Nepos to be the last Western Roman Emperor, while others consider the western line to have ended with Romulus Augustulus in 476. In contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire and its line of emperors survived this period of history intact. Nepos was elevated to Western Roman Emperor in 474 by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I in order to replace the usurper Glycerius. Nepos was deposed by Orestes, who took control of the government at Ravenna on August 28, 475, forcing Nepos to flee by ship to Dalmatia. Orestes crowned his son, Romulus Augustulus, as emperor but they were soon deposed by Odoacer. Nepos continued to reign from Dalmatia as the "Emperor of the West" recognized by Constantinople, but in practical terms his power did not extend beyond Dalmatia. Nepos was assassinated in 480, Eastern Emperor Zeno formally abolished the Western division of the Empire.
Julius Nepos was appointed Western Roman Emperor in early 474 by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I. Nepos was married to Leo's niece, but himself was the nephew of the sovereign governor of Dalmatia, hence his agnomen of nepos — "nephew". Leo intended to replace the western emperor Glycerius. Glycerius had been raised to the throne by the Burgundian magister militum Gundobad in the western capital of Ravenna; however under Roman law, Leo was the sole legitimate Emperor and had the right to select a new western counterpart. Julius Nepos succeeded his uncle, after the latter's murder in Sicily, as the governor of the province of Dalmatia, technically a part of the western empire but in practical terms an autonomous region since at least the time of Marcellinus' term of office. In June 474 Nepos entered Ravenna, forced Glycerius to abdicate, secured the western throne for himself. Nepos appointed him bishop of Salona. Nepos ruled over the whole of the remaining Western Roman Empire, centered in Italy, still the Empire's heartland, including his native Dalmatia and the remaining parts of Roman Gaul.
Nepos' rule in Italy ended in 475, when he was deposed by his magister militum, who took control of the government at Ravenna on August 28, forcing Nepos to flee by ship to Dalmatia. In the same year, Orestes enthroned his own teenage son as the new western emperor with the regnal name Romulus Augustus; the boy was around 15 years old when he became Emperor and is known to history as Romulus Augustulus, using the diminutive second element to mean Romulus the Little Augustus. The reasons for Orestes' decision to crown his son as a puppet-emperor, rather than become emperor himself, are somewhat unclear. However, Romulus' position was not constitutional inasmuch as he had not been recognised by the Emperor at Constantinople, in whose eyes Nepos was still the sole Augustus of the West. Romulus' short reign ended on September 4, 476, when Odoacer, head of the Germanic Foederati in Italy, captured Ravenna, killed Orestes, deposed Romulus. Odoacer sent Romulus Augustulus to Campania in exile or retirement, after which he disappears from the historical record.
Although his successor had been deposed, Nepos never returned to Italy. He continued to reign from Dalmatia as "Emperor of the West", he still enjoyed some support from Constantinople. Odoacer, attempting to bypass Nepos, used the Roman Senate to petition the newly restored Eastern Emperor, requesting the title of Patrician. Patrician rank was granted, but at Zeno's insistence Odoacer grudgingly acknowledged Nepos' Imperial status, issued coinage in Nepos' name. In practical terms, Odoacer ruled as an independent King of Italy, nominally recognizing the Empire's suzerainty. In name at least, the Western Roman Empire continued to exist after 476, but only as a legal formality and as a sop to Imperial tradition; this political solution lasted four years. In about 479, Nepos began hoping to regain control of Italy for himself. Another possibility, is. What is certain is that Odoacer perceived Nepos as a threat, was determined to get rid of him. Nepos, still residing in Dalmatia, was murdered by one of his own soldiers in 480, on one of three possible dates — April 25, May 9 or June 22.
