Germany national basketball team
The Germany national basketball team is organized and run by the German Basketball Federation.. Their biggest successes are the victory in the European Championship of EuroBasket 1993, at home in Germany, the silver medal in the EuroBasket 2005, the FIBA World Championship bronze medal at the 2002 FIBA World Championship; the team is the successor of the West Germany national basketball team, the basketball side that represented West Germany in international competition. Between 1955 and 1973, Germany temporarily competed with an East German national basketball team as well; the first German presence in the European basketball championships was at EuroBasket 1951 in Paris. West Germany finished the preliminary round with a 1 -- third place in their group, they were again 1–2 in the first classification round, but this combined with a three-way tie-breaker put them second in that group. They lost the classification 9–12 and 11/12 games to finish 12th place of 18 teams. West Germany competed again at the EuroBasket 1953 in Moscow.
Their 1–2 record in preliminary pool play put them third in their four-team group, relegating them to the classification rounds. In the first round, they again took 3rd of 4 with a 1–2 record, they beat Lebanon 58–56 in the 13–16 semifinals to advance to the 13/14 game, in which they were defeated by Romania. At the EuroBasket 1955 in Budapest, West Germany again was 1–2 in the preliminary round, taking third place of the four-team group to be relegated to the classification tournament, they won one game in the first classification round, losing 3 to take fifth place of the five-team group despite having scored as many points as their opponents over the course of the four games. Their final game was a match-up against Denmark for 17th place, which West Germany won 51–49. West Germany competed in Sofia for the EuroBasket 1957, they had no success in the preliminary round. They were relegated to the classification round, they finished the round in the fifth position at 3–4, taking 13th place overall.
At the EuroBasket 1959, East Germany's national basketball team entered the tournament when their counterpart from West Germany did not qualify. Altogether, East Germany's team only qualified for the EuroBasket five times; until the German reunification in 1990, the team played as the West Germany national basketball team. In decades of competitive basketball, West Germany only had moderate success with a few strong showings in the 1980s; this was because in that time, the NBA made it near-impossible for German internationals to play on both their NBA teams and the national team. For this reason, important players like Detlef Schrempf, Uwe Blab or Christian Welp were unavailable in big tournaments; the win of the 1993 edition of the European Championship at home in Germany, thanks to superb clutch play of tournament MVP Welp, came unexpected. The team won the election to "Team of the Year" by the German press. There was a huge wave of enthusiasm, but arguably due to lack of infrastructure and professionalism, tangible results were rare.
German basketball stayed in the shadows, the next generation of youth shunning the native league while being glued to the NBA with Michael Jordan. For the next three EuroBaskets, the national team did not come close to repeat the success, but German basketball got a lucky break when a lanky youth named Dirk Nowitzki tried his luck with the Dallas Mavericks and became a superstar. He created new enthusiasm for basketball in Germany, in his slipstream, the national team had a renaissance. In 2001, Germany played Turkey and was one second away from the final, when Turkey nailed a buzzer beater to send the game into overtime. Turkey won, demoralized Germany lost the third-place match and ended fourth. However, success at last came in 2002, when Nowitzki inspired Germany to win the bronze medal at the 2002 edition of the FIBA Basketball World Cup. Nowitzki was named MVP of that tourney. One year however, the team suffered its worst setback in years. In the EuroBasket 2003, the qualifier for the 2004 Olympic Games, the talented, but inexperienced team blundered through a tournament, blowing late-game leads with appalling anti-clutch play.
Germany was failed to qualify for the Olympics. Before the EuroBasket 2005, expectations were not too high; the German roster was depleted by injury, remembering the disaster of two years ago, nobody dared to dream of a medal. However, an inspired Dirk Nowitzki powered the team into the finals, eliminating favourites like Spain and Slovenia on its way. In the finals, the team was blown out by Greece, but Nowitzki was named MVP again, the team won the election to "Team of the Year" by the German press again. In the 2006 FIBA World Championship in Saitama, Germany won most of its first-round matches, only losing to Spain. In the knock-out phase, Germany fought a tough match versus underdogs Nigeria, ending in a 78–77 win when Nigerian star Ime Udoka missed a last-second layup. In the quarter-finals, Germany played top favorite USA, managed to play an excellent first half, trailing only 39–41. However, led by Carmelo Anthony, the USA outplayed Germany 20–8 in the third quarter and won 65–85. In the consolation round, Germany lost 73–75 against France, losing a lead in the last 18 seconds with two turnovers.