He was stabbed to death in his villa, near Salona. Since Diocletian had a residence in the area, it might have been the same building. Marcellinus Comes blames "the treachery of Ovida" for the murder. Malchus implicates the former Emperor Glycerius in the conspiracy. Adding to the suspicions about Glycerius is a report that Odoacer made him bishop of Milan. Ovida served as the next ruler of Dalmatia for a few months, but Odoacer used Nepos' murder as a pretext to invade. Odoacer defeated Ovida's forces on December 9, added the province to his own kingdom. After Nepos' death, Zeno formally abolished the division of the Empire, ending the last serious legal claim of a separate "western" Roman Empire until the time of Charlemagne; as is the case with many Roman Emperors who reigned for only a short period of time those from the final decades of the western empire, there is only limited information about Nepos available in
The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period; the Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups who had invaded the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient; the Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410. After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD; the Visigoths first settled in southern Gaul as foederati to the Romans – a relationship established in 418. However, they soon fell out with their Roman hosts and established their own kingdom with its capital at Toulouse.
They next extended their authority into Hispania at the expense of the Vandals. In 507, their rule in Gaul was ended by the Franks under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé. After that, the Visigoth kingdom was limited to Hispania, they never again held territory north of the Pyrenees other than Septimania. A small, elite group of Visigoths came to dominate the governance of that region at the expense of those who had ruled there in the Byzantine province of Spania and the Kingdom of the Suebi. In or around 589, the Visigoths under Reccared I converted from Arianism to Nicene Christianity adopting the culture of their Hispano-Roman subjects, their legal code, the Visigothic Code abolished the longstanding practice of applying different laws for Romans and Visigoths. Once legal distinctions were no longer being made between Romani and Gothi, they became known collectively as Hispani. In the century that followed, the region was dominated by the Councils of the episcopacy. In 711 or 712, an invading force of Arabs and Berbers defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete.
Their king and many members of their governing elite were killed, their kingdom collapsed. During their governance of Hispania, the Visigoths built several churches, they left many artifacts, which have been discovered in increasing numbers by archaeologists in recent times. The Treasure of Guarrazar of votive crowns and crosses is the most spectacular, they founded the only new cities in western Europe from the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire until the rise of the Carolingian dynasty. Many Visigothic names are still in use in modern Portuguese, their most notable legacy, was the Visigothic Code, which served, among other things, as the basis for court procedure in most of Christian Iberia until the Late Middle Ages, centuries after the demise of the kingdom. Contemporaneous references to the Gothic tribes use the terms "Vesi", "Ostrogothi", "Thervingi", "Greuthungi". Most scholars have concluded that the terms "Vesi" and "Tervingi" were both used to refer to one particular tribe, while the terms "Ostrogothi" and "Greuthungi" were used to refer to another.
Herwig Wolfram points out that while primary sources list all four names, whenever they mention two different tribes, they always refer either to "the Vesi and the Ostrogothi" or to "the Tervingi and the Greuthungi", they never pair them up in any other combination. This conclusion is supported by Jordanes, who identified the Visigoth kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the 4th century Tervingian king Athanaric, the Ostrogoth kings from Theoderic the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungi king Ermanaric. In addition, the Notitia Dignitatum equates the Vesi with the Tervingi in a reference to the years 388–391; the earliest sources for each of the four names are contemporaneous. The first recorded reference to "the Tervingi" is in a eulogy of the emperor Maximian, delivered in or shortly after 291 and traditionally ascribed to Claudius Mamertinus, it says that the "Tervingi, another division of the Goths", joined with the Taifali to attack the Vandals and Gepidae. The first recorded reference to "the Greuthungi" is by Ammianus Marcellinus, writing no earlier than 392 and later than 395, recounting the words of a Tervingian chieftain, attested as early as 376.