Germany qualified for the Summer Olympics 2008 in Beijing by taking the final spot with the third place in the qualification tournament in Athens, Greece. Two years Germany qualified for the 2010 FIBA World Championship as a wild card, they were eliminated from the competition following an overtime game with Angola, would finish
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign; the kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929. Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April 1941. In 1943, a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In 1944 King Peter II living in exile, recognised it as the legitimate government; the monarchy was subsequently abolished in November 1945. Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946, when a communist government was established.
It acquired the territories of Istria and Zadar from Italy. Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito ruled the country as president until his death in 1980. In 1963, the country was renamed again, as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; the six constituent republics that made up the SFRY were the SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia, SR Slovenia. Serbia contained two Socialist Autonomous Provinces and Kosovo, which after 1974 were equal to the other members of the federation. After an economic and political crisis in the 1980s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics' borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars. From 1993 to 2017, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia tried political and military leaders from the former Yugoslavia for war crimes and other crimes. After the breakup, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro formed a reduced federation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which aspired to the status of sole legal successor to the SFRY, but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.
Serbia and Montenegro accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. In 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed to State Union of Montenegro; the union peacefully broke up when Serbia and Montenegro became independent states in 2006, while Kosovo proclaimed its independence from Serbia in 2008. The concept of Yugoslavia, as a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the Illyrian Movement of the 19th century; the name was created by the combination of the Slavic words "jug" and "slaveni". Yugoslavia was the result of the Corfu Declaration, as a project of the Serbian Parliament in exile and the Serbian royal Karađorđević dynasty, who became the Yugoslav royal dynasty; the country was formed in 1918 after World War I as the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by union of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia. It was referred to at the time as the "Versailles state"; the government renamed the country leading to the first official use of Yugoslavia in 1929.
On 20 June 1928, Serb deputy Puniša Račić shot at five members of the opposition Croatian Peasant Party in the National Assembly resulting in the death of two deputies on the spot and that of leader Stjepan Radić a few weeks later. On 6 January 1929 King Alexander I suspended the constitution, banned national political parties, assumed executive power and renamed the country Yugoslavia, he hoped to mitigate nationalist passions. He imposed a new constitution and relinquished his dictatorship in 1931. However, Alexander's policies encountered opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany, where Fascists and Nazis rose to power, the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin became absolute ruler. None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander I. In fact and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy.
Alexander attempted to create a centralised Yugoslavia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas; the banovinas were named after rivers. Many politicians were kept under police surveillance; the effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from the idea of unity. During his reign the flags of Yugoslav nations were banned. Communist ideas were banned also; the king was assassinated in Marseille during an official visit to France in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, an experienced marksman from Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization with the cooperation of the Ustaše, a Croatian fascist revolutionary organisation. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son Peter II and a regency council headed by his cousin, Prince Paul; the international political scene in the late 1930s was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, by the aggressive attitude of the totalitarian regimes and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I was losing its strongholds and its sponsors were
Greece national basketball team
The Greece national basketball team is organized and run by the Hellenic Basketball Federation. They were runners-up in the 2006 FIBA World Championship, after beating the United States 101–95 in the tournament's semifinal, they have won EuroBasket twice. Greece is placed eighth in the FIBA World Rankings. Greece has won one silver and two bronze medals at EuroBasket, having missed a medal in several occasions in world and continental tournaments, as well as ending up in the fifth place in their last three Olympic appearances. Between 1990 and 1997, following their consecutive successes in EuroBasket, the Greeks participated in all major international tournaments but one, with their lowest ranking being a sixth place in the 1990 FIBA World Championship. Greece is the only national team in the world to have defeated the United States during Mike Krzyzewski's era, as the latter had an undefeated record both before and after the 2006 World Championship semifinal, all major competitions included.