The first known use of the term "Ostrogoths" is in a document dated September 392 from Milan. Wolfram notes that "Vesi" and "Ostrogothi" were terms each tribe used to boastfully describe itself and argues that "Tervingi" and "Greuthungi" were geographical identifiers each tribe used to describe the other; this would explain why the latter terms dropped out of use shortly after 400, when the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions. As an example of this geographical naming practice, Wolfram cites an account by Zosimus of a group of people living north of the Danube who called themselves "the Scythians" but were called "the Greutungi" by members of a different tribe living
Alaric II was the King of the Visigoths in 484–507. He succeeded his father Euric as king of the Visigoths in Toulouse on December 28, 484, he established his capital at Aire-sur-l'Adour in Aquitaine. His dominions included not only the majority of Hispania but Gallia Aquitania and the greater part of an as-yet undivided Gallia Narbonensis. Herwig Wolfram opens his chapter on the eighth Visigothic king, "Alaric's reign gets no full treatment in the sources, the little they do contain is overshadowed by his death in the Battle of Vouillé and the downfall of the Toulosan kingdom." One example is Isidore of Seville's account of Alaric's reign: consisting of a single paragraph, it is about Alaric's death in that battle. The earliest documented event in Alaric's reign concerned providing refuge to Syagrius, the former ruler of the Domain of Soissons, defeated by Clovis I, King of the Franks. According to Gregory of Tours' account, Alaric was intimidated by Clovis into surrendering Syagrius to Clovis.
The Franks imprisoned Syagrius, once his control over Syagrius' former kingdom was secure, Clovis had him beheaded. However, Wolfram points out. Any threat of war Clovis could make. Despite Frankish advances in the years that followed, Alaric was not afraid to take the military initiative when it presented itself. In 490, Alaric assisted his fellow Gothic king, Theodoric the Great, in his conquest of Italy by dispatching an army to raise Odoacer's siege of Pavia, where Theodoric had been trapped; when the Franks attacked the Burgundians in the decade after 500, Alaric assisted the ruling house, according to Wolfram the victorious Burgundian king Gundobad ceded Avignon to Alaric. By 502 Clovis and Alaric met on an island in the Loire near Amboise for face-to-face talks, which led to a peace treaty. In 506, the Visigoths captured the city of Dertosa in the Ebro valley. There they had him executed. After a few years, Clovis violated the peace treaty negotiated in 502. Despite the diplomatic intervention of Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths and father-in-law of Alaric, Clovis led his followers into Visigothic territory.
Alaric was forced by his magnates to meet Clovis in the Battle of Vouillé near Poitiers. The most serious consequence of this battle was not the loss of their possessions in Gaul to the Franks. Nor was it the loss of the royal treasury at Toulouse, which Gregory of Tours writes Clovis took into his possession; as Peter Heather notes, the Visigothic kingdom was thrown into disarray "by the death of its king in battle." Alaric's heirs were his eldest son, the illegitimate Gesalec, his younger son, the legitimate Amalaric, still a child. Gesalec proved incompetent, in 511 King Theodoric assumed the throne of the kingdom ostensibly on behalf of Amalaric—Heather uses the word "hijacked" to describe his action. Although Amalaric became king in his own right, the political continuity of the Visigothic kingdom was broken. With Amalaric's death in 531, the Visigothic kingdom entered an extended period of unrest which lasted until Leovigild assumed the throne in 568. In religion Alaric was an Arian, like all the early Visigothic nobles, but he mitigated the persecution policy of his father Euric toward the Catholics and authorized them to hold in 506 the council of Agde.