Basketball has a long tradition in Greece, as the country was one of the eight founding members of the International Basketball Federation, more known by its French acronym FIBA, in 1932. However, the men's national team was considered as a second-class power in international basketball for several decades and only came into prominence in the mid-1980s by winning the EuroBasket 1987, it was the first major international title won by a Greek national team in any sports. As a result, basketball became popular in the country and since Greece has been placed in the high level on the basketball stage. Greece was to take part in EuroBasket 1935, the inaugural FIBA European Championship held in Geneva, but were not able to travel to Switzerland due to financial problems. Thus, Greece made their international debut fourteen years in the EuroBasket 1949 in Cairo, Egypt; that tournament has been marked as the weakest in the history of the competition, as most of the leading European basketball nations at the time refused to travel by plane to Egypt.
Greece entered the tournament as a newcomer and got through to make their first major success in their first appearance in the competition, finishing in third place behind hosts Egypt and strong side France. After their first international success, the Greeks were present in the following tournament in 1951, where they qualified to the semi-final round and finished 8th among the eighteen nations that participated, they made their first appearance at the Summer Olympic Games, taking part at the Summer Olympic basketball tournament in 1952. They were narrowly eliminated in the preliminary round, finishing at the bottom of the classification along with other six teams, ending the first period in the history of the team as Greece did not enter any major tournament for the rest of the 1950s. During the 1960s, the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s, Greece appeared in most of the EuroBasket competitions, with their best performances being the 8th place in 1965 and the 9th place in both 1979 and 1981.
They didn't manage to qualify for the Summer Olympic Games and the FIBA World Cup but in 1979 they managed to win the gold medal at the Mediterranean Games, beating Yugoslavia 85–74 in the final. The history of the national team was not overly impressive until the mid-1980s, when Greece arose as the new power in international basketball spearheaded by top-class players Nikos Galis, Panagiotis Giannakis, Panagiotis Fasoulas and Fanis Christodoulou; the beginning was their qualification for the 1986 FIBA World Championship, for the first time in their history and the end of the tournament found them 10th among the twenty-four nations. In the next year, Greece faced up their biggest challenge, as the country was the host of the EuroBasket 1987 and the team enjoyed a formidable line-up. Qualified from the preliminary round, they eliminated Italy and Yugoslavia, both among the favourites to win the tournament, in the quarter-finals and the semi-finals respectively. In the final, Greece faced the defending champions and favoured Soviet Union.
In front of 17,000 Greek fans at the Peace and Friendship Stadium, the hosts won the gold medal after a thrilling win 103–101 over the Soviets, with Nikos Galis scoring 40 points. It was the first time that a Greek national team won a major tournament in any sports, thus basketball was made the national team sport overnight and the national team was to be considered the official cherished of the Greek nation; the European champions failed to qualify for the 1988 Summer Olympic Games for a first time in 36 years, despite a decent performance in the pre-Olympic tournament. In the EuroBasket 1989, the defending champions were under pressure to prove that they could stand at the top level of international basketball and they did so in a convincing way. After they had qualified from the group stage, the Soviet Union stood in their way in the semi-finals but Greece defeated them once again and reached the final. Contrary to what happened two years ago, this time Greece had to overcome Yugoslavia and the latter's home court advantage, as the tournament was held in Zagreb.
The Greek team bowed to the home side taking the silver medal, their third medal in total and second in a row. In the 1990s there was a series of successful results for the national team, present in all major international tournaments every year except for the 1992 Summer Olympic
Sweden national basketball team
The Swedish national basketball team is controlled by the Swedish Basketball Federation SBBF. Sweden qualified for the EuroBasket finals nine times where their best result was 11th place at the 1995 event; the Scandinavian squad entered the Olympic Basketball Tournament in 1980. They have yet to qualify for the Basketball World Championship. Sweden's European championship debut came at EuroBasket 1953 in Moscow; the Swedes did not fare well in their first tournament, losing all 7 games to finish in last place of the 17 teams. Sweden's first EuroBasket win came against Luxembourg in the preliminary round of EuroBasket 1955 in Budapest, they lost three in that round as well and took 4th of the 5 teams and found themselves in the classification rounds. They again finished the pool with a 1 -- 3 record. Two losses in the classification 13–16 semifinals and the 15/16 final put Sweden at 16th place of the 18 teams. Sweden qualified for the final round of the EuroBasket on more occasions and earned some more victories but the squad lacked the depth to become a serious medal contender.
At some events, the country displayed potential. E.g. at the 2013 EuroBasket it beat the favored former champion Russia by 19 points difference. Roster for EuroBasket 2017 qualification. 1953 EuroBasket: finished 17th among 17 teams Åke Larsson, Lars Olsson, Lars-Erik Keijser, Per-Åke Hallberg, Erik Sundell, Erik Gustavsson, Staffan Widen, Bo Widen, Örjan Widen, Rune Erkers, Kjell Eliasson, Sture Herrman 1955 EuroBasket: finished 16th among 18 teams Staffan Widen, Bo Widen, Örjan Widen, Jan Oldenmark, Anders Renner, Gustaf Ragge, Lars Helgostam, Sture Herrman, Per-Åke Hallberg, Nils af Trolle, Jan Holmberg, Alvin Tornblom, Palle Cardell, Bengt Gustafsson 1961 EuroBasket: finished 18th among 19 teams Staffan Widen, Udo Tohver, Bo Widen, Örjan Widen, Gunars Kraulis, Lars Andersson, Curt Wennström, Lennart Dahllöf, Alvin Törnblom, Bjorn Lundberg, Torbjörn Langemar, Svante af Klinteberg 1965 EuroBasket: finished 16th among 16 teams Björn Lundberg, Rune Leinas, Per-Olof Svensson, Ulf Lindelöf, Anders Grönlund, Lars Cullert, Per-Olof Lefwerth, Hans Albertsson, Jörgen Hansson, Egon Håkanson, Torbjörn Langemar, Kaj Håkansson 1969 EuroBasket: finished 12th among 12 teams Per-Olof Lefwerth, Anders Grönlund, Ulf Lindelöf, Arturs Veigurs, Kjell Rannelid, Hans Albertsson, Ebbe Edström, Janos Fugedi, Jörgen Hansson, Kjell Gunna, Bo Lundmark, Jan Hjorth 1980 Olympic Games: finished 10th among 12 teams Roland Rahm, Peter Andersson, Sten Feldreich, Thomas Nordgren, Peter Gunterberg, Jon-Olof "Jonte" Karlsson, Jan Enjebo, Torbjörn Taxen, Leif Yttergren, Åke Skyttevall, Göran Unger, Bernt Malion 1983 EuroBasket: finished 12th among 12 teams Göran Eriksson, Roland Rahm, Sten Feldreich, Bill Magarity, Kenny Grant, Jon-Olof "Jonte" Karlsson, Peter Nyström, Bernt Malion, Thomas Nordgren, Jerry Sehlberg, Åke Skyttevall, Bo Faleström 1993 EuroBasket: finished 13th among 16 teams Mattias Sahlström, Anders Marcus, Per Stumer, Jens Tillman, Olle Håkanson, Magnus Tegel, Henrik Gaddefors, Peter Borg, Torbjörn Gehrke, Henrik Evers, Martin Jansson, Örjan Andersson 1995 EuroBasket: finished 14th among 14 teams Mattias Sahlström, Joakim Blom, Christian Larsson, Henrik Evers, Henrik Gaddefors, Jonas Larsson, Vincent Lundahl, Oscar Lefwerth, Torbjörn Gehrke, Anders Marcus, Olle Håkanson, Örjan Andersson 2003 EuroBasket: finished 16th among 16 teams Joakim Blom, Paul Burke, Håkan Larsson, John Pettersson, Daniel Dajic, Oluoma Nnamaka, Jens Johnsson, Mats Levin, Jonas Larsson, Lesli Myrthil, Christian Maråker, Fredrik Jönzen 2013 EuroBasket: finished 13th among 24 teams Anton Gaddefors, Viktor Gaddefors, Kenny Grant, Ludvig Håkanson, Jonas Jerebko, Joakim Kjellborn, Brice Massamba, Thomas Massamba, Dino Pita, Erik Rush, Jonathan Skjöldebrand, Jeffery Taylor Official Website FIBA profile EuroBasket.com – Sweden Men Current Squad Archived records of Sweden team participations
Deutschlandhalle was an arena located in the Westend neighbourhood of Berlin, Germany. It was inaugurated on 29 November 1935 by Adolf Hitler; the building was granted landmark status in 1995, but on 3 December 2011 the building was demolished. Built for the 1936 Summer Olympics, the Deutschlandhalle could hold 8,764 people; the Olympic boxing and wrestling competitions took place here. On 19 February 1938 test pilot Hanna Reitsch demonstrated the first indoor flight in the arena with a Focke-Wulf Fw 61 helicopter. Damaged by air raids in 1943, the Deutschlandhalle was rebuilt after World War II and from 1957 served as a multi purpose arena and sports venue, in the last years for ice hockey, but for indoor soccer and again for boxing. After the 1990 German reunification, the Deutschlandhalle lost its position as Berlin's primary arena, replaced by the newly erected Velodrom, Max-Schmeling-Halle and Mercedes-Benz Arena. After the building had to be closed for repairs several times, the Berlin Senate in May 2008 decided to demolish it.