He was on uneasy terms with the Catholic bishops of Arelate as epitomized in the career of the Frankish Caesarius, bishop of Arles, appointed bishop in 503. Caesarius was suspected of conspiring with the Burgundians, whose king had married the sister of Clovis, to assist the Burgundians capture Arles. Alaric exiled him for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitania allowed him to return unharmed when the crisis had passed. Alaric displayed similar wisdom in political affairs by appointing a commission headed by the referendary Anianus to prepare an abstract of the Roman laws and imperial decrees, which would form the authoritative code for his Roman subjects; this is known as the Breviarium Alaricianum or Breviary of Alaric. The Montagne d'Alaric near Carcassonne is named after the Visigoth king. Local rumour has it; the Canal d'Alaric in the Hautes-Pyrénées department is named after him. Edward Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter 38 Alarico II, Diccionario biográfico español, Luis Agustín García Moreno, Real Academia de la Historia
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France. The name Somme comes from a Celtic word meaning "tranquility"; the department Somme was named after this river. The river is 245 km long, from its source in the high ground of the former Forest of Arrouaise at Fonsommes near Saint-Quentin, to the Bay of the Somme, in the English Channel, it lies in the geological syncline which forms the Solent. This gives it a constant and gentle gradient where several fluvial terraces have been identified; the Somme featured prominently in several historical campaigns. In 1066, the invasion fleet of William the Conqueror assembled in the Bay of the Somme, at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme; the river featured in the 1346 withdrawal of Edward III of England's army, which forded the river at the Battle of Blanchetaque during the campaign, which culminated in the Battle of Crécy. Crossing the river featured prominently in the campaign which led to the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. In 1636, a Spanish army led by Thomas Francis, prince of Carignan, crossed the Somme defeating a French army during the Thirty Years War threatening Paris.
Most famously, the Battle of the Somme, during World War I, lasted from July to November 1916 and resulted in more than a million casualties. Private A S Bullock in his wartime memoir recalls his first sight of it in early April 1918:'... we reached a small place called Hengest sur Somme. The train stopped and we descended. There in front of us was a muddy and somewhat narrow stream, which has given its name to one of the most awful battles in history - the Somme.' The great battles that stopped the German advance in the Spring Offensive of 1918 were fought around the valley of the Somme in places like Villers Bretonneux, which marked the beginning of the end of the war. Aisne: Saint-Quentin Somme: Ham, Péronne, Amiens, Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, Le Crotoy The river is characterized by a gentle gradient and a steady flow; the valley is more or less steep-sided but its bottom is flat with fens and pools. These characteristics of steady flow and flooded valley bottom arise from the river's being fed by the ground water in the chalk basin in which it lies.
At earlier, colder times, from the Günz to the Würm the river has cut down into the Cretaceous geology to a level below the modern water table. The valley bottom has now therefore, filled with water; this picture, of the source of the Somme in 1986, shows it when the water table had fallen below the surface of the chalk in which the aquifer lies. Here, the flow of water had been sufficient to keep fen from forming; this satellite photograph shows the fenny valley crossing the chalk to the sea on the left. The sinuous length at the centre of the picture lies downstream from Péronne. One of the fens, the Marais de l'Île is a nature reserve in the town of St. Quentin; the traditional market gardens of Amiens, the Hortillonages are on this sort of land but drained. Once exploited for peat cutting, the fen is now used for fishing and shooting The construction of the Canal de la Somme began in 1770 and reached completion in 1843, it is 156 km long, beginning at St. Simon and opening into the Bay of the Somme.
From St. Simon to Froissy, the canal is alongside the river. Thence to the sea, the river is river and navigation. From Abbeville, it is diverted through the silted, former estuary, to Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, where the maritime canal, once called the canal du Duc d'Angoulême enters the English Channel; the St Quentin Canal, famous for the 1918 battle, links the Somme to northern France and Belgium and southward to the Oise. The Canal du Nord links the Somme to the Oise, at Noyon, thence to Paris. In 2001, the Somme valley was affected by high floods, which were in large part due to a rise in the water table of the surrounding land. Catchment area 5,560 km2. at Abbeville. Daily flow rates compared with mean rates for the time of year at Hangest-sur-Somme. Catchment area 4,835 km2. for the year -1993.1994. 1995. 1996. 1997. 1998. 1999. 2000.2001.2002.2003.2004.2005. Mean flow rates daily at Péronne. Catchment area 1,294 km2. for the year -1986.1987.1988.1989.1990.1991.1992.1993.1994.1995.1996.1997.1998.1999.2000.2001.2002.2003.2004.2005.
Delattre, Ch. Mériaux, E. and Waterlot, M. Guides Géologiques Régionaux: Région du Nord, Flandre Artois Boulonnais Picardie Pictures from the Somme
Clovis was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries. Clovis was the son of Childeric I, a Merovingian king of the Salian Franks, Basina, a Thuringian princess. In 481, at the age of fifteen, Clovis succeeded his father. In what is now northern France northern Gaul, he took control of a rump state of the Western Roman Empire controlled by Syagrius at the Battle of Soissons, by the time of his death in either 511 or 513, he had conquered smaller Frankish kingdoms towards the northeast, the Alemanni to the east, Visigothic kingdom of Aquitania to the south. Clovis is important in the historiography of France as "the first king of what would become France". Clovis is significant due to his conversion to Catholicism in 496 at the behest of his wife, who would be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church.
Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in 508. The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples, to religious unification across what is now modern-day France and Germany, three centuries to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire, his name is Germanic, composed of the elements hlod and wig, is the origin of the French given name Louis, borne by 18 kings of France. In Dutch, the most related modern language to Frankish, the name is rendered as Lodewijk, in Middle Dutch the form was Lodewijch. In modern German the name became Ludwig. Numerous small Frankish petty kingdoms existed during the 5th century; the Salian Franks were the first known Frankish tribe that settled with official Roman permission within the empire, first in Batavia in the Rhine-Maas delta, in 375 in Toxandria the current province of North Brabant in the Netherlands and parts of neighbouring Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Limburg in current Belgium.
This put them in the north part of the Roman civitas Tungrorum, with Romanized population still dominant south of the military highway Boulogne-Cologne. Chlodio seems to have attacked westwards from this area to take control of the Roman populations in Tournai southwards to Artois, Cambrai controlling an area stretching to the Somme river. Childeric I, Clovis's father, was reputed to be a relative of Chlodio, was known as the king of the Franks that fought as an army within northern Gaul. In 463 he fought in conjunction with Aegidius, the magister militum of northern Gaul, to defeat the Visigoths in Orléans. Childeric was buried in Tournai. Historians believe that Childeric and Clovis were both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda and were subordinate to the magister militum; the Franks of Tournai came to dominate their neighbours aided by the association with Aegidius. The death of Flavius Aetius in 454 led to the decline of imperial power in the Gaul; the part of Gaul still under Roman control emerged as a kingdom under Aegidius' son.
The ruler of Tournai was succeeded by his sixteen-year-old son, Clovis. His band of warriors numbered no more than half a thousand. In 486 he began his efforts to expand the realm by allying himself with his relative, regulus of Cambrai and another Frankish regulus, Chalaric. Together the triumvirate met the Gallo-Roman commander at Soissons. During the battle Chalaric betrayed his comrades for refusing to take part in the fighting. Despite the betrayal, the Franks landed a decisive victory, forcing Syagrius to flee to the court of Alaric II; the battle is considered be the end of Western Roman rule outside of Italy. Following the battle, Clovis invaded the traitor Chararic's territory and was able to imprison him and his son. Prior to the battle, Clovis did not enjoy the support of the Gallo-Roman clergy, hence he proceeded to pillage the Roman territory, including the churches; the Bishop of Reims requested Clovis to return everything taken from the Church of Reims, the young king aspired to establish cordial relationships with the clergy and returned a valuable ewer taken from Reims.
Despite his position, some Roman cities refused to yield to the Franks, namely Verdun‒which surrendered after a brief siege‒and Paris, which stubbornly resisted a few years as many as five. He made Paris his capital and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine. Clovis came to the realisation that he wouldn't be able to rule Gaul without the help of the clergy and aimed to please the clergy by taking a Catholic wife, he integrated many of Syagrius' units into his own army. The Roman kingdom was under Clovis' control by 491, because in the same year Clovis moved against a small number of Thuringians in the eastern Gaul, near the Burgundian border. Around 493 AD, he secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. In the same year, ne
Anthemius was Western Roman Emperor from 467 to 472. The last capable Western Roman Emperor, Anthemius attempted to solve the two primary military challenges facing the remains of the Western Roman Empire: the resurgent Visigoths, under Euric, whose domain straddled the Pyrenees. Anthemius was killed by his own general of Gothic descent, who contested power with him. Anthemius belonged to a noble family, the Procopii, which gave several high officers, both civil and military, to the Eastern Roman Empire, his mother Lucina, born c. 400, descended from Flavius Philippus, Praetorian prefect of the East in 346, was the daughter of the influential Flavius Anthemius, Praetorian prefect of the East and Consul in 405. His father was Procopius, magister militum per Orientem from 422 to 424, descended from the Procopius, a cousin of Emperor Julian I and a usurper against the Emperor Valens. Born in Constantinople around 420, he went to Alexandria to study in the school of the Neoplatonic philosopher Proclus.
In 453 he married daughter of the Eastern Emperor Marcian. In 454 he was recalled to Constantinople, where he received the title of patricius in 454 or 455 and became one of the two magistri militum or magister utriusque militiae of the East. In 455 he received the honour of holding the consulate with the Western Emperor Valentinian III as colleague; this succession of honourable events – the wedding with Marcian's daughter. This hypothesis is further strengthened by the fact that Anthemius' prestige misled the 6th-century historian John Malalas to state that Marcian had designated Anthemius as Western Emperor after Avitus. Avitus was deposed in October 456. Therefore, both empires had no emperor, the power was in the hands of the Western generals and Majorian, of the Eastern Magister militum, the Alan Aspar; as Aspar could not sit on the throne because of his barbaric origin, he opposed Anthemius whose prestige would have made him independent and chose a low-ranking military officer, Leo. Anthemius stayed in service under the new Emperor.
Around 460, he defeated the Ostrogoths of Valamir in Illyricum. During the winter of 466/467 he defeated a group of Huns, led by Hormidac, who had crossed the frozen Danube and were pillaging Dacia; the raiders had conquered Serdica, Anthemius besieged the city until the starved Huns decided to accept open battle. The newly elected Eastern Roman Emperor, Leo I the Thracian, had a major foreign affairs problem: the Vandals of King Geiseric and their raids on the Italian coasts. After the death of Libius Severus in 465, the Western Empire had no Emperor. Gaiseric had his own candidate, related to Gaiseric because both Olybrius and a son of Gaiseric's had married the two daughters of Emperor Valentinian III. With Olybrius on the throne, Gaiseric would become the real power behind the throne of the Western Empire. Leo, on the other hand, wanted to keep Gaiseric as far as possible from the imperial court at Ravenna, took time to choose a successor to Severus. To put Leo under pressure, Gaiseric extended his attacks on Sicily and Italy to the territories of the Eastern Empire and enslaving people living in Illyricum, the Peloponnese and other parts of Greece, so Leo was obliged to take action.
On 25 March 467, Leo I, with the consent of Ricimer, designated Anthemius Western Emperor as Caesar and sent him to Italy with an army led by the Magister militum per Illyricum Marcellinus. On April 12, Anthemius was proclaimed Emperor at the twelfth mile from Rome. Anthemius' election was celebrated in Constantinople with a panegyric by Dioscorus. By choosing Anthemius, Leo obtained three results: he sent a possible candidate to the eastern throne far away; the reign of Anthemius was characterised by a good diplomatic relationship with the Eastern Empire. Both courts collaborated in the choice of the yearly consuls, as each court chose a consul and accepted the other's choice. Anthemius had the honour of holding the consulate sine collega in 468, the first year he started as Emperor, following a similar honour given to Leo