Demolition took place on 3 December 2011 with the explosive destruction of the roof. The arena hosted the 1980 FIBA European Champions Cup final between Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv and Real Madrid, in which Madrid won 89–85, the 1995 FIBA Korać Cup finals in which local Alba Berlin won the trophy and the 1995 World Amateur Boxing Championships; the building has been used for musical events: as part of her À travers l'Europe Tour, in 1959 Dalida had a sold out concert in front of audience of 9,500. Ella Fitzgerald performed here in 1960. On 4 September 1970, it was the site of Jimi Hendrix's penultimate performance; the 1981 film Christiane F. shows a performance by David Bowie in the Deutschlandhalle. Deutschlandhalle Hitler’s mega development – The Deutschlandhalle
Karlsruhe is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg after its capital of Stuttgart, its 309,999 inhabitants make it the 21st largest city of Germany. On the right bank of the Rhine, the city lies near the French-German border, between the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen conurbation to the north, the Strasbourg/Kehl conurbation to the south, it is the largest city of a region named after Hohenbaden Castle in the city of Baden-Baden. Karlsruhe is the largest city in the South Franconian dialect area, the only other larger city in that area being Heilbronn; the city is the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court, as well as of the Federal Court of Justice and the Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice. Karlsruhe was the capital of the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach, the Margraviate of Baden, the Electorate of Baden, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Republic of Baden, its most remarkable building is Karlsruhe Palace, built in 1715. There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is the second-busiest airport of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart Airport, the 17th-busiest airport of Germany. Karlsruhe lies to the east of the Rhine, completely on the Upper Rhine Plain, it contains the Turmberg in the east, lies on the borders of the Kraichgau leading to the Northern Black Forest. The Rhine, one of the world's most important shipping routes, forms the western limits of the city, beyond which lie the towns of Maximiliansau and Wörth am Rhein in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the city centre is about 7.5 km from the river. Two tributaries of the Rhine, the Alb and the Pfinz, flow through the city from the Kraichgau to join the Rhine; the city lies at an altitude between 100 and 322 m. Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E, its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten. The total area of the city is 173.46 km2, hence it is the 30th largest city in Germany measured by land area. The longest north-south distance is 19.3 km in the east-west direction.
Karlsruhe is part of the urban area of Karlsruhe/Pforzheim, to which certain other towns in the district of Karlsruhe such as Bruchsal, Ettlingen and Rheinstetten, as well as the city of Pforzheim, belong. The city was planned with the palace tower at the center and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel, or the ribs of a folding fan, so that one nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city". All of these streets survive to this day; because of this city layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the centre. The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets; the central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest. The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen; the market square has the town hall to the west, the main Lutheran church to the east, the tomb of Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the neoclassical style.
The area north of the palace is a forest. The area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which remain, but the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Wildparkstadion football stadium, residential areas have been built there; the area west of the palace is now residential. Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate and its winter climate is milder, compared to most other German cities, except for the Rhine-Ruhr area. Summers are hotter than elsewhere in the country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany, like the Rhine-Palatinate area. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the weather station in Karlsruhe, operating since 1876, was closed. According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as "Charles’ repose" or "Charles' peace", was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, woke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city. A variation of this story claims. Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach.
The founding of the city is linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach, in 1771, of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 